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Environmental scanning the future of event design

Adema, K.L.R., W. S. , International Journal of Hospitality Management Vol 29 side 199-207.

This paper used multiple sources of information in order to identify the forces likely to impact event design. Content analysis of key informant interviews and selected trade publication articles identified key forces impacting event design. Technology, the environment and green issues, security and safety, and globalization were forces identified by both the key informants and the trade literature. Neither of the sources gave much attention to political forces. This article contributes to our understanding of the forces impacting event design and suggests some environmental scanning methodologies that can be used with both key informants and the trade publication literature. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved..

Comparison of Japanese and North American Runners of the Ideal Marathon Competition Destination

Agrusa, J.K., S. S.; Lema, J. D. , Asia Pacific Journal of Tourism Research Vol 16 side 183-207.

The Honolulu Marathon has a significant economic impact on the state of Hawaii's economy. Some 25,000 runners registered for the 2007 Honolulu Marathon, making it the sixth largest in the world as well as the third largest marathon in the USA, trailing only New York (34,729) and Chicago (32,332). Of the 25,000 Honolulu Marathon runners, over 17,000 were out-of-state runners. This study asked out-of-state participants in the marathon to assess the attractiveness of Honolulu and its marathon compared with that of an ideal marathon. Data used in this study were collected by distributing a research instrument to marathon participants. The instrument consisted of 30 items to represent the destinational attributes for an ideal marathon location city based on an extensive review of the literature on the selection of sport tourism event destinations. Over 473 surveys were collected for this study. Examination and analysis of these results will be very helpful in determining what the marathon runners believe are the ideal attributes of a city to host a marathon. This information will provide marketing guidance to the organizers of the Honolulu Marathon based on a segmented analysis of participants' perceptions of the event as well as give assistance to community and event organizations interested in attracting and marketing similar events..

The Impact of Consumer Behavior and Service Perceptions of a Major Sport Tourism Event

Agrusa, J.L., J. D.; Kim, S. S.; Botto, T. 2009, Asia Pacific Journal of Tourism Research Vol 14 side 267-277.

The Honolulu Marathon has consistently provided a positive economic impact to the state of Hawaii's economy. The purpose of this study was to assess the economic benefits of the 2007 Honolulu Marathon by runners from outside the state of Hawaii and their traveling companions on the city of Honolulu. Another purpose of this study was to compare the service perceptions of Japanese participants with those of English-speaking participants, with a focus on examining opportunities to increase economic contributions from the two groups. The 2007 Honolulu Marathon is the third largest marathon in the USA and six largest in the world, with over 27,000 runners registered. Only the New York City Marathon (34,729) and the Chicago Marathon (32,332) are larger. Of the 27,000 registered participants of the Honolulu Marathon, 19,500 runners are residents from outside the state of Hawaii. The data used in this study were collected by distributing a research instrument to marathon participants. The instrument consisted of 18 questions regarding length of stay, accommodation, and the amount of money spent by the marathon participants for food, lodging, souvenirs and other miscellaneous items while attending the marathon activities in Honolulu. A total of 1,643 participants completed the surveys for this study. Examination and analysis of these results will prove to be very helpful in determining the economic benefit the Honolulu Marathon has on Honolulu and the state of Hawaii. The Honolulu Marathon accounted for an economic impact of $108,890,000 that generated $3.7 million in state taxes. The opportunity for internationally diverse participatory sports events to increase tourism substantially, especially in the state of Hawaii, suggests that further research in this area is necessary..

Professional standards: The current state of event management associations

Arcodia, C.R., S. 2008, Journal of Convention and Event Tourism Vol 9 side 60-80.

As the event management industry grows and consolidates worldwide, event management associations play an increasingly significant role in professional support to the industry and its managers. Event management associations provide newcomers and existing practitioners with the necessary skills to ensure the continued growth and success of event management professionals. This article reviews the literature on professional associations and specifically explores the issues of codes of ethics or conduct that event management associations require their members to subscribe by. While there is a growing interest in the concept of ethics, especially in the tourism and leisure industries, there are no prior studies that investigate the codes of ethics or conduct that event management associations offer. This aricle identifies that of the 152 professional associations servicing the events industry 39.5% (60) associations had stated codes of ethics or professional codes of conduct/standards. Content analysis of these codes of ethics/conduct indicated four major categories. These included; effective business practices; reputation, respect and personal conduct; communication and professionalism..

Festival attendance and the development of social capital

Arcodia, C.W., M. 2006, Journal of Convention and Event Tourism Vol 8 side .

Festivals are emerging worldwide as a growing and vibrant sector of the tourism and leisure industries and are seen to have significant economic, socio-cultural, and political impacts on the destination area and host groups. While there are a number of scholars working on developing valid models to determine the economic impact of festivals on host communities, there are few studies published which focus on the social, cultural, and/or political impacts of festivals and events. The purpose of this paper, therefore, is to determine the degree to which festival attendance facilitates the augmentation of social capital by drawing upon the literature from various disciplines in order to conceptualize the synergy between festivals and social capital. To achieve this, the paper will (1) examine the relevant literature on the key characteristics of "festivals" as distinct from other events and (2) investigate the current uses of the notion of "social capital" within the academic debates in a variety of disciplinary contexts. © 2006 by The Haworth Press, Inc. All rights reserved..

Change of Attitudes and Country Image after Hosting Major Sport Events

Auruskeviciene, V.P., A.; Skudiene, V.; Gripsrud, G.; Nes, E. B.; Olsson, U. H. , Inzinerine Ekonomika-Engineering Economics Vol 21 side 53-59.

Although a change of country image in general is a rather long process (Kuvykaite & Kerbelyte, 2008), hosting sports events may contribute to changing a country's image. When governments and cities host major sports events like the Olympics it is partly because such events are perceived as a means to promote the image of the host. The cost of an event like the Olympics is considerable, and in most cases the local and/or the national government has to pick up the lion's share of the bill. The Norwegian government sponsored the 1994 Lillehammer Winter Olympics by more than one billion euro. The Summer Olympics are even more expensive, and as an example the South Korean government spent more than three billion US dollar on the 1988 Summer Olympics according to Nebenzahl and Jaffe (1991). A report released in 2002 stipulates that the NSW government in Australia spent more than one billion dollars on the 2000 Olympic Games in Sidney. Therefore, it is very important to know if these investments of money and effort change the image of the hosting country. This study presents the effects of the Torino (Turin) 2006 Winter Olympics on the image of Italy in Lithuania. Two random samples of students at major Lithuanian universities were selected Students were interviewed because they are part of society, which are very interested in sports events like Olympics. The first sample consisted of 297 respondents and was collected before the Winter Olympics in Torino. The second sample consisted of 346 respondents and was collected after the event. There is no consensus among scholars regarding the country image concept. The understanding of the nature of this phenomenon varies in terms of target group (investors, students, visitors, etc.). By synthesizing various approaches Laroche, Papadopulos, Helsop, & Mourali (2005) define three main country image dimensions: cognitive, affective and conative. However, little research has been conducted to test it. This research tested the following country image dimensions: image of the people in the country, image of the societal system and the level of animosity towards the country. The following three general hypotheses have been formulated: H1: Animosity dimension of country image is influenced by a major sport event such as Winter Olympics. H2: Societal dimension of country image is influenced by a major sport event such as Winter Olympics. H3: People dimension of country. image is influenced by a major sport event such as Winter Olympics. The research results indicate that the Animosity dimension of Italy after the Olympics changed negatively which means that Lithuanian students got less favourable impression of Italy. The other two hypotheses were not supported Several factors contribute to the explanation of the research results: there was a lot of negative press concerning the logistics of the games, the Torino Olympics chose the slogan 'Passion lives here' and then failed to show any according to their polls: there were few inspired spectators at some of the events..

Media strategies for improving an unfavorable city image

Avraham, E. 2004, Cities Vol 21 side 471-479.

Today, as cities attempt to acquire a favorable image among investors, immigrants and tourists, the leaders of many cities believe that the unfavorable images and stereotypes associated with their names are obstacles that forestall a brighter future. The object of this article is to present a review summarizing media strategies, that local decision-makers can employ to deal with city image-related crises, and to reverse a city's negative image. The article first deals with the marketing of cities, images and stereotypes, with image management and with techniques geared to successfully deliver campaign messages. It then presents 10 strategies to improve a city's negative image: encouraging visits to the city; hosting spotlight events; turning negative characteristics into positive characteristics; changing the city's name, logo or slogan; cultivating the residents' local pride; solving the problem that led to the formation of the negative image; delivering counter-stereotypical messages; ignoring the stereotype; acknowledging the negative image; and geographic association or separation in the campaign. (C) 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved..

Designing festival experiences to influence visitor perceptions: The case of a wine and food festival

Axelsen, M.S., T. 2010, Journal of Travel Research Vol 49 side 436-450.

An activity that has been found to enhance wine tourism opportunities is wine and food festivals.This article examines how, through the manipulation of such festival attributes, festival managers can foster positive consumer perceptions of products central to the festival. The article first describes the attributes that define a festival and then, using the Moonlight Wine Tour festival as a case for study, explores how much of an influence certain festival attributes have on shaping visitors' perceptions of the wine on show. An ANOVA determines that five festival attributes are effective predictors of creating positive changes in people's perceptions, while one attribute has a negative effect. A binomial generalized linear model is then created for use in managerial situations by specifying which combined set of attributes are the most significant in creating positive and negative changes in consumer perceptions. © 2010 SAGE Publications..

Come on home: Visiting friends and relatives-the cape breton experience

Brown, K.G. , Event Management Vol 14 side 309-318.

This article investigates visiting friends and relatives (VFR) tourists visiting Cape Breton Island in Atlantic Canada during the summer of 2008. Family and friends who return to Cape Breton Island to attend local festivals and special events and visit tourism attractions were sampled. More specifically, the purpose of this quantitative study is to demonstrate the development of the events and attractions component of the Cape Breton tourist product, establish an understanding of the effects of current marketing approaches of the events and attractions on the VFR market segment of tourists visiting Cape Breton Island, and to investigate if the marketing of unique attractions affects the decisions of the VFR tourist to return to Cape Breton. A randomized sample of 105 completed surveys was conducted at ten special events or locations. The work provides the investigator with data regarding which stimuli are ultimately the most effective when marketing Cape Breton Island to this market segment. © 2010 Cognizant Comm. Corp..

Tourist accommodation effects of festivals

Brännäs, K.N.m., J. 2006, Tourism Economics Vol 12 side 291-302.

There is increasing interest in arranging festivals or special events in many cities. This paper presents an econometric model to account for the tourism accommodation impact of such events. The autoregressive count data model incorporates some of the more important factors in the planning and evaluation of an event, such as spare capacity, displacement effects and the costs that visitors face. The results for two large Swedish festivals indicate that there are some displacement effects but that the net tourism effect is positive, since the average visitor stays longer during festival periods. In the final year of the sample the festival increased the accommodation receipts for the hotels in Stockholm and Gothenburg by 2% and 6%, respectively..

ECONOMIC-IMPACT OF SPORTING EVENTS

Burgan, B.M., T. 1992, Annals of Tourism Research Vol 19 side 700-710.

Major sporting events have their main economic impact via the direct expenditure of tourists associated with the event. Care is needed to count only that expenditure that would not have occurred in the absence of the event. This means avoiding expenditure by tourists who would have visited regardless, but who timed their visit to coincide with the event. When all such expenditure has been avoided, the net remaining expenditure can be assessed using an input-output model of the host economy. It is argued that, because of its climatic and cultural advantages, Australia may be able to capitalize on the economic benefits of tourism resulting from major sporting events..

Mobile networks and place making in cultural tourism. Staging viking ships and rock music in Roskilde

Bærenholdt, J.O.H., M. 2006, European Urban and Regional Studies Vol 13 side 209-224.

Tourism has become an increasingly important asset for small and medium-sized cities. However, tourism is a vulnerable basis for the local economy of towns and cities as it depends on far-reaching, mobile and unstable networks of visitors, cultural industries and attractions, local authorities, voluntary associations, buildings, objects and so forth directing flows of people, money, information and images. These networks produce new cultural economies and policies, contingently committed to the projects of producing 'tourist places'. This article challenges conventional understandings of territorial learning by comparing two cases of cultural tourism and their spin-off developments in Roskilde, Denmark: first the Viking Ship Museum, its development into a 'Museum Island' in the harbour area during the 1990s and its project 'Return of the Viking Longship'; second, the Roskilde Festival with its still not fully developed projects 'Musicon Valley' and 'Rock City'. We emphasize the role of local authorities and of international connections. In so doing we attempt to bridge the gap between contemporary discussions of tourism and cultural economy in cultural and economic geography, and ask how these attractions, events and projects have emerged and how the dynamics producing tourist places are organized in time and space. © 2006 SAGE Publications..

Strategic SWOT analysis of public, private and not-for-profit festival organisations

Carlsen, J.A., Tommy D. , International Journal of Event and Festival Management Vol 2 side 83-97.

This analysis relates to the strategic orientation of public, private and not-for-profit festivals and the adoption of stakeholder, financial, marketing and management strategies that enable them to achieve their organisational objectives. The paper aims to address these issues. In order to test the effectiveness of this new strategic SWOT approach, data from the four-country study of festivals were employed to investigate how a strategic approach can be adopted by festival managers in the public, private and not-for-profit sector. The strategic issues that confront all festivals, including, financial management and related issues of costs, revenue, sponsorship and support are the subject of analysis. The findings indicate that among festival managers there are some interesting and significant differences between the three ownership types in terms of their strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats. Private and non-profit festivals are comparatively more strategic in responding to financial opportunities, threats and weaknesses and public festivals are more dependent on a single stakeholder and source of revenue. Other significant differences exist in terms of stakeholder management and sponsorship strategies, which can be explained with reference to resource dependency theory. Strategic SWOT analysis can provide a more rigorous and structured approach to researching the multiple challenges that festival managers face and the strategies they adopt. This paper demonstrates that it has some utility in identifying strategies in response to financial, stakeholder and sponsorship imperatives. Strategic SWOT analysis provides event and festival managers with a new tool for understanding the range of challenges and opportunities that they can address through adopting a more strategic response. The field of festival and event management studies is largely devoid of any literature with reference to analysis of strategies that different festivals adopt in response to identified weaknesses, opportunities and threats. This paper provides new insights into the strategic management of public, private and not-for-profit festival organisations using an original approach and an extensive four-country dataset..

Festival management innovation and failure

Carlsen, J.A., Tommy D.; Ali-Knight, Jane; Jaeger, Kari; Taylor, Ruth , International Journal of Event and Festival Management Vol 1 side 120-131.

Purpose - The paper seeks to examine the concepts, types and implications of festival innovation and failure. Design/methodology/approach - A review of extant literature is undertaken and examples of innovation and failure in three festivals are used to demonstrate the simultaneity and co-dependency of innovation and failure in the process of festival management. Findings - It is apparent that many forms of program, market, service, organisational and financial innovation are available to festival managers. Many involve risk of failure due to the resource dependency theory postulated in the literature, as well as more pragmatic reasons including bad weather and managerial incompetence. Practical implications - Festival managers responses to the dual challenges of embracing innovation and avoiding failure will determine the future of festivals, so it is vital that knowledge is developed. Originality/value - There is limited literature on festival management innovation and failure and limited information available to festival managers regarding the nature of festivals that facilitate innovation or failure. This paper makes an original contribution to these important issues in festival management.[PUBLICATION ABSTRACT].

Re-enactment Events and Tourism: Meaning, Authenticity and Identity

Carnegie, E.M., S. 2008, Current Issues in Tourism Vol 11 side 349-368.

Re-enactment events have began to play a significant role in the calendars of individual attractions, regions or even nations to generate media exposure, develop inbound tourism activity and raise the cultural heritage profile of a locality for community development and/or regeneration purposes. The (re-)presentation of cultural heritage in these forms creates a unique set of interactions between landscapes, local communities, tourists and heritage organisations. In the recent past however, re-enactment events have been subjected to increased debate and criticism as to their educational value and meaning and for their contribution to understandings of cultural heritage in post-modern consumer societies. This paper presents an interdisciplinary review of these debates and draws on small scale research findings to reassess the value of re-enactment events as a means of presenting heritage to audiences. The paper argues that re-enacted historical events achieve a range of purposes and provides examples of evidence from a range of differing perspectives including: public policy and event organisers; re-enactors and academics in the field. It argues that the professional heritage industry, tourists, and re-enactors all contribute to making such events meaningful and as such they represent unique frames through which to understand issues of authenticity and identity in the production and consumption of post-modern cultural heritage attractions. © 2008 Taylor & Francis..

An expenditure patterns segmentation of the music festivals' market

Carneiro, M.J.E.b., C.; Pelicano, M. , International Journal of Sustainable Development Vol 14 side 290-308.

The importance of festivals is increasing in the tourism industry. Festivals are considered to be important generators of economic benefits. The aims of this paper are to segment the market of two music festivals that took place in two regions of Portugal (Oporto and the Coast of Alentejo) according to the participants' expenditure patterns and, also, to analyse the differences among the segments identified in terms of socio-demographic profile and travel behaviour. In order to accomplish these objectives, a visitor survey was undertaken in the summer of 2008 yielding a total of 228 questionnaires. A hierarchical cluster analysis has been carried out. Three clusters emerged - 'residents with low expenditures', 'visitors with medium expenditures' and 'more attractive visitors'. The 'more attractive visitors' have almost the double of the expenditure of the other groups. This research enables us to obtain information in order to define more appropriate strategies to increase the positive economic impacts of events. Copyright © 2011 Inderscience Enterprises Ltd..

Cultural tourism and quality of life: Results of a longitudinal study

Cecil, A.K.F., Y. Y.; Wang, S.; Avgoustis, S. , European Journal of Tourism Research Vol 3 side 54-66.

Cultural tourism development is considered a viable channel to attract tourists to a destination and to enhance residents' overall quality of life (QOL). Since the early 2000's, Indianapolis, Indiana has dedicated considerable public and private investment into developing and promoting cultural attractions, festivals, educational events, and other offerings. This research reports the findings of a five-year study, from 2004-2008, to monitor patterns and changes in residents' quality of life (QOL) measurement and perceptions of cultural tourism. The results indicate that there are not significant increases in QOL ratings of Indianapolis residents, as it relates to cultural tourism development. However, the series of studies yield interesting conclusions that have practical implications for municipality and tourism leaders who continually evaluate the city's cultural tourism initiatives. © 2010 International University College. All rights reserved..

Local business leveraging of a sport event: Managing an event for economic benefit

Chalip, J.L., A. 2002, Journal of Sport Management Vol 16 side 132-158.

Four studies are reported that examine the status and. potentials for local businesses to leverage the Gold. Coast Honda Indy. The leveraging efforts of local businesses ire identified in Study 1. Most local business managers fail to recognize the event as a leveraging opportunity. Tactics used by businesses that do attempt to leverage the event are examined in Study 2. Businesses that leverage the event obtain benefits through the use of standard promotional and theming tactics. Experts' views about leveraging the event are obtained in Study 3. The experts conclude that some coordination of local businesses' leveraging efforts would be advantageous. The views of local business leaders are solicited in Study 4. The business leaders favor leveraging but prefer that the coordination come from an existing business organization or association. rather than through government or anew bureaucracy. The studies suggest that the potentials for leveraging are largely unrealized and that some degree of inertia would need to be overcome to realize those potentials. It is argued that event organizers have the most to gain by fostering and coordinating local business leveraging..

Towards Social Leverage of Sport Events

Chalip, L. 2006, Journal of Sport & Tourism Vol 11 side 109-127.

Despite the predominant policy focus on event economic impact, event organisers and host community residents are calling for attention to be paid to the social value of events. Anthropological work on events demonstrates that their celebratory nature engenders a liminoid space that can foster social value, particularly through a sense of communitas. In order to enable and amplify liminality and communitas, event organisers and host community planners should foster social interaction and prompt a feeling of celebration by enabling sociability among event visitors, creating event-related social events, facilitating informal social opportunities, producing ancillary events, and theming widely. The resulting narratives, symbols, meanings, and affect can then be leveraged to address social issues, build networks, and empower community action. These may be furthered when the arts are used to complement sport, and when commercial elements support social leverage. Future research should explore and examine the strategic and tactical bases for social leverage..

Sport Event Tourism and the Destination Brand: Towards a General Theory

Chalip, L.C., Carla A. 2005, Sport in Society Vol 8 side 218-237.

Sport events are being used with increasing frequency to build the brand of their host destinations. Events can take different roles relative to the destination brand: as co-branding partners with the destination brand, as extensions of the destination brand, or as features of the destination brand. Which role is appropriate depends on the nature of the event's brand. Since each role presents different opportunities, risks and requirements, events must be incorporated strategically into the destination's marketing plan. Strategic incorporation of sport events into destination branding requires that each event be cross-leveraged with others in the destination's event portfolio, as well as with the destination's other sport activities and attractions..

Effects of sport event media on destination image and intention to visit

Chalip, L.G., B. C.; Hill, B. 2003, Journal of Sport Management Vol 17 side 214-234.

The effect of destination advertising and sport event media (advertising and telecast) were compared experimentally on nine dimensions of destination image and on intention to visit the host destination. Participants' images of Australia's Gold Coast were collected in the United States (long-haul market) and New Zealand (short-haul market) following exposure to one of eight media conditions. The event telecast, event advertising, and destination advertising each affected different dimensions of destination image. There was a wider array of effects in the American market than in the New Zealand market. Some effects of each form of media were negative, with event media having a negative impact on participants' image of the destination's natural environment. Destination image was significantly related to intention to visit the host destination, but the dimensions that affected intention to visit were different for the two countries. Among the New Zealand sample, the dimensions of destination image affected by event media and the destination advertisement were not those impacting intention to visit..

A taste of tourism: Visitors' motivations to attend a food festival

Chang, W. , Event Management Vol 15 side 151-161.

Food festivals can offer a whole host of sensory experiences for visitors while engaging with a destination and its people. Understanding visitors' motivations to attend a specific food festival is beneficial for both community developers and festival professionals when implementing an effective marketing strategy in order to promote the event. This study applied a festival motivation framework incorporating three interacting components as the foundation to study food festival motives. The factor analysis results revealed six delineated motivational dimensions of visitors attending a regional food festival in Texas. Findings indicated patrons attended the food festival for generic leisure and travel needs, event-specific experiences, and extrinsic motives. Marketing implications are discussed along with the findings. © 2011 Cognizant Comm. Corp..

Exploring destination image, experience and revisit intention: A comparison of sport and non-sport tourist perceptions

Chen, N.F., D. C. , Journal of Sport and Tourism Vol 15 side 239-259.

Despite calls for an integrative approach to examine sport event tourism, few attempts have combined sport event and tourism destination studies. This paper addresses this gap by examining travel purpose, destination image and revisit intention. Ratings of importance and performance for the 16 attributes of a destination hosting the European Athletics Championship are used to compare between sport tourist (N 1/4 153) and non-sport tourist (N 1/4 168) with revisit intention. Results support the use of a generic list of 16 destination attributes to examine travel purpose and reveal that sport and non-sport tourists possess both similar and dissimilar perspectives. Major differences were found among three attributes: accommodation facilities, historic/ cultural attractions and sport facilities & activities. Results highlight the influential role that destination evaluation has on revisit intention. Managerial implications are discussed, providing suggestions to sport and tourism marketers. © 2010 Taylor & Francis..

Differences between male and female sport event tourists: A qualitative study

Chen, P.J. , International Journal of Hospitality Management Vol 29 side 277-290.

This qualitative study, using the Zaltaman Metaphor Elicitation Technique (ZMET), investigated differences between male and female sport event tourists. Study participants cited different attributes, consequences, and values with respect to the five themes that emerged from this study: loyalty, socialization, self-actualization, volunteering, and equality through sport. The use of a grounded qualitative research approach made it possible to discover that the act of sport spectating could give sport event tourists the opportunity to reach other goals (e.g., social responsibility, self-actualization and healthy lifestyle). This study made several unique contributions to event tourism research. The most important finding, however, had to do with self-actualization. Socialization, travel, volunteering, and promoting gender equality and other social responsibilities through sport enable people to reach their potential and achieve a healthy lifestyle. These singular findings have implications to sports event management and marketing strategies. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved..

The attributes, consequences, and values associated with event sport tourists' behavior: A means-end chain approach

Chen, P.J. 2006, Event Management Vol 10 side .

A phenomenological study was conducted to investigate event sport tourists' behavior and experiences. Members of a sport fan club were invited to participate in this study. The laddering technique was used in the interviews for discovering participants' cognitive structures. The findings were presented on Hierarchy Value Maps that depicted relationships between attributes, consequences, and values in a means-end hierarchy. This study found that the study participants were highly involved event sport tourists. Personal balance and socialization were the essential parts of experiences that participants were seeking. Thus, event sport tourists can obtain personally relevant goals (consequences and values) through various means (traveling and socializing) that allow them to watch competitions and participate in related social events. The study findings contribute to the understanding of event sport tourists' behavior and the development of marketing strategies. Copyright © 2006 Cognizant Comm. Corp..

Staged authenticity and heritage tourism

Chhabra, D.H., R.; Sills, E. 2003, Annals of Tourism Research Vol 30 side 702-719.

Much of today's heritage tourism product depends on the staging or re-creation of ethnic or cultural traditions. This study analyzes the role of perceived authenticity as a measure of product quality and as a determinant of tourist satisfaction. The event studied was the Flora Macdonald Scottish Highland Games held in North Carolina (United States). Tourists and event organizers were asked to evaluate the authenticity of specific festival events on a Likert scale. The study revealed that high perception of authenticity can be achieved even when the event is staged in a place far away from the original source of the cultural tradition. Important differences in perceived authenticity were observed among various groups of visitors..

Motives of visitors attending festival events

Crompton, J.L.M., S. L. 1997, Annals of Tourism Research Vol 24 side 425-439.

The escape-seeking dichotomy and the push-pull factors conceptual frameworks were used to identify motives which stimulated visitors to go to events at a festival. These two frameworks were used to guide development of an instrument to measure motives. The sample participated in events that were classified into one of five categories. The extent to which the perceived relevance of motives changed across different types of events was assessed. Six motive domains emerged: cultural exploration, novelty/regression, recover equilibrium, known group socialization, external interaction/socialization, and gregariousness. These were broadly consistent with the guiding push factors framework and confirmed the utility of the escape-seeking dichotomy. (C) 1997 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved..

Domestic festivals, global attraction

Crook, S. 2009, Taiwan Review Vol 59 side 30-35.

Taiwan's tourism industry is organizing large-scale tourism events that focus on regional customs and native crafts to increase the number of local and international visitors. These events and festivals demonstrate a significant aspect of local life and act as a major driving factor in the growth of the domestic tourism industry. Events, such as the Lantern Festival, Hsinchu City's Glass Art Street Carnival, or the Mid-Summer Ghost Festival are attended by a large number of local visitors along with increasing number of international visitors. Local governments throughout the island have created more events in an effort to increase the number of visitors. These governments are making such efforts as these visitors contribute to the economic development of the country and the growth of the tourism industry. These events also play a key role in highlighting artistic skills of glass artists..

Central place theory and sport tourism impacts

Daniels, M.J. 2007, Annals of Tourism Research Vol 34 side 332-347.

Although sport tourism initiatives can boost a destination's export base, not all communities have an equal likelihood of successfully hosting such an event. The purpose of this study is to use central place theory as a basis for understanding location features that influence the economic outcomes associated with hosting a sport event. The economic impacts generated by a tournament co-hosted by two adjacent counties in different states are analyzed. The smaller county experienced a reverse false excursionist effect, as the majority of the activities took place there, yet the larger location realized nearly double the economic impacts from the event. Local economic regions and cooperative branding are discussed in light of the findings. © 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved..

Estimating income effects of a sport tourism event

Daniels, M.J.N., W. C.; Henry, M. S. 2004, Annals of Tourism Research Vol 31 side 180-199.

The use of input-output models to determine the economic impact of sport tourism events is limited in that resulting estimates cannot be distributed based on host county income segments or by occupational category. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate methods for estimating the income effects of sport tourism events. Four models were constructed using data from a large, southeastern United States road race. The distribution of the results varied significantly based on model type. The aggregated occupation based model using full-time equivalent wage data offered the most promise for future tourism application. Using occupation-based data allows researchers to illustrate how job categories within industry sectors are affected by tourism events. (C) 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved..

Mega-events tourism legacies: The case of the Torino 2006 winter Olympic games - a territorialisation approach

Dansero, E.P., M. , Leisure Studies Vol 29 side 321-341.

This paper examines the impact of mega-events such as the Olympic Games on tourism development in host territories. In the first part, we adopt a territorialisation approach to understand the relationship between the event and the host region. A mega-event is conceived as a great chance to generate new territory as it produces both tangible and intangible legacies that remain after the event ends: renewal of facilities for hospitality and accommodation, better infrastructures, better training for people in the tourism business, and improvement in international visibility. These legacies can represent a platform for future tourism development if local policies demonstrate the ability to re-territorialise a mega-event's temporary transforming effects on tourism into long-lasting ones. The paper then focuses on the case of Torino 2006. Moving from an overview to recent tourism data, some considerations of the post-event trends in the Olympic territory are proposed. Thus, the paper highlights several critical aspects for a re-territorialisation of the Olympic legacies and for tourism policies that can sustain the positive effects of the event over the long term. © 2010 Taylor & Francis..

Social impacts of events and the role of anti-social behaviour

Deery, M.J., Leo , International Journal of Event and Festival Management Vol 1 side .

Purpose - The research focusing on the social impacts of events on communities has reached a level of critical mass and this paper aims to synthesise the literature, including the research methods used and analytical techniques that have been employed in order to provide a platform for future research in this important area. Design/methodology/approach - The key method used is a literature review of all the available academic research into the social impacts of events on communities and the development of a model for future research. Findings - After reviewing the social impact literature, the paper finds that one negative social impact, in particular, has the potential to undermine the key positive impacts that events can deliver for a host community. This impact, which is collectively known as anti-social behaviour (ASB) incorporates behaviour such as drunken, rowdy and potentially life and property threatening behaviour. Research limitations/implications - The consequences of the impact of ASB are so serious, partly because it is an impact which the media often highlight, can seriously tarnish the image of an event in the eyes of the local community and reduce their pride in the destination. Community tourism leaders need to manage this impact in order to maintain resident support. The paper concludes with a model for future research into the social impacts of events on communities, focusing on the role that ASB plays in residents' perceptions of events. Originality/value - This paper provides a review of the literature on social impacts to date and is a resource for researchers in the area. In addition, the paper highlights the role that ASB plays in aggravating negative perceptions of tourism in communities and the need for a more in-depth understanding of ASB.[PUBLICATION ABSTRACT].

The Management of Sport Tourism

Deery, M.J., Leo 2005, Sport in Society Vol 8 side 378-389.

This study explores the issues related to the management of sport tourism. It discusses the need for collaboration and strategic planning at a national level and provides an example from the Australian context. The study makes the case for the definition of sport tourism to be, essentially, sport event tourism. In particular, the study discusses the difficulties that arise as a consequence of a lack of co-ordination between disparate sport and tourism departments at the national level. The study then explores the issues associated with the management of sport event tourism at the micro level, using the concepts of the pulsating organization and the flexible firm to tease out various components of sport tourism management. In particular, the study investigates the differences that exist between managing a sport tourism organization and a generic organization and discusses the need for more innovative interpretations of human resource and functional management to adequately address the nuances of sport tourism management..

Promoting sustainable event practice: The role of professional associations

Dickson, C.A., C. , International Journal of Hospitality Management Vol 29 side 236-244.

International scholarly and industry debates are focussed clearly on the issue of climate change and environmental protection. The tourism industry and its related sectors have weathered much of the criticism for making a large contribution to environmental pollution. With its exponential growth over the past decade or so, the event sector is drawing attention as an increasing contributor to this global problem. Currently, there is a paucity of academic literature which examines the relationship between events and the environment. The event sector, primarily its professional associations and peak bodies are also publishing materials to provide guidance to members as to how to produce events which have minimal impact or reduce their impact on the environment. © 2009..

Addressing ecology and sustainability in mega-sporting events: The 2006 football World Cup in Germany

Dolles, H.S.d., Sten , Journal of Management and Organization Vol 16 side 587-600.

For the first time in the history of FIFA (Fédération Internationale de Football Association), the football (soccer) World Cup held in Germany 2006 specifically addressed environmental concerns. By doing so, the German Organizing Committee did not have the objective of creating a short-term vision, but rather of making a long-term and lasting contribution to the improvement of environmental protection in hosting a mega-sporting event. By taking the football world cup in Germany as a case study, we will provide insights into the so-called 'Green Goal' programme and its four main areas: water, waste, energy, and transportation. From a global point of view, climate protection was added by the Organizing Committee as the fifth area of action and was recognised as a cross-sectorial task. Finally, questions are addressed on how to apply those measurements in the planning and organisation of other mega (-sporting) events. [PUBLICATION ABSTRACT].

Event tourism governance and the public sphere

Dredge, D.W., M. 2011, Journal of Sustainable Tourism Vol 19 side 479-499.

Political and sociological shifts have profoundly affected state, business and civil society relationships. This paper explores governance as a new form of public-private policymaking wherein stakeholders deliberate on and take action to achieve common goals. It examines how different public spheres facilitate (or not) sustainability debates, and specifically facilitate (or not) discussion about sustainable tourism. Using a case study of the 2009 Australian World Rally Championship, the paper explores the development of the public sphere. Tuckman's group development process - forming, storming, norming and performing - is employed as a lens to understand these processes. Key findings include: the way the public sphere is constituted has a major influence on the dialogue that takes place; citizens are currently reactive, rather than strategic and creative in their engagement; the othird wayo project, seeking to empower communities, requires government commitment; there is a blurring of public-private interests; control of knowledge and expertise within the public sphere is largely controlled by corporate and state interests; fast action to secure events prevents debate and engagement; and a discursive public sphere is essential for transparent and accountable governance, and sustainable development, and to move beyond government by powerful corporate interests and extra-local rule systems..

Policy for sustainable and responsible festivals and events: Institutionalisation of a new paradigm - a response

Dredge, D.W., M. , Journal of Policy Research in Tourism, Leisure and Events Vol 2 side .

There are increasing calls for the assumptions and values that underpin research in the social sciences to be made explicit and for more critical attention being given to the way in which knowledge is generated and validated. Inspired by such requests, this paper challenges some propositions made by Donald Getz in the paper he wrote for the inaugural volume of Policy Research in Tourism, Leisure & Events. In this paper Getz presents a vision for events policy and proposes the development of events policy that embodies a 'sustainable and responsible approach' to public sector involvement in events. In the spirit of critical, engaged academic debate, this paper challenges the following four propositions that emerge from Getz's paper: (1) the state of existing event policy research is underdeveloped; (2) that it is possible to delimit the scope and substance of policy concerns within event studies; (3) neoliberalism has influenced governments to take a predominantly interventionist role in events, principally to secure economic development and prosperity; (4) it is possible for governments to institutionalise an event policy paradigm. Importantly, we recognise that Getz has made significant contributions to the events policy literature, but arguably, it is important to engage more thoroughly with some of his ideas and claims. Our contribution in this paper has been to argue that significant aspects, such as paradigm shifts in events policy, the role of government in events and the role of event policy research require more nuanced understandings in order to account for, and accommodate, the intricacies of event planning, management and policy. Our aim is to establish a broader agenda on events policy research that embraces a wider range of epistemologies, ontologies and methodologies than Getz proposes in his sustainable and responsible approach. © 2010 Taylor & Francis..

Assessing the economic impacts of events: A computable general equilibrium approach

Dwyer, L.F., P.; Spurr, R. 2006, Journal of Travel Research Vol 45 side 59-66.

This article explores the use of computable general equilibrium (CGE) analysis in evaluating the economic impacts of special events. It is argued that CGE analysis is preferred to input-output (I-O) approaches for assessing other than local economic impacts. The article illustrates several differences between the alternative forms of analysis in event assessment. These include assessing the differential effects of events on the host region, other regions, and nationally and the ability to estimate interindustry effects. The article then shows how CGE models can be adapted to estimate the displacement effects of events, their fiscal impacts, intraregional effects, event subsidies, and multistate effects. The article also discusses how event impacts will vary depending on the extent of integration between regional and national resource markets and regional and national product and services markets and how labor markets are modeled. © 2006 Sage Publications..

Event tourism and cultural tourism: Issues & debates: An introduction

Dwyer, L.W., E. , Journal of Hospitality Marketing and Management Vol 20 side 239-245.

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Risk perceptions in the alpine tourist destination Tyrol-An exploratory analysis of residents' views

Eitzinger, C.W., P. 2007, Tourism Management Vol 28 side 911-916.

Little research exists regarding risk perceptions of alpine tourist destinations. Consequently, the main purpose of our study is to provide insights into lay persons' risk perceptions relevant to the tourism industry and into the attribution of responsibility for holiday risks. The study was conducted in Tyrol, Austria. It was found that risks judged to be typical for the alpine destination of Tyrol are, on the one hand, winter sport related (cable car accidents, skiing accidents and getting lost on a ski tour) and, on the other, refer to natural hazards ([thunder]storms, avalanches). The attribution of responsibility highly depends on the type of risk: internal attributions apply to behaviour-related risks and sports risks, whereas external attributions concern transportation, accommodation, infrastructural and industrial risks, as well as natural hazards. © 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved..

Vernacular Health Moralities and Culinary Tourism in Newfoundland and Labrador

Everett, H. 2009, Journal of American Folklore Vol 122 side 28-52,122.

This article addresses class-based moral judgments as a crucial aspect of both informal and consciously constructed kinds of culinary tourism in the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador. Interview and survey data, as well as Internet travelogues, further reveal the development and negotiation of vernacular health moralities that influence the ways in which certain foods are culturally constructed to convey status. [PUBLICATION ABSTRACT].

Does television terrify tourists? Effects of US television news on demand for tourism in Israel

Fielding, D.S., A. 2009, Journal of Risk and Uncertainty Vol 38 side 245-263.

We analyze the impact on US tourist flows to Israel of variations in both the actual intensity of the Israeli-Palestinian conflict and the intensity implicit in US television news coverage. Conditional on actual events, changes in reported conflict intensity could influence tourists because alternative sources of information are costly; this explanation is consistent with a rational choice model. However, television news could influence tourist behavior because of its emotional impact, or because it causes the conflict to be brought to mind more readily, increasing the subjective probability of conflict events. We find that tourists respond to variations in actual Israeli casualties and reported Palestinian casualties; both effects are large. Reports of Israeli casualties and unreported Palestinian casualties have no significant impact on tourist flows. These asymmetries are consistent with asymmetric information costs within a rational choice framework, but are more difficult to square with the alternative explanations for media influence. © 2009 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC..

The Role of Web Site Content on Motive and Attitude Change for Sport Events

Filo, K.F., D. C.; Hornby, G. 2009, Journal of Sport Management Vol 23 side 21-40.

Sport event tourism is a major component of sport related tourism in many countries. Sport event organizations should strive to develop Internet marketing communication that features event information relevant to potential sport tourists. Using the Psychological Continuum Model (PCM) as its theoretical framework, this article presents two studies examining information requirements for sport event Web sites and evaluating the impact of Web site communications on consumer motivation and attitudes toward the event. Study 1 first used an open-ended response listing exercise to identify 15 information themes that should be accessible on a sport event Web site (N = 54) and then demonstrated in a between-subjects experimental design that providing these information themes increased satisfaction with the Web site (N = 40). Study 2 used a within-subjects experimental design to reveal that provision of these information themes had no impact on travel motives, but did increase favorable attitudes toward a sport event and intention to attend the event (N = 39). This research provides evidence that Web site marketing communication does activate attitude change within consumers, as well as empirical support for attitude change within the PCM framework. Findings highlight the potential strategic use of Web site communication for sport event organizers to enhance consumer attitudes toward the event and increase attendance..

It's really not about the bike: Exploring attraction and attachment to the events of the Lance Armstrong Foundation

Filo, K.R.F., D. C.; O'Brien, D. 2008, Journal of Sport Management Vol 22 side 501-525.

Participatory sport events have emerged as viable fundraising mechanisms for charitable organizations. This article examines the impact that motives for charitable giving and sport event participation have on charity sport events. The authors examine the factors that attract participants to a charity sport event, while the role of charity in fostering attachment to the event is explored. Focus groups were conducted with charity sport event participants to discuss what motivated their participation. Results revealed that intellectual, social, and competency motives along with the motives of reciprocity, self-esteem, need to help others, and desire to improve the charity contribute to attraction. In addition, the results sua-est that the charitable component influences social and competency motives and contributes to the development of attachment to the event. The authors recomemend event managers work to foster and leverage the sense of community created through these events..

Dancing around the ring of fire: Social capital, tourism resistance, and gender dichotomies at Up Helly Aa in Lerwick, Shetland

Finkel, R. , Event Management Vol 14 side 275-285.

This article explores the linkages between community events and a rise in community social capital by analyzing a case study of the Up Helly Aa fire festival in Lerwick, Shetland. Through ritually repeated action that now translates as tradition, Up Helly Aa interprets and reinterprets what it means to be a Shetlander. It relies on personal donations and local businesses for funding, and this financial self-reliance can be seen to permit exclusionary actions towards visitors and reaffirm notions of traditionally constructed gender roles. This article examines the complex negotiations that take place during the festival surrounding gender, identity, heritage, tourism, and belonging to a place. It concludes that given the physical and social landscape in which the festival occurs, the reutilization of community celebration and fostering of community identity cannot be discounted despite Up Helly Aa's less than politically correct approaches to inclusionary participation and tourism development. © 2010 Cognizant Comm. Corp..

Entry level skills for the event management profession: Implications for curriculum development

Fletcher, D.D., Julie; Prince, Rosemary 2009, The ICHPER-SD Journal of Research in Health, Physical Education, Recreation, Sport & Dance Vol 4 side 52-57.

The rapid growth of the event industry has resulted in a world-wide demand for education and training programs in event management. While the professional associations in event management have provided providing quality training and credentialing for their members, the 140 colleges and universities preparing students for entry level positions in the event management field have not yet identified critical entry level skills. This study asked practicing event managers to rate 91 skills in terms of importance to entry level employees in event management. Skills rated most important were personal skills, then social skills, with knowledge skills rated as least important. [PUBLICATION ABSTRACT].

Host community reactions - A cluster analysis

Fredline, E.F., B. 2000, Annals of Tourism Research Vol 27 side 763-784.

Relatively little research has been carried out on host community reactions to the impacts of events. However, the affinities between general tourism and events mean that insights derived from the former are potentially useful as a foundation. While there is a considerable body of research on community reactions to tourism, this has been constrained by the dominance of a case study approach and the variety of theories and methodologies applied. This paper draws on social representations theory and compares the results of the current study with previous cluster analyses in an effort to identify some parallels in residents' perceptions of tourism and events across communities. (C) 2000 Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved..

Bavarian Leavenworth and the symbolic economy of a theme town

Frenkel, S.W., Judy 2000, Geographical Review Vol 90 side 559-584.

Theme towns are an often-overlooked but significant form of toruism in rural areas. Many a small town across the United States, faced with a declining resource-based economy, has turned to "theming" as an economic-development strategy..

Projecting an image: Film-induced festivals in the American West

Frost, W. 2009, Event Management Vol 12 side 95-103.

Film and television are major forces in shaping destination image and encouraging tourism visitation. A growing literature reports on how fi lm and television either directly attract tourists or are incorporated into destination marketing campaigns. However, there has been little research examining how fi lm and television may be used in festivals and events and how destinations may actively use such festivals as a medium for creating their destination image. This article considers fi lm-induced festivals in the small American towns of Lone Pine and Jamestown. Both have been extensively used as fi lm locations since the 1920s, primarily for Westerns. Lone Pine has been the location for over 350 fi lms, and Jamestown has been the location for 150 fi lms. Through fi lm-themed festivals, these towns have reshaped their destination images as idealized and romanticized Western locales. In contrast, other aspects of their heritage have been downplayed, causing some dissonance between stakeholders. Copyright © 2008 Cognizant Comm. Corp..

The role of socio-psychological and culture-education motives in marketing international sport tourism: A cross-cultural perspective

Funk, D.C.B., T. J. 2007, Tourism Management Vol 28 side 806-819.

This study empirically investigated the motives of sport tourists who traveled internationally to participate in a hallmark Australian running event, the 2005 Gold Coast Airport Marathon. Structural equation modeling analysis revealed that involvement and strength of motivation contributed to socio-psychological motivation while cultural experience and knowledge learning contributed to cultural-education motivation. Cultural experience was further explored through a consumer acculturation framework that led to development of the Cultural Learning Inventory (CLI). Analysis revealed that international participants desired to experience and learn nine specific aspects of the foreign destination's culture; transportation, housing, arts, language, food, media, currency, leisure activities and indigenous population. Hofstede's [(1980). Culture's consequences: International differences in work related values. Newbury Park, CA: Sage] cultural clusters were subsequently used to segment participants and MANOVA results revealed that while respondents did not differ on socio-psychological motives, respondents from cultural backgrounds dissimilar to Australian culture were more likely to agree that experiencing Australian culture and learning new information was appealing. These results indicate the duality of international marketing efforts for hallmark sport events. Convergent marketing strategies should be used to target specific segments in their sport communities, while divergent cultural marketing strategies should be utilised to target potential participants with different cultural backgrounds. © 2006 Published by Elsevier Ltd..

A critical comparative study of visitor motivations for attending music festivals: A case study of glastonbury and v festival

Gelder, G.R., P. 2009, Event Management Vol 13 side 181-196.

A global industry of festivals and events has evolved and developed rapidly since the early 1900s. This phenomenal growth, coupled with increased consumer awareness and choice, requires sustained development and growth in the future. Music festivals are unique events that attract audiences for a variety of reasons; however, while music-based events are an extremely popular form of entertainment, research exploring the motivations of music festival audiences is sparse, especially from a UK perspective. Crompton and McKay contend that event managers should strive to better understand the motives of festival attendance in order to design better products and services for them and because motives are a precursor of satisfaction and a factor in decision making, this in turn can lead to greater attendance. This study critically compares the visitor motivations for attending two UK-based music festivals to challenge and ultimately support existing ideas developed from similar research overseas. The article establishes some of the first research into this area within the UK and challenges common assumptions from those in industry. A range of secondary research was considered and a review of existing literature on the subject was undertaken. Although the sample size was relatively small, the results showed that socializing with friends and family was a primary motive. Most importantly, the article supported the notion that multiple motivations come into play and it suggests that it is risky for festival managers to rely solely on the theme of the event itself. It is equally important to create a fun and festive atmosphere that offers ample opportunity to socialize and have new and nonmusical experiences. Several recommendations were made for existing and future managers including focusing on realigning marketing and service strategies. Recommendations were also made for future research in terms of adopting new methodological approaches including the use of multiple means of analysis. The article finally challenges the nature of the underpinning theory and questions the reason that so much of what is understood is still based in the field of sociology in tourism, with very little underpinning theory dedicated to the events industry, despite its emergence as an academic field over a decade ago. © 2009 Cognizant Comm. Corp..

Event tourism: Definition, evolution, and research

Getz, D. 2008, Tourism Management Vol 29 side 403-428.

This article reviews 'event tourism' as both professional practice and a field of academic study. The origins and evolution of research on event tourism are pinpointed through both chronological and thematic literature reviews. A conceptual model of the core phenomenon and key themes in event tourism studies is provided as a framework for spurring theoretical advancement, identifying research gaps, and assisting professional practice. Conclusions are in two parts: a discussion of implications for the practice of event management and tourism, and implications are drawn for advancing theory in event tourism. © 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved..

Festival stakeholders: Exploring relationships and dependency through a four-country comparison

Getz, D.A., T. , Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Research Vol 34 side 531-556.

The importance of stakeholders to festival organizations and the issue of dependence on key stakeholders are studied through a four-country comparison. Respondents from Sweden, Norway, Scotland, and Australia mostly indicated that they did not feel overly dependent on any category of stakeholder, but did reveal the existence of several general patterns of stakeholder relationships that are linked to dependency. The public sector was predominant in terms of perceived stakeholder importance, but also clearly revealed were a customer-first relationship and a supplier-first (mostly venues) pattern. Perceived dependence on corporate sponsors in the sampled countries was uniformly low. Tourism and event management implications and theoretical advances are discussed in the conclusions, including suggestions for future research. © 2010 International Council on Hotel, Restaurant and Institutional Education..

The event-tourist career trajectory: A study of high-involvement amateur distance runners

Getz, D.A., T. D. , Scandinavian Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Vol 10 side 468-491.

Drawing from theory on serious leisure, social worlds, recreation specialization, ego-involvement, and travel motivation, it is proposed that many people with specific sport or lifestyle interests will develop event-specific careers. These careers will follow a trajectory that can be measured in terms of six dimensions: motivations (especially the pursuit of higher-level personal needs); changing travel styles; spatial and temporal patterns, event and destination choices. As a partial test of the event-tourist career trajectory, a large sample of registrants for a half-marathon in Sweden was questioned in a pre-event survey about their motives, involvement in their sport, and event-related travel. Employing an involvement scale specific to amateur distance runners, analysis revealed that most runners were not highly-involved in this sport. However, a comparison of the most highly-involved (constituting the top decile of the sample), and the remainder, revealed many significant differences that do support the hypotheses in all six dimensions. Implications are drawn for theory development and future research, as well as for the design and marketing of sport events aimed at niche market segments. © 2010 Taylor & Francis..

Festival management studies

Getz, D.A., Tommy; Carlsen, J. 2010, International Journal of Event and Festival Management Vol 1 side 29-59.

Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to develop both a systematic framework and priorities for comparative and cross-cultural festival management studies, based on literature review and results of a four-country study. Design/methodology/approach - This research is based on four samples of festivals in Sweden, Norway, UK, and Australia that are systematically compared. The survey is designed to profile the festivals in terms of vision/mandate, ownership, age, size, assets, venues used, decision-making structure, and programs. Costs and revenues are examined in some detail, including trends in each category. Festivals' use of volunteers and sponsors are specifically addressed. Levels of dependence on a number of types of stakeholders and other strategic management issues are also explored. Respondents are also asked to respond to statements regarding challenges and threats to their festival and organization. Findings - The empirical research identifies important similarities and differences that exist within the UK, Sweden, Norway, and Australia, by three ownership types, in how festivals are organized, their operations and strategies, stakeholder influences and dependencies, threats, and strategies. Research limitations/implications - In the recommended framework are five components: antecedents; planning and management; planned event experiences and meanings; outcomes and the impacted and dynamic patterns; and processes. Specific points of comparison are enumerated within each component, foundation theories and concepts are identified, and some research priorities suggested for each. Originality/value - The framework developed in this paper can help advance both the process and applications of comparative festival studies.[PUBLICATION ABSTRACT].

Serious Sport Tourism and Event Travel Careers

Getz, D.M., A. , Journal of Sport Management Vol 25 side 326-338.

This article seeks to advance theory pertaining to serious sport tourism, through the application of serious leisure and ego-involvement theory and the analysis of a survey of participants in the Trans Rockies Challenge mountain-bike event. Participants were questioned postevent about their motives, involvement in their sport, event-related travel, and destination and event preferences. Analysis revealed that most respondents were highly involved in competitive mountain biking. and were primarily motivated by self development through meeting a challenge. Many respondents also participated in a portfolio of other competitive sport events that provided similar personal rewards. Results suggest that many serious sport tourists develop travel careers centered on competitive events. A hypothetical framework for assessing six dimensions of event travel career trajectories is developed, leading to consideration of practical management implications and research needs..

The role of social identification and hedonism in affecting tourist re-patronizing behaviours: The case of an Italian festival

Grappi, S.M., F. , Tourism Management Vol 32 side 1128-1140.

Since the 1990s Europe and other continents have been organising a significantly larger number of festivals with the objective of stimulating tourism and exploiting potential economic opportunities. The prominence of these events has led to intense competition between festivals in attracting visitors and it has become important to analyse factors which might influence attendees' retention. Drawing on existing literature on retail and service sectors, this study aims to identify the role played by emotions, hedonism, satisfaction, and social identification in mediating the effects of environmental factors on attendees' re-patronizing intention. This study includes an on-site survey of 449 visitors attending an Italian festival gaining in popularity, and analyses data using a structural equations model. Results suggest that hedonism and social identification are key-facilitators between environmental cues and attendees' re-patronizing intention. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd..

Effects of hosting a mega-sport event on country image

Gripsrud, G.N., E. B.; Olsson, U. H. , Event Management Vol 14 side 193-204.

Nations and cities compete to host international mega-sport events such as the Olympic Games even if very large costs are incurred. Country image may be changed by hosting such events, and country image dimensions are in turn related to product image and behavioral intentions regarding product purchase and tourism. In this article a model of these relationships is developed, based on several streams of literature. The empirical study reported relates to the Winter Olympics in Turin, Italy in 2006. A quasi-experimental design was employed based upon two samples of undergraduate students in Norway. Data was gathered both before and after the Olympic Games took place. The study indicates that dimensions of country image for those being very interested in sports may be changed by hosting a mega-sport event. However, there is no guarantee that the image of the host country will improve. It may actually deteriorate. This finding underscores the importance of managing international sport events properly. © 2010 Cognizant Comm. Corp..

Casual Observers, Connoisseurs and Experimentalists: A Conceptual Exploration of Niche Festival Visitors

Gyimothy, S. 2009, Scandinavian Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Vol 9 side 177-205.

Although "amateur spectators" as a growing segment is mentioned in a number of special interest event studies, our understanding of their behaviour is still limited to case-specific descriptions, and convenience explanations. This paper attempts to conceptualize and explore further the segment of "casual observers" by integrating several non-adjacent theoretical areas. This endeavour intersects festival and event motivation studies, sport marketing literature and sporting subcultures from leisure sociology. Following a mixed method methodology, the paper presents both qualitative and quantitative data to illuminate attendee characteristics of a special event, namely, the world's largest extreme sports festival. Results indicate that beyond two previously documented motivational inclinations directed at the sport or the event respectively, there exists a third type of visitor (experimentalists) who are mostly motivated by attaining intrinsical goals, such as identity construction by consuming "fetish" items at a niche festival. The paper concludes with an evaluation of the marketing potential of this group and discusses the implications for event sport event segmentation..

Tourism marketing for cities and towns: using branding and events to attract tourists

Hall, C.M. 2009, Journal of Sustainable Tourism Vol 17 side 409-410.

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Image fit between sport events and their hosting destinations from an active sport tourist perspective and its impact on future behaviour

Hallmann, K.B., C. , Journal of Sport and Tourism Vol 15 side 215-237.

Relationships between sport event and destination image have been identified in the literature. It is assumed that there is a common image capital of both the sport event and the hosting destination. Consequently the concept of image fit as the result of a common image capital between a sport event and the hosting destination is of high interest. This study analysed, using indirect multi-attributive measures of fit, sport event and destination image and compared the two images based on a fit index. The sample consists of active sport tourists (i.e. participants of the sport event) at four different endurance sport events throughout Germany (n 1/4 551). Correspondence analyses were used to evaluate the fit qualitatively, whilst a fit measure indicated the degree of image fit. Regression analyses were used to test the influence of socio-demographic and macro-level components such as the degree of urbanization, size and history of the event on image fit. Urbanization and the event's history had an influence on image fit. Moreover the role of image fit as a predictor of future behaviour was investigated. It is shown that image fit serves only as a predictor for future visits to the destination. Conversely, sport event image and destination image influence future visits to both the destination and the sport event. Nonetheless, it was shown that image fit can be used as a predictor, even though additional constraints should possibly be included. © 2010 Taylor & Francis..

Images of rural destinations hosting small-scale sport events

Hallmann, K.B., Christoph , International Journal of Event and Festival Management Vol 2 side 218-244.

Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to analyse quantitative and qualitative image aspects of destinations hosting a small-scale sport event, as perceived by spectators and participants. Design/methodology/approach - A survey was conducted at different sport events hosted by destinations in a rural setting. The data are analysed using confirmatory factor analyses and correspondence analyses. Findings - The results suggest several differences between the image perception of participants and spectators. These can be attributed to different levels of involvement, which is very high for participants. The perception of the qualitative image aspects showed that unique features were associated with the destination, such as sport themes or organizational aspects of the sport event visited. Further, it is shown that the quantitatively measured indicators of affective destination image have a great influence on the image of rural sport event tourism destinations. Research limitations/implications - A research limitation could arise due to the sample, as almost all sport tourists were German. A more international sample might have shown different results. Future research should analyse samples of different sports, concluding whether the sport performed also influences behaviour. Practical implications - For marketing communications it is essential to utilise emotions to promote the destination, as they are a very essential element of destinations hosting sport events. Originality/value - This research contributes to the understanding of images held by spectators and participants of small-scale sport events hosted in rural destinations. The value is the large sample, consisting of various rural destinations, which allows for general patterns of the perceived image to be drawn..

Event image perceptions among active and passive sports tourists at marathon races

Hallmann, K.K., K.; Breuer, C. , International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship Vol 12 side 37-52.

Sports events are tourist attractions and their image components can relate to the destination image concept and structure. This study examined sports event images held by active and passive sports tourists at four marathon races in Germany. Some differences in the perception of event images were found for active and passive sports tourists as well as for different types of destinations. For active sports tourists, emotional, physical and organisational image associations were clustered closer. For passive sports tourists, social and historical image associations were clustered closer. The type of destination elicited different event images among active and passive sports tourists. © 2010 International Marketing Reports..

Destination brand images: A business tourism perspective

Hankinson, G. 2005, Journal of Services Marketing Vol 19 side 24-32.

Purpose - Most studies of destination brand images have been conducted from the perspective of the leisure tourist. This study identifies brand images from a business tourist perspective (people visiting destinations for business meetings, incentive events, conferences and exhibitions) and tests their relationship with perceived quality and commercial criteria. Design/methodology/approach - Data on the brand image attributes associated with 15 UK destinations promoting themselves as business tourism centres were collected via repertory grid analysis from a sample of 25 organisations using business tourism facilities. A self-completion questionnaire was used to measure managers' ratings of the perceived quality of each destination and the commercial criteria used to select a destination. The data were analysed using content analysis, exploratory factor analysis and correlation analysis. Findings - The content analysis identified eight clusters of brand image attributes. Subsequent factor analysis identified three underlying dimensions - overall destination attractiveness, functionality, and ambience. While all three were correlated with perceived quality, commercial criteria were dominated by a destination's functional rather than ambience attributes. Originality/value - The results of the study provide a more informed and systematic basis on which to develop a destination's business tourism positioning strategy by providing a framework for selecting relevant brand image attributes. © Emerald Group Publishing Limited..

Cultural tourism innovation systems - the roskilde festival

Hjalager, A.M. 2009, Scandinavian Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Vol 9 side 266-287.

It is only recently that the "innovation systems approach" has become a framework for micro-economic research in new institutional economics in tourism-related businesses and activities. There is still much to be explored. Cultural tourism phenomena constitute noteworthy objects for illustrative case studies, embedded as they are in business as well as maintaining relations with public governance structures and voluntary organizations. Since 1971, Roskilde Festival (Denmark) has developed its role as a leading element in an emerging cultural innovation system. Festival organizers maintain long-term, dense and multifaceted relations. Funds from the (non-profit) festival are efficiently channelled into cultural and sports facilities, enhancing the attractiveness of the region. To keep ahead in the festival market, innovators in the field of managerial systems, technologies and services are deliberately invited to use the grounds as test benches for new ideas. The concept of innovation systems allows for a better understanding of the complex driving forces and mechanisms that mediate the conditions, the extent and the outcomes of innovative behaviour. Roskilde is a not static event. Since 2001 especially, wider ranging organizational structures have been constructed and politically enforced with the aim of nurturing spin-offs, and including strong representation within the educational and research sectors. © 2009 Taylor & Francis..

Estimating the economic impact of event tourism: A review of issues and methods

Hodur, N.M.L., F. L. 2007, Journal of Convention and Event Tourism Vol 8 side 63-79.

Tourism has become an important economic sector in many parts of the world, and many regions, states, and local areas have identified expenditures by visitors as a potential source of economic growth. Because visitor spending can contribute to the local economy, many communities seek to enhance tourism and visitor-oriented activities. As a result, estimates of the economic impact of event tourism are of interest to a wide variety of interested parties. Economic impact analyses of sports facilities and other entertainment events have come under increasing criticism in recent years. At the same time, visitors to sports events, festivals, and other visitor-oriented and event related activities can produce very substantial economic impacts for host communities. This article examines key considerations and issues that affect and are critical to reliable estimates of the economic impacts of events and event tourism. doi:10.1300/J452v08n04_05 © Copyright (c) by The Haworth Press, Inc. All rights reserved..

EVENT PLANNING AS A FUNCTION IN THE HOSPITALITY INDUSTRY

Ivanovic, S.G., Vlado; Mikinac, Kresimir , Faculty of Tourism and Hospitality Management in Opatija. Biennial International Congress. Tourism & Hospitality Industry Vol side 925-930.

Planning can be a complex network of ideas and challenges or it can be as simple as writing down a to do list. Whatever the case, companies face challenges that need to be planned and controlled. In this paper there will be a definition of what it is that planning does, how is it important in today business world. Planning events is just like planning a business plan, what is important is what gets done. [PUBLICATION ABSTRACT].

Innovations in measuring economic impacts of regional festivals: A Do-it-Youself kit

Jackson, J.H., M.; Russell, R.; Triandos, P. 2005, Journal of Travel Research Vol 43 side 360-367.

Festivals and events are increasingly important to the tourism industry, especially in regional areas, where the possible sources of gross regional product are more limited than in metropolitan areas. In recognition of the potential economic contribution of arts festivals and other special events to regional economies, there is a need for a rigorous and replicable model/methodology for assessing such impacts. A project initiated in the state of Victoria, Australia, by Arts Victoria, constituting the development of a software tool, the Festivals Do-it-Yourself (DIY) kit, enables regional event organizers to assess the economic impact of their events to the region simply and relatively inexpensively. As well as providing information to the festival organizers, the results for festivals are able to be compared by external sponsors and stakeholders. A key to the successful application of the kit was the dissemination project discussed in this article. Preliminary results from the use of the DIY kit and reactions of some users are also presented. © 2005 Sage Publications..

The Festivalscape of Finnmark

Jaeger, K.M., R. J. 2009, Scandinavian Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Vol 9 side 327-348.

The diversity of festivals in Finnmark, Norway, was researched with the aim of creating a festival map of the county's Festivalscape. Data were collected by questionnaires to the registered festival managers. It was concluded that Finnmark is a festive county where 72,000 people share close to 60 festivals arranged annually in 19 municipalities across the county. The festivals were categorized as either music, arts, sports or market festivals, however the largest group were named thematic festivals as they are each built around rather unique themes, thus representing a diverse example of festival variety and creativity. Even so, live music and food sales are found at most festivals, and all festivals have more than one main activity. Festivals are by no means a source of paid employment for the inhabitants, but rich opportunities for more than 3000 volunteers to participate in creating compressed cultural expressions and develop social networks. The number of visitors at the festivals varies from 100 to 10,000 persons. It is also a cost effective way of culture production as most of the festivals present budgets below 500,000 NOK. Entrance fees, sales of merchandise, sponsorship and public municipality funding are the most important source of sponsorship. A wide range of themes are represented in these festivals in which ethnicity, nationality and various border themes also play roles as ideological bases and cultural framing of the events. The tourism potential of the festivals and their actual production processes seems underdeveloped..

Optimising the potential of mega-events: an overview

Jago, L.D., Larry; Lipman, Geoffrey; Vorster, Shaun , International Journal of Event and Festival Management Vol 1 side 220-237.

Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to examine the reasons that mega-events rarely realise their potential for host destinations and to suggest issues that need to be addressed in rectifying this issue. Design/methodology/approach - The paper is based on a synthesis of the literature as well as the substantial event-related experience of the authors. Findings - The key reason that mega-events do not generate the expected benefits for the host destination is that event organisers and destination managers adopt a short-term perspective rather than seeing mega-events as part of a long-term strategy for the destination. Even the planned legacies are often not realised as resource constraints in the lead up to the staging of the event often results in resources being shifted away from planning for legacies and being allocated to helping cover the more immediate needs of the event. Research limitations/implications - If the mega-event knowledge portal that is proposed in this paper to help improve the overall contribution that mega-events make to host destinations is developed, it will prove to be a fertile source of data for longitudinal research in the field of mega-events. Originality/value - As so many mega-events fail to deliver the expected benefits for the host destination, this paper provides some useful insights into the key issues that need to be addressed in order to help overcome this problem.[PUBLICATION ABSTRACT].

Implications of climate change for outdoor event planning: A case study of three special events in Canada's National Capital Region

Jones, B.S., D.; Khaled, H. A. 2006, Event Management Vol 10 side 63-76.

Weather and climate play an important role in the success of many outdoor special events, including the quality of visitor experiences. In spite of the growing importance of event tourism to many communities in Canada and the US, research examining the influence of current weather and climate on event planning, or event tourism more broadly, is very limited. Consequently, the potential implications of climate change for event planning and tourism has yet to be explored. This article presents the findings of the first known assessment of climate change on event tourism in North America. A case study of Canada's National Capital Region was used to better understand the current impact of weather and climate on three high-profile outdoor events planned by the National Capital Commission (NCC) (Winterlude, the Canadian Tulip Festival, and Canada Day celebrations), and to assess the potential impact of climate change on the NCC's long-term event planning. Climate change is projected to have a meaningful impact on the success of some special events by altering the ability of the NCC to maintain ice-based attractions (skating on the Rideau Canal Skateway), changing tulip phenology to cause a mismatch with current Festival dates, and increasing the need for heat emergency planning during Canada Day. Possible adaptation strategies to respond to the challenges of climate change are also discussed, as are some general implications for event management. Copyright © 2006 Cognizant Comm. Corp..

Adventure as a cultural foundation: Sport and tourism in New Zealand

Kane, M.J. , Journal of Sport and Tourism Vol 15 side 27-44.

This article examines the cultural foundations of sport, tourism and sport tourism within the New Zealand context. Guided by sociologist Pierre Bourdieu's concepts, the theoretical perspective is that all practice is infused with and reflects culture. The article examines three iconic representatives who traverse the sport, tourism and sport tourism fields. The 'distinction' of their narratives highlights how cultural foundations have been (re)negotiated over the last hundred years. The All Blacks rugby team, mountaineer Sir Edmund Hillary and A.J. Hackett Bungy Jumping are analysed in relation to prominent theoretical notions of each field and the pioneer mythology of New Zealand's post-colonial culture. Discussion focuses on the diverse, changing and renewed practices and narratives of these three cultural representatives. It is argued that in New Zealand, and potentially in other Western societies, the central cultural foundation of sport, tourism and sport tourism is the serendipity of practice and uncertainty of outcome - fundamentally, adventure. Sport tourism destinations and operators cannot rely on the replication of past events and practices for success. Although promotional narratives should link to past cultural myths or iconic representatives, sport tourism practice must provide the space and potential for uncertainty. The sustainability of sport tourism requires the packaging and framing of serendipity through the continual (re)invention of experience that facilitates adventure. © 2010 Taylor & Francis..

Predicting behavioral intentions of active event sport tourists: The case of a small-scale recurring sports event

Kaplanidou, K.G., H. J. , Journal of Sport and Tourism Vol 15 side 163-179.

With the growth in the opportunities for amateur athletes to take part in competitive events it is becoming apparent that there is a need to separate active sport tourists into two types: non-event (e.g. golf, skiing) and event. Active event sport tourism constitutes travel to take part in various organized events from the hallmark New York and London Marathons to the pervasive small scale sports events hosted by communities' world wide. Understanding the variables that influence active sport tourism behaviors within the context of recurring smaller scale sports events has not been widely observed in the sport and tourism literature. This study investigated whether past participation, attitudes toward event participation, satisfaction with the sport event and destination image predict intentions to participate in a sport event again. Data were collected from 112 active event sport tourists of a small recurring sports event: the Senior Games. Mail and online questionnaires were used based on participant event registration mode. Path analysis was used to evaluate the model of this study. The results revealed mediation effects of attitudes between satisfaction and intentions to participate in the event again and destination image and intentions. The importance of collaborations between destination marketers and event organizers is discussed along with the significance of satisfaction as a driver of attitude formation and behavioral intentions. © 2010 Taylor & Francis..

The role of family decision makers in festival tourism

Kim, S.S.C., S.; Agrusa, J.; Wang, K. C.; Kim, Y. , International Journal of Hospitality Management Vol 29 side 308-318.

This study assessed the role of family decision makers in participating in a festival according to five stages of festival participation. A survey process was conducted using two sampling groups: the sample for families with children and the sample for families without children. According to the results of the study, a number of marketing implications were generated. For example, the husband was revealed to more actively join transportation-related activities including driving, deciding travel routes, automobile safety checks. and filling up with gasoline. The wife was a strong decision maker in selecting restaurants or menus in the festival tourism management process. Likewise, the role of the wife is very significant, from suggesting the festival participation at the first stage to determining a revisit to the festival at the last stage. However, the children or joint decision-making patterns were not distinctive as they are said to be in other tourism literature. Findings of the study are expected to offer valuable insights for all festival stakeholders including festival vendors, local government, local residents, and festival organizers. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved..

A comparison of results of three statistical methods to understand the determinants of festival participants' expenditures

Kim, S.S.P., B.; Chon, K. , International Journal of Hospitality Management Vol 29 side 297-307.

The aim of the research reported upon in this study is to examine the impact of visitors' socio-demographic and festival experience-related variables on expenditure levels and patterns of visits to festivals. Three statistical models including logit, OLS (ordinary least square) and Tobit models are employed to identify and examine the differences or similarities in results from three different approaches. A comparison of the three approaches using cross-section survey data generated differences in model fit. In addition, it was found that the set of independent variables which were significant in estimating festival visitors' expenditures varied between the three models. As such the findings of this study suggest a Singular statistical approach may be inferior to multiple ones in gaining a full understanding of the determinants of festival participants' expenditure. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved..

The relationships between food-related personality traits, satisfaction, and loyalty among visitors attending food events and festivals

Kim, Y.G.S., B. W.; Eves, A. , International Journal of Hospitality Management Vol 29 side 216-226.

This study applies the concept of food-related personality traits to hospitality and tourism and identifies relationships between personality, satisfaction, and loyalty. An on-site survey was carried out with 335 visitors attending the Gwangju Kimchi (local food) Festival in South Korea between 15th and 19th of October, 2008. The relationships between 4 latent constructs (food neophobia, food involvement satisfaction, and loyalty) and 16 indicators were measured using structural equation modelling. The findings showed that food neophobia had a negative effect on satisfaction and loyalty, food involvement had a positive relationship with loyalty, and satisfaction and loyalty showed a significant positive relationship. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved..

Development of a multi-dimensional scale for measuring food tourist motivations

Kim, Y.H.G., B. K.; Yuan, J. J. , Journal of Quality Assurance in Hospitality and Tourism Vol 11 side 56-71.

Food in tourism is becoming an important subject to researchers in the field of tourism and food service. Food and its related tourist activities have been ascribed into a new category of tourism called food tourism in which the motivation for traveling is to obtain special experiences from food. However, limited attention has been paid to explore precisely what factors influence food tourists' destination choices. The purpose of this study was to develop an instrument to explore food tourists' motivations using push and pull theory. The sample was drawn from a food event in the southwestern United States. The development of the instrument begun with literature review and was followed with a pretest on graduate students who have attended food events. After the pretest, a review of the instrument was conducted by tourism and foodservice experts. A pilot test was employed to ensure the reliability and clarity of the research instrument before actual survey. The final instrument was used to gather 305 usable questionnaires. Three factors emerged from the 14 push items: Knowledge and Learning, Fun and New Experiences, and Relaxation with Family. Three factors were generated from the 14 pull items: Area Quality and Value, Quality of Event, and Food Variety. The instrument can be tested and further validated in other food tourism settings. © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC..

Special fvents marketing: An analysis of a county fair

Koh, K.Y.J., A. A. 2006, Journal of Convention and Event Tourism Vol 8 side 19-44.

Building a community's tourist industry requires the stimulation of a steady inflow of visitors, and visitors' purchase of local goods and services. Staging special events is one means to attracting tourists and earning tourism revenue. This paper analyzed the case of a county fair in western Colorado from a marketing perspective. © 2006 by The Haworth Press, Inc. All rights reserved..

How green was my festival: Exploring challenges and opportunities associated with staging green events

Laing, J.F., W. 2010, International Journal of Hospitality Management Vol 29 side 261-267.

Organisers of events are increasingly looking to highlight their green credentials. This is occurring against the background of an increasingly sophisticated market that is suspicious of claims that cannot be substantiated. This conceptual paper explores some of the issues encompassing the management and staging of a green event. It examines the importance of engaging a range of key stakeholders and considers various ways in which events are greening their operations. This paper then considers some of the challenges involved in incorporating green messages into an event theme. It concludes with an analysis of future research needs associated with green events. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved..

Volunteering flexibility across the tourism sector

Lockstone, L.S., K.; Baum, T. , Managing Leisure Vol 15 side 111-127.

Volunteers play a pivotal role in the tourism sector, contributing invaluable human resources to museums, visitor attractions, visitor information services and small and large-scale events. Recognition is being increasingly afforded to the role flexibility can play in efforts to attract and retain volunteers, given that volunteers appear to be more and more attracted to opportunities that provide them with a degree of flexibility in choosing how often and in what way they contribute to organisations. This paper combines an organisational and volunteer perspective to provide an exploratory insight into the flexibility options made available to and preferred by volunteers working within the tourism sector. The implications of adopting a flexible approach to volunteer management are highlighted and areas for future research discussed. © 2010 Taylor & Francis..

Conventions, festivals, and tourism: Exploring the network that binds

Mackellar, J. 2006, Journal of Convention and Event Tourism Vol 8 side 45-56.

The link between conventions and tourism has often been assumed, and to some extent has been researched, and yet little research has been undertaken to study the relationships between organizations staging an event. The aim of this paper is to highlight the links between convention, festival, and tourism organizations using a case study in Lismore, Australia. The Lismore Chamber of Commerce has used an agricultural convention in conjunction with a community festival to share resources and attract wider audiences. This paper demonstrates the outcomes of this relationship in terms of innovation, cooperation, and regional development. Where previous attempts to coordinate the herb industry had failed, the case shows how coordinated events can serve an important purpose. The case also demonstrates the use of a network analysis methodology as a potential tool for researchers and managers in identifying and understanding industry relationships. The results demonstrate the success of this event and highlight the importance of developing and maintaining network relations. © 2006 by The Haworth Press, Inc. All rights reserved..

Interactive destination marketing system for small and medium-sized tourism destinations

Maria, J.F.C.-R., J.; Current, J. R. 2005, Tourism Vol 53 side 45-54.

Tourism is an important industry in many countries. It is also a very competitive industry as there are many tourism destinations and enterprises. Small and medium-sized tourism enterprises and destinations are often at a competitive disadvantage compared to large ones. Increased marketing of a tourism destination has been shown to increase visitor numbers. This paper introduces a Destination Marketing System designed to enable small and medium-sized tourism enterprises and destinations to become more competitive by providing value-adding services to visitors and local tourism enterprises. The information technology based system integrates techniques from operations research, decision support systems and geographic information systems. Although the system incorporates sophisticated concepts and techniques, the users need no specialized training or knowledge to use them. The prototype presented in this paper was designed for Santarem, Portugal. It includes routine value adding services such as descriptions and locations of tourist resources, maps, videos, hyperlinks to other sites, and a calendar of events and festivals as well as customized value-adding services such as personalized tour planning..

Measuring the economic impacts of convention centers & event tourism: A discussion of the key issues

Morgan, A.C., S. 2007, Journal of Convention and Event Tourism Vol 8 side 81-100.

The purpose of this paper is to provide policymakers, local planners, investors, and other interested parties with a discussion of economic impact studies concerning event tourism, conventions, and their infrastructure. This paper will discuss the main methodologies underlying economic impact studies, the factors that increase and decrease economic impact, and the components that can create a defendable study. doi:10.1300/J452v08n04_06 © Copyright (c) by The Haworth Press, Inc. All rights reserved..

Analyzing the role of festivals and events in regional development

Moscardo, G. 2007, Event Management Vol 11 side 23-32.

While tourism has a long history of use as a tool for regional development, events and festivals are a more recent policy option. In both cases the emphasis is often placed on the potential positive economic impacts. In both cases there has also been little research conducted into a wider range of outcomes or into the factors and processes that contribute to these outcomes. This article examines the potential role of festivals and events in regional development with a particular focus on effects other than economic. The study reported here used a conceptual framework developed to describe regional tourism development to explore 36 case studies describing festivals and events in a regional development context. The content analysis identified 13 themes as associated with the effectiveness of festivals and events in supporting regional development. These themes were further organized according to their connections to the three key constructs of building social capital, enhancing community capacity, and support for non-tourism-related products and services. These constructs are then used to build a preliminary conceptual framework to understand the role of festivals and events in regional development. Copyright © 2007 Cognizant Comm. Corp..

The importance of networks in special interest tourism: Case studies of music tourism in Australia

Moscardo, G.M., B.; Murphy, L.; Pearce, P. 2009, International Journal of Tourism Policy Vol 2 side .

Music tourism can be seen as a type of special interest cultural tourism. This paper addresses the role of themed music festivals in regional development. Three diverse and recurring music tourism events in regional Queensland, Australia are studied. The case studies describe the festivals and their impacts and contributions to tourism development in their area. These analyses specifically examine the roles of clusters and networks in the contributions made by these events to regional tourism and associated development. The results of the analyses are used to examine government policies and recommendations are made to support better outcomes for host communities. Copyright © 2009, Inderscience Publishers..

Celebration of extreme playfulness: Ekstremsportveko at voss

Mykletun, R.J. 2009, Scandinavian Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Vol 9 side 146-176.

This study aims to explore the central success factors behind the growth and prosperity of festivals. In line with resource dependency theory and the model of competitive strategies, it was assumed that successful festivals both adapt to, and influence, their contexts to their own advantage while also providing benefits for their environment. A capital framework was employed to examine the relationships between a successful festival and its context, employing a case study design and multiple methods. The case chosen was Extreme Sports Week, an annual extreme sports festival at Voss, Norway, which has become the largest extreme sports event worldwide during its 10 years of existence. It brings together sports and forms of cultural expression concentrating mainly on new trends in advanced sports activities and street culture music, combined with local food traditions. Factors in its success are the six "capitals" of the region: Natural, human, social, cultural, physical, and financial. The festival balances the exploitation of these capitals, although indirectly with respect to natural capital, hence constituting an example of sustainability in festival management. Interestingly, the festival was successful in spite of very limited access to local financial capital. The analysis also revealed that a seventh capital construct - administrative capital - is relevant to the understanding of festival development. However, this form of capital was the only one where investments were perceived as problematic, and the festival repaid far more than the authorities had invested in the event. © 2009 Taylor & Francis..

Why do people attend events: A comparative analysis of visitor motivations at four South Island events

Nicholson, R.E.P., Douglas G. 2001, Journal of Travel Research Vol 39 side 449-460.

A comparative analysis of the motivations of visitors at four South Island, New Zealand events - two food and beverage festivals, an air show, and a country and music festival - highlights the diversity in motives that are found from event to event. Event-specific factors are especially important; there is little evidence yet of generic event motivations. In contrast to earlier studies, the comparative approach used here gives more weight and greater visibility to events per se as a distinctive phenomenon..

Event business leveraging: The Sydney 2000 Olympic Games

O'Brien, D. 2006, Annals of Tourism Research Vol 33 side 240-261.

The business leveraging of mega sport events is an emerging phenomenon not currently addressed in the tourism literature. This study explores Business Club Australia, an initiative launched by the Australian federal government to create leverage from Sydney's hosting of the 2000 Olympic Games by providing opportunities for business networking and international trade facilitation. The study examines the formulation and implementation of the program and discusses how the accumulated knowledge is being institutionalized and applied in other event contexts. Conclusions suggest that event business leveraging represents a subtle, yet significant paradigm shift in the international event sector that warrants ongoing empirical analyses. © 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved..

Scoping the nature and extent of adventure tourism operations in Scotland: How safe are they?

Page, S.J.B., T. A.; Walker, L. 2005, Tourism Management Vol 26 side 381-397.

This paper reports the findings of the first interdisciplinary study of Scotland's adventure tourism sector which is now promoted as one of the new drawcards for domestic and overseas visitors by the National Tourism Organisation - VisitScotland. An analysis of a national survey of adventure activity operators highlights the development of this sector, the characteristics of operators, the way their businesses have been developed and the significance of independently owned and managed small firms in this sector. The survey also examined the characteristics of visitors and markets using adventure tourism products provided by these businesses and the safety issues which these operators faced in managing these types of activities. Based on data collected and application of research techniques from safety management, the injury rates among participants in these activities are reviewed. The growth potential and possible obstacles to this nascent industry sector in Scotland are also examined. © 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved..

Tourist safety in New Zealand and Scotland

Page, S.J.B., T.; Walker, L. 2005, Annals of Tourism Research Vol 32 side 150-166.

This paper develops a comparative research methodology to examine the safety experiences of adventure operators in two destinations: New Zealand and Scotland. The paper argues that a comparative methodology assists in understanding the process of development and change in tourism at different geographical scales. The probability of adventure tourists in each destination experiencing injuries can be deduced from this survey data based on a postal questionnaire used in New Zealand and Scotland. The similarities and differences in the experiences establish the basis for further research in other countries to highlight common injury experiences and mechanisms to reduce such events, and to enhance tourist well-being. © 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved..

Impacts of cultural events in eastern Finland - development of a finnish event evaluation tool

Pasanen, K.T., H.; Mikkonen, J. 2009, Scandinavian Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Vol 9 side 112-129.

In recent years, events and festivals have been increasingly seen as a good way of developing the regions and the tourism in localities in eastern Finland. In order to be able to produce comparable information on the different impacts of events in Finland, and to gain continuity to event research, a pilot version of a Finnish Event Evaluation Tool (FEET) was created in 2007. The article presents the development of FEET which was piloted in 12 events. The tool is based on former impacts research. It concentrates on evaluating socio-cultural impacts of events in parallel with economic impacts. Innovative in FEET is the possibility of collecting comparable information from several stakeholder groups at the same time. © 2009 Taylor & Francis..

Event Experiences in Time and Space: A Study of Visitors to the 2007 World Alpine Ski Championships in Are, Sweden

Pettersson, R.G., D. 2009, Scandinavian Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Vol 9 side 308-326.

The spatial and temporal nature of event experiences was studied through interviews, participant observation and photography at a major sporting event. Results contribute to a better understanding of how visitors interact with the event setting and with each other, and help build theory on experiences, their design and management. Event tourists were observed spatially and temporally while enjoying various elements of the host village and four event arenas, while photographs and notes made by participant observers enabled a more focused evaluation of positive and negative experiences. Results identified the importance of social factors, as visitors wanted to be where the others were, revealed that surprise created positive experiences, and identified the existence of experiential "hot spots" defined in both time and space. It is concluded that positive experiences are more important than negative ones in terms of overall satisfaction. Implications are drawn regarding the nature of event experiences, their design and management, and on related methodological development..

Future research directions in tourism marketing

Ratten, V. , Marketing Intelligence & Planning Vol 28 side 533-544.

Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to formulate and discuss future research avenues for the marketing of tourism services. Design/methodology/approach - The approach taken in the paper is to review the relevant literature and focus on the key themes most important for future research on tourism marketing. Findings - The paper finds that there are a number of research avenues for tourism marketing researchers and marketing practitioners to conduct investigations on but the most important areas are consumer behavior, branding, e-marketing and strategic marketing. Practical implications - The paper is relevant to tourism firms and destination management organizations in the development of marketing activities/capabilities to increase their customer base. In addition, as this paper takes a global perspective it is also helpful to compare different international research directions. Social implications - Changing demographics and the aging of the global population mean different marketing approaches will be needed to market tourism services to older consumers and also consumers from developing countries such as China and India. Originality/value - This paper is a key resource for marketing practitioners wanting to focus on future growth areas and also marketing academics interested in tourism marketing that want to stay at the forefront of their research area of expertise..

Perceptions of Scandinavia and the Rhetoric of Touristic Stereotype in Internet Travel Accounts

Schaad, E. 2008, Scandinavian Studies Vol 80 side 201-238.

Not only do most of these accounts represent a wide strata of travelers, from many nations and social classes (unlike the majority of travelers of earlier centuries),2 but the free and instant access to publication of these accounts via the Internet seems to foster an authenticity in the accounts that retains the style, idiosyncrasies, and biases of the writers while at the same time allowing for the free expression of perceptions without artistic affectation or editorial oversight..

An ex ante framework for the strategic study of social utility of sport events

Schulenkorf, N. 2009, Tourism and Hospitality Research Vol 9 side 120-131.

The area of sport event tourism has been growing over the past decade, which has led to an increasing amount of research on both the economic and social impacts of sport events. Whereas a substantial number of ex post assessment frameworks for event evaluation is available, there is growing demand for process-orientated ex ante frameworks that guide the strategic study of social utility of events. To address this issue, this paper presents a framework suitable for theoretical and practical research in the area of inter-community sport events. It combines the areas of community participation, intergroup relations, social identity and event impacts in a process towards generating social development within and among communities. The ex ante framework is designed to support the strategic investigation of inter-community sport events and their contribution to social capital, social change and capacity building, and ultimately the enhancement of communities quality of life. © 2009 Palgrave Macmillan..

Major sport events and long-term tourism impacts

Solberg, H.A.P., H. 2007, Journal of Sport Management Vol 21 side 213-234.

Hosting major sport events can cause positive shifts in tourism demand on a long-term basis, but the additional revenues might not counterbalance the investment costs that are required of the host destination. Whether positive shifts have actually occurred cannot be measured solely by counting the additional number of tourists. Increases might also come from positive shifts in supply. Megaevents require expensive investments in sport facilities, as well as in nonsport city-related infrastructure. These investments must fit into the city's long-term plan to make the event economically successful. The demand from tourists can subsidize the production of goods and services that are characterized by the advantages of economies of scale. This provides local residents with goods and services that they otherwise could have only consumed outside the region. Many of the benefits from sport events fall into the category of public goods. This represents a rationale for governmental funding if those who benefit are driven by free-rider incentives. The prospect of governmental funding, however, provides motives to exaggerate the socioeconomic value of the events. This complicates the job of deciding which events to support and by how much..

Network-based strategy making for events tourism

Stokes, R. 2006, European Journal of Marketing Vol 40 side 682-695.

Purpose - Seeks to understand the inter-organisational networks that influence events tourism strategy making by public-sector event development agencies in Australia. Design/methodology/approach - A qualitative methodology of convergent interviews, followed by multiple case research across six Australian states and territories, was employed. The inter-organisational relationships and networks of events agencies that impact on their strategy processes for events tourism were the "cases" in focus. Findings - Strategies of a reactive-proactive nature mostly guide events tourism development by Australia's corporatised event development agencies. These agencies maintain "soft", loosely formed networks that consist of relatively stable clusters of intra-governmental and corporate membership with a peripheral, ad hoc membership of other stakeholders. Research limitations/implications - Although the paper studies perceptions of strategy making at a single point in time, it provides valuable insights into the public sector environment, institutional settings and key relationships that impact on events tourism strategies. Practical implications - Event development agencies should consider how the unique requirements of event bidding, event development and expansion might facilitate different types of stakeholder engagement and network formation. Integration of regional, metropolitan and state strategies for events tourism may also widen the network of influence on strategies. Originality/value - The paper informs public sector operatives establishing or managing event development agencies, where tourist generation is a primary marketing goal. It contributes new knowledge in a tourism field that is under-researched. © Emerald Group Publishing Limited..

Relationships and networks for shaping events tourism: An australian study

Stokes, R. 2007, Event Management Vol 10 side 145-158.

This articles shows how convergent interviews were used to identify themes and issues and refine a theoretical framework for multiple case research in the events tourism domain. In particular, the research examined how and why interorganizational relationships of public sector events development agencies impact upon events tourism strategy making in Australia. The body of knowledge about interorganizational relationships and networks and tourism strategies, including events tourism, provided the platform to study four research issues. Findings showed that the public sector environment, a diversity of strategy forms and processes, a range of network and relationship characteristics, and incentives and disincentives for using networks in strategy making were valuable themes to investigate in the case research. Copyright © 2007 Cognizant Comm. Corp..

Tourism strategy making: Insights to the events tourism domain

Stokes, R. 2008, Tourism Management Vol 29 side 252-262.

This research examines the strategy concept [Hax, A., Majluf, N. (1991). The strategy concept and process: A pragmatic approach. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall International] in tourism before exploring how different schools of strategy [Mintzberg, H. (1994b). The rise and fall of strategic planning. New York: Prentice-Hall] are applied in events tourism. It then investigates the stakeholder orientations of strategy makers in this domain. While reference to tourism planning is longstanding, 'tourism strategy' is often submerged in discussions of destination management and marketing. For this study, a two step, qualitative methodology involving convergent interviews [Dick, B. (1990). Convergent interviewing (3rd ed.). Chapel Hill, Queensland: Interchange] and multiple case research [Yin, R.K. (1993). Applications of case study research. (revised ed., Vol. 5) Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications; Yin, R.K. (1994). Case study research: Design and methods. (2nd ed., Vol. 5) Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications] across six Australian states/territories was adopted. Findings show that events tourism strategies of public sector events agencies (within or outside tourism bodies) are mostly reactive or proactive relative to emerging episodes/events. Among three strategy-making frameworks that reflect different stakeholder orientations, a corporate, market-led framework with limited stakeholder engagement was more prevalent than the community, destination-led or synergistic frameworks for strategy making. (C) 2007 Published by Elsevier Ltd..

Sturgeon viewing as nature tourism: To what extent do participants value their viewing experiences and the resources upon which they depend?

Stoll, J.R.D., R. B.; Stokes, M. E. 2009, Journal of Ecotourism Vol 8 side 254-268.

Fish viewing, a relatively new leisure activity, has nature tourism potential. We focused on sturgeon viewing in northeast Wisconsin to understand personal and experience characteristics, economic impacts, and sturgeon population values. The need for economic approaches, as used in this paper, was addressed for creating and supporting fish-viewing opportunities. In the spring of 2002, we intercepted viewers of a sturgeon spawning event, finding that they were similar to other nature tourism participants in terms of personal and experience characteristics. Most resided within 35 miles (56.33 km) of the viewing site and incurred expenditures only for auto fuel and restaurant meals. Viewers demonstrated a strong affinity for protecting the sturgeon population by supporting various management proposals for dealing with overharvest. Willingness-to-pay results help us to understand the use value of sturgeon viewing to participants as well as the underlying value of environmental resources that support viewing. This reduces the likelihood these resources will be converted to uses other than nature tourism. The estimated value to viewers of increasing regional sturgeon population levels by 10% exceeds $2 million over the resource asset lifetime. Overall, there is potential for other areas with watchable fish populations to attract additional economic impacts from both residents and non-residents. © 2009 Tavlor & Francis..

Why Hiking? Rationality and Reflexivity Within Three Categories of Meaning Construction

Svarstad, H. , Journal of Leisure Research Vol 42 side 91-110.

Hiking is a popular leisure activity among people in many industrialised countries. In the case of Norway, a large part of the population goes hiking through forests, mountains and cultural landscapes. What meaning do these hikers attach to their activity? An analysis has been made of letters received from 84 hikers who write about how and why they enjoy their hiking trips. Employing a grounded theory approach, three categories of meaning constructions were identified: a recreation category, a category of the simple outdoors discourse, and a belonging category. In all of these, the hikers see their trips and their further lives in relation to constitutive aspects of modern society. Concepts of rationality and reflexivity were found useful for the interpretation of the meaning contents of each of the categories. [PUBLICATION ABSTRACT].

Golf tourists in South Africa: A demand-side study of a niche market in sports tourism

Tassiopoulos, D.H., N. 2008, Tourism Management Vol 29 side 870-882.

The targeting of tourism market segments is considered to increase repeat visitations to tourism destinations because it allows destination marketers to accurately determine the needs and expectations of targeted tourists, develop more effective marketing strategies, which in turn, assists with ensuring that the targeted tourists segments support and return to the destination. Consequently, the aim of the study was to determine the profile of golf tourists attending an international golf event in South Africa by shedding some light on their key trip-related and general golf tourism behaviour patterns. To date, most research undertaken has focused on product-driven research concerned with golf course facilities and the marketing thereof and little emphasis on demand-side research concerning the golf tourist. Personal interviews were conducted using a structured questionnaire involving 314 golf tourists selected through a systematic random sampling technique. The paper investigates the level of development of golf tourism, analyses the golf tourism market and highlights critical factors for its success, in South Africa. © 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved..

Specificities, Obstacles and Limits to Building Customer Loyalty in Mountain Resort Luxury Hotels

Tixier, M. , Modern Economy Vol 2 side 862-867.

Customer loyalty in mountain resort luxury hotels is truly challenging; it presents specificities, obstacles and limits. We shall base our findings on the example of Courchevel, located in the Savoie region, in France, a resort renowned worldwide for its concentration of luxury and 5-star hotels with their star-winning chefs that testify to this. One rarely mentions customer loyalty there and the concept remains intuitive and empirical; it would require finer analyses, genuine competences and a better adapted communication. We shall in turn study the limits brought to the following aspects: profitability, staff loyalty, new technologies, promotion and communication, the evolution of the expectations of rich customers, of the gilded youth, gastronomy, innovation in services, the successive waves of foreigners... in a post-recession context in which the codes of luxury have evolved. Fifty or so qualitative interviews on the topic of customer loyalty were carried out in twenty or so hotels for this study between 2008 and 2010. [PUBLICATION ABSTRACT].

Event segmentation: A review and research agenda

Tkaczynski, A.R.-T., S. R. , Tourism Management Vol 32 side 426-434.

Event academics and practitioners have long recognized the importance of segmenting event attendees. Despite a relatively long level of enquiry into event segmentation, there is little consistency in the methods, data analysis techniques and segmentation variables that are used. A review of 120 event segmentation studies incorporating an attendee-orientated approach was conducted to identify how event attendees are currently segmented. This study will serve as a reference guide to current event segmentation researchers on the segmentation approach/s and data analysis techniques utilized in previous studies. Recommendations for future research are suggested. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd..

Economic impacts of cultural events on local economies: An input-output analysis of the Kaustinen Folk Music Festival

Tohmo, T. 2005, Tourism Economics Vol 11 side 431-451.

This paper examines the economic impacts of Finland's Kaustinen Folk Music Festival. The impacts are calculated on output, demand and wages, employment and on national and regional taxes. The results indicate, first, that the effects of the festival on output are about €1.7 million. Kaustinen can also be seen as a good investment for the local municipality, as regional tax revenues increased by about €65,600 in the year studied, while the annual subsidy was €40,365. From the perspective of the Keski-Pohjanmaa region as a whole, the Kaustinen Folk Music Festival has a substantial impact on regional incomes through subsidies (about one-fifth of the costs of the festival is offset by subsidies from the Arts Council of Finland (Ilmonen et al, 1995) and the direct and indirect effects of consumption by festival visitors in different economic sectors. The impact on employment in the region is low (27 employees). The mobilization of voluntary labour, not measured in this study, is, however, considerable. Although the input-output method is laborious and statistically complex, it is very suitable for measuring the impact of tourism or cultural events on local economies. The method provides results that can be used in framing regional policy..

A framework for assessing direct economic impacts of tourist events: Distinguishing origins, destinations, and causes of expenditures

Tyrrell, T.J.J., Robert J. 2001, Journal of Travel Research Vol 40 side 94-100.

A study outlines a standardized method for assessing direct economic expenditures and impacts associated with tourist events. The method addresses critical and often overlooked methodological issues that distinguish analysis of impacts from tourism in general and analysis of impacts from tourist events. These issues involve a common failure to account for sources, origins, destinations, and causes of expenditures. The corresponding errors in impact estimation will carry through into subsequent input-output or multiplier models and are of particular significance when one considers impacts of tourism events in regions dominated by other tourist sites or attractions, such as heavily visited coastal communities..

Acting in nature: Service events and agency in wilderness guiding

Valkonen, J. 2009, Tourist Studies Vol 9 side 164-180.

This article examines one of the key occupations in nature tourism: wilderness guiding. It investigates what it means for the work of guides when nature is simultaneously a product to be sold, an operational environment and a partaker in the tour. The concept of 'collective' by Bruno Latour is used as a methodological guideline in investigating guiding as work. By examining a guide's work as a collective, we can see what kinds of demands this kind of 'hybrid-work' requires, how nature is intertwined with customer service practices, and how technology becomes a part of guiding. It is demonstrated that nature and technology play a greater role in shaping tourism practices and performances of employees than previously thought. Nature is an essential part of a guide's performance; it is an 'actor' which participates in constructing the service event of nature tourism. © The Author(s) 2010..

Tour operators' insight into the Russian nature-based experience market

Vespestad, M.K. , European Journal of Tourism Research Vol 3 side 38-53.

The understanding of nature and nature-based tourism products might differ according to tourists' nationality. Existing knowledge is often based on Western tourists view and relation to nature-based tourism. Eastern European tourists, however, might not share the same understanding. The Eastern European tourist market is increasing and destinations compete to attain their share, while it is evident that further knowledge is needed to apprehend what this market expects from nature-based experiences. Tour operators play a crucial role in imparting knowledge of destinations and tourism products to potential consumers. This article attends to the issue through interviews of six tour operators in Russia, to inform on how Russian tourists relate to nature-based experiences. The article also addresses intermediaries' influence upon tourists meaning formation through their communication of nature-based tourism experiences. The content analysis reveals four main content areas that relate to the overall objective of the study: 1) Russians' relation to nature, 2) what Russian tourists emphasize as important for nature-based tourism products, 3) the meaning of nature-based experiences to Russians, 4) promoting nature-based experiences to Russians. The analysis demonstrates there is discrepancy in the conception of what nature-based experiences are; hence an understanding of national differences is encouraged. [PUBLICATION ABSTRACT].

Can association methods reveal the effects of internal branding on tourism destination stakeholders?

Wagner, O.P., Mike 2009, Journal of Place Management and Development Vol 2 side 52-69.

The purpose of this study is to employ the collage technique, an unstructured qualitative association instrument, with respect to place branding initiatives and to uncover internal stakeholders' perceptions of the region or destination. The first part presents a general framework of brand and destination branding in the field of tourism research. The empirical study was carried out in selected Alpine tourism destinations. In the first stage the authors identified the main representatives of stakeholders in two Austrian tourism destinations. In the second, the collage technique was used to obtain stakeholders' perceptions of the tourism destination brand. The findings reveal that different internal stakeholders trace different perceptions of tourism places and illustrate the importance of using the collage as a technique to explore the various identities of a place. It is argued that internal destination stakeholders do not share the same brand perception of the destination brand and they do not share a common identity, which is communicated through the destination management organisations (DMO). However, more research is needed to support these findings as the study is limited by its sample size and focus on the Alpine region of Tyrol, Austria. The results suggest that DMOs should establish better identities within their destination. In particular, they must consider that the collage is a very important technique in communicating the desired brand identity to internal destination stakeholders. This paper seeks to clarify the effectiveness of the collage method as a tool to measure stakeholders' identities of selected tourism destinations. The paper demonstrates the importance of employing different association methods (word or picture) in recognizing stakeholders' knowledge and opinions of destinations as a primary step in analyzing stakeholders' brand identity perception..

Progress in sports tourism research? A meta-review and exploration of futures

Weed, M. 2009, Tourism Management Vol 30 side 615-628.

This meta-review examines the journeys that previous reviewers of the field of sports tourism have take over the sports tourism research terrain. The contested nature of core concepts (terminology, categories and the nature of the phenomena), dominant research areas (event sports tourism, a trend from impacts to leveraging research, often poor quality behavioural research, destination marketing and media, and resident perceptions), and the extent to which research is underpinned by, or rooted in, various subjects and/or disciplines, are all discussed. Various futures envisaged by previous reviewers are identified; in particular: management futures, knowledge futures, futures of the nature of sports tourism, and critical and challenging futures. In conclusion, it is suggested that a clear indicator of the maturity of sports tourism as a field of study would be a 'comfortableness' with the existence of contested perspectives and ideas, and a reflexive appreciation of the strengths and weaknesses of research in the field, particularly in response to external challenges and critiques. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved..

A framework for the development of event public policy: Facilitating regional development

Whitford, M. 2009, Tourism Management Vol 30 side 674-682.

Governments around the globe are utilising events as an integral part of their policies for regional development. Therefore, there is an increasing need to ensure event public policy has the capacity to facilitate opportunities for regional development. The purpose of this paper is to present a framework for the development of public policy for regional events. The framework was conceived to address criticisms which emanated from the analysis of 219 event policies published from 1974 to 2004 by nineteen Australian local governments. These criticisms suggested that the event policies contain redundant rhetoric, are ad hoc and reactive, are developed by an insular policy community and do not contain enough proactive, theoretically informed initiatives. Thus the framework was designed to provide a constructive foundation for local governments to collaboratively develop theoretically informed event policy which has the capacity to proactively develop strong and vibrant regions. (C) 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved..

BECOMING A WORLD-CLASS CITY - HALLMARK EVENTS AND SPORT FRANCHISES IN THE GROWTH STRATEGIES OF WESTERN CANADIAN CITIES

Whitson, D.M., D. 1993, Sociology of Sport Journal Vol 10 side 221-240.

This paper examines the role that the pursuit of hallmark events and of major league sports franchises has played in the growth strategies of western Canadian cities. Literature on civic boosterism illustrates the vigorous competition that developed among regional elites to establish their own cities as perceived growth centers. These competitions are sharpened today by the contemporary mobility of capital, by medial information networks that focus unprecedented attention on ''world-class'' events, and by the growth of event-related tourism. The predictions of the benefits from investment in sports and tourism are typically optimistic, and gloss over significant differences of interest between local elites and others who are less likely to benefit..

Between Conservation and Development: Concretizing the First World Natural Heritage Site in the Alps Through Participatory Processes

Wiesmann, U.L., Karina; Rist, Stephan 2005, Mountain Research and Development Vol 25 side 128-138.

This article presents an empirical interdisciplinary study of an extensive participatory process that was carried out in 2004 in the recently established World Natural Heritage Site "Jungfrau-Aletsch-Bietschhorn" in the Swiss Alps. The study used qualitative and quantitative empirical methods of social science to address the question of success factors in establishing and concretizing a World Heritage Site. Current international scientific and policy debates agree that the most important success factors in defining pathways for nature conservation and protection are: linking development and conservation, involving multiple stakeholders, and applying participatory approaches. The results of the study indicate that linking development and conservation implies the need to extend the reach of negotiations beyond the area of conservation, and to develop both a regional perspective and a focus on sustainable regional development. In the process, regional and local stakeholders are less concerned with defining sustainability goals than elaborating strategies of sustainability, in particular defining the respective roles of the core sectors of society and economy. However, the study results also show that conflicting visions and perceptions of nature and landscape are important underlying currents in such negotiations. They differ significantly between various stakeholder categories and are an important cause of conflicts occurring at various stages of the participatory process. [PUBLICATION ABSTRACT].

Relative Importance of Factors Involved in Choosing a Regional Ski Destination: Influence of Consumption Situation and Recreation Specialization

Won, D.B., Hyejin; Shonk, David J. 2008, Journal of Sport & Tourism Vol 13 side 249-271.

The current study explores the relative importance of selected factors (snow condition, variety of trails, travel time, cost, and amenities) that would influence a user's choice of a regional ski destination. The study looks at the influences of usage/consumption situation (excursion versus tourist travel) and the users' level of recreation specialization in skiing or snowboarding activities (non-skier, casual, and advanced) on the prioritized choice factors. A sample of college students (N=248) at a large university in a region where winter sports are popular were recruited and asked to consider two consumption situations. Respondents' preferences of hypothetical regional ski destinations were assessed using conjoint analyses. The results indicated that the relative importance of all factors, with the exception of 'snow condition', largely depended on both recreation specialization and consumption situation. This study encourages ski operators to consider the analysis of the consumption situation and recreation specialization in their marketing strategies..

Using the ratings grid in tourism/event management

Wooten, M.H.N., William C. 2009, International Journal of Culture, Tourism and Hospitality Research Vol 3 side 347-360.

Ratings grids, emerging from personal construct theory, measure an individual's perception of a situation. This paper and exercises seek to demonstrate how researchers and managers can use the grid to evaluate visitors' perceptions of an attraction or event. A training exercise explains how to use the ratings grid, a type of repertory grid, to evaluate tourist attractions or special events. A ratings grid example analyzes visitors' impressions of an art festival (n=142). The steps taken for grid development, administration strategy, and analysis are discussed and described. The results suggest that visitors' impressions of the art festival are consistent with the festival's communication objectives. These findings suggest that the art festival presents itself to visitors accurately. Ratings grids are designed to examine only the elements a researcher selects. Important elements to respondents may be overlooked using this test, and the researcher will not get an accurate measure of respondents' attitudes. The exercise provides guidance to a useful method for measuring visitor perceptions and allows researchers and managers to understand visitor experiences better..

Planning for the great unknown: the challenge of promoting spectator-driven sports event tourism

Wright, R.K. 2007, International Journal of Tourism Research Vol 9 side 345-359.

Sports event tourism has rapidly evolved into one of the most fashionable facets of the 21st Century. As a result, staging high-profile fixtures are increasingly being seen as a prominent method of strengthening a destination's domestic and international image. Despite the plethora of academic interest in special event management, there remains an apparent lack of knowledge surrounding the role played by public sector tourism planners. This paper examines narratives from representatives of New Zealand-based regional tourism organisations responsible for maximising the local benefits associated with hosting the 2005 British and Irish Lions Tour. While the once in a lifetime nature of the six-week nationwide series was undoubtedly its biggest selling point, it was equally to blame for a multitude of hurdles encountered by regional operators. The findings identify a host of logistical and resource-based challenges, along with the manner in which such threats were overcome. Several recommendations are introduced, highlighting the need for consistent, yet flexible, approaches to regional sport event planning..

Effects of Climate Change on the Seasonality of Weather for Tourism in Alaska

Yu, G.S., Zvi; Walsh, John E. 2009, Arctic Vol 62 side 443-457.

RÉSUMÉ. Cette étude présente une méthode d'identification et de catégorisation des variations météorologiques saisonnières propices à des activités touristiques particulières et ce, à l'aide d'un indice climatique touristique reposant sur des données météorologiques horaires. Nous avons examiné les changements ayant caractérisé les variations météorologiques saisonnières de décennies récentes (1942-2005) à deux destinations de l'Alaska, soit King Salmon et Anchorage. Lles résultats indiquent que le réchauffement climatique a eu des incidences à la fois positives et négatives sur les débouchés touristiques. Dans l'ensemble, les conditions météorologiques propices aux visites touristiques à King Salmon se sont améliorées considérablement en ce sens que la saison est maintenant plus longue, celle-ci commençant dix jours plus tôt que dans les années 1940. Par contre, les conditions météorologiques pour le ski se sont détériorées à Anchorage, principalement parce que le temps se prêtant au ski se termine maintenant environ neuf jours plus tôt que dans les années 1940. Lles changements climatiques à venir (c'est-à-dire le réchauffement climatique continu) auront vraisemblablement pour effet de prolonger la saison des visites touristiques à King Salmon, sans que cela n'améliore pour autant la qualité de la haute saison. Par la même occasion, bien que le réchauffement aura probablement pour effet de raccourcir le nombre total de jours de ski à Anchorage chaque année, il aura vraisemblablement pour effet d'améliorer la qualité de la saison hivernale et d'augmenter la fréquence des années où la qualité du ski sera à son meilleur au milieu de l'hiver. Dans les deux cas, les changements caractérisant les températures enregistrées au printemps auront les plus grandes incidences sur les conditions météorologiques pour le tourisme. Lles indices du tourisme, tel que celui présenté ici, peuvent être adaptés aux exigences d'activités touristiques spécifiques, ce qui donne la possibilité de mieux planifier les activités touristiques et de prendre des décisions à meilleur escient..