Bertella, G. , Scandinavian Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Vol 11 side 97-114.
This paper investigates the challenges and critical factors for the development and management of a form of wildlife tourism that is based on an active and practice-near role of natural sciences knowledge, and that, ultimately, can contribute to sustainability. Based on the study of a specific firm located in northern Norway which has developed a scientific form of wildlife tourism, the main challenges are identified in the limited access to competent and dedicated human capital and the difficulties related to networking, especially in the local area. The case study suggests that the factors that contribute positively to the attractiveness of wildlife tourism are also the ones that tend to affect its development negatively. The peripheral location makes the tourist product exotic, but at the same time it makes the recruitment of qualified co-workers particularly challenging. Similarly, the peculiarities of the individual firm contribute to the uniqueness of the tourist product, but they can isolate the individual firm from the other actors of the local context. Based on the findings, policy implications and directions for further research are identified. Â© 2011 Taylor & Francis..
Buchmann, A. 2006, Tourism, Culture and Communication Vol 6 side 181-189.
This article presents the case study of the Upper Rangitata Valley, Canterbury, where literary and film tourists meet in the high country of the Southern Alps of New Zealand. Both the literary myth of "Erewhon" and the film myth of "Edoras" are being used to promote the region and present important case studies for mythical tourism in New Zealand. Samuel Butler published his tale of the Utopian society Erewhon in 1872 after having lived in New Zealand for 5 years. The book became a best-seller and established a new myth that endures until today. Within weeks of publication a specific tourism to the high country of Canterbury begun that brought tourists to locations described by Butler. This early literary tourism was facilitated by the fact that Butler interwove existing geographical and botanical features with purely mythical ideas of a Utopian society hidden in the mountains. And while the tourists sought the farmed high country scenery described in the book, they also visited the property and the homestead of the author. A hundred and thirty years later this early literary tourism faces a challenge by an unlikely rival. The set of "Edoras" of the Lord of the Kings movies used another location in the Upper Rangitata Valley. And even though the set was finally disassembled, the location is now attracting film tourists. What are the characteristics of these special-interest tourism forms? Both support the claim that tourists are seekers of myths and challenge the notion that tourists seek authenticity in their experience. It is interesting to note that both myths incorporated already existing images and used existing physical features to heighten the reality aspects of their telling. And both forms of tourism bring characteristic challenges for the tourism industry and its stakeholders. Copyright © 2006 Cognizant Comm. Corp..
Cairncross, G. , International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management Vol 23 side 26-43.
Purpose - This paper aims to understand the perceptions and practices of small accommodation providers regarding the growing area of user-generated content (UGC) web sites. Design/methodology/approach - A total of eight small hospitality enterprise cases of four classifications were selected using a purposive stratified sampling procedure. On-site semi-structured interviews are the main source of information. Findings - Empirical findings indicate that there is a divergence among small accommodation providers with regard to UGC web sites. It finds that small accommodation provider views are varied as to the influence of UGC web sites on traveller decisions. It also shows that some providers are using innovative, proactive practices to respond to UGC web sites, whilst others have limited awareness of the internet and are currently not responding. Research limitations/implications - The generalisation of this research is limited by its sample size. The research implications are that more research using a more representative sample must be completed on the topic to verify findings. Practical implications - With great diversity in the awareness and responses of small accommodation providers to changes on the internet for firms not to suffer a competitive disadvantage, they must, at least, stay abreast of developments on the internet, in particular fast-growing UGC web sites. Originality/value - Minimal research has been completed on the perceptions and practices of accommodation providers regarding UGC web sites, despite the importance the web sites are thought to have on traveller decisions. This paper should be of interest to tourism hospitality practitioners as well as academic researchers to better understand how practitioners are responding to the emerging issue of UGC web sites.[PUBLICATION ABSTRACT].
Carl, D.K., S.; Smith, K. 2007, Tourism Geographies Vol 9 side 49-63.
Over a decade ago it was noted that there was a lack of academic research on film-induced tourism. A number of studies since have explored this phenomenon and the benefits, both during production and after cinematic release, for host destinations. As an example, The Lord of the Rings (LOTR) film trilogy has exposed New Zealand to a global audience of potential travellers. By packaging and promoting it as the 'Home of Middle-Earth', New Zealand - and destinations within it - have become the iconic landscapes of the trilogy. However, as with many other film tourism destinations, the screen locations are a mix of real places, film sets and digital enhancements; the tourists will not necessary be able to experience the landscapes of the films. This paper presents empirical research undertaken with three tourism operators offering LOTR-themed products: surveys were conducted with tour participants to explore their motivations, expectations and experiences of the cultural landscapes of LOTR films. The findings suggest that the more perfect the representation of hyper-reality in the tours, the higher the satisfaction and the more enhanced the tourist experience. In addition, some film tourists desire to step into the former backdrop of the film to be part of the film when re-enacting film scenes. By better understanding how tourists experience these cultural landscapes, tourism operators and destination marketers can provide the experience film tourists are seeking and thus expand the beneficial effects of film tourism on destinations..
Cassel, S.H.P., A. , Scandinavian Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Vol 11 side 54-75.
This study focuses on the local resource that a mine represents and analyses the role of stakeholders and institutions during the development of heritage tourism. The paper aims to examine the role of stakeholders and their interpretation of heritage in the management process in the case of the Great Copper Mountain World Heritage Site in Falun, Sweden. The paper focuses on local strategies for developing heritage tourism in which concepts of institutions and path dependency in terms of inherited social and economic structures can shed light on more general local development processes. The empirical material consists of interviews, official documents and marketing material. While the goal of many of the interviewed stakeholders is to promote tourism development, a common view is often lacking in terms of what the tourist product is or how the role of the World Heritage Site can be interpreted with regard to tourism activities. There are also sceptical voices regarding the development of activities and attractions devoted to entertainment without educational purposes. The marketing texts focus on the landscape and the 17th century system of production, which further supports the view that the preservation of the remnants from this period will be prioritised in contemporary management policies. The present paper interprets this concept as an indication of the strength of the institutions and ideas that promote the importance of education and historical facts related to mining communicated by former mining-related stakeholders as well as by heritage organisations, including UNESCO. Â© 2011 Taylor & Francis..
Charters, S.F., J.; Fish, N. 2009, Journal of Travel Research Vol 48 side 122-134.
There is a growing body of research on the experience of visitors to winery tasting rooms, and their expectations and satisfaction. This overview uses qualitative research in Australia and New Zealand to examine a number of themes relating to the visitor's experience in the tasting room, including the impact of the size of the winery, the nature of the service encounter, and the effect of paying for wine. The significance of these themes is placed in the context of the experience economy and the provision of hospitality generally. The practical relevance of the article is to relate consumers' expectations and perceptions of tasting rooms to the goals of wineries generally, and also the issue of wine quality as a significant factor in the experience, with some specific recommendations for further research and for the implementation of practical outcomes for a successful tasting room. © 2009 SAGE Publications..
Coakley, L. 2007, Geography Vol 92 side 13-24.
This article reports on an ongoing project in the harbour town of Cobb, Co Cork, Ireland. In recent years, this town has been reimagined as a site for the consumption of selected heritage stories and much emphasis has been placed on its marketing as a heritage tourist end-destination. A 'heritage signature' based on the localisation of Ireland's wider emigrant experience runs central to the organisation of Cobb as a tourist space. The construction of this heritage tourism identity is considered here, as is the way in which 'tourist product' is marketed in the town. It is found that tourist product is built on a very specific imagining of place and that the town's history as it relates to its location on a transatlantic axis is elevated above all other histories. [PUBLICATION ABSTRACT].
Connell, J. 1992, International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management Vol 4 side 26-26.
In hotel marketing, branding can facilitate differentiation and positioning in a competitive marketplace. One problem of hotel branding lies in being able to offer a customer an experience that can be recognized time and time again across a number of hotels. This assumes that the hotel chain has identified a hotel experience that meets the needs of target market segments. The main brand attributes of the UK's Posthouse and Crest brands are service range, price, and location. Within the UK, industry branding often involves the regrouping of hotels into more homogenous sets. However, consistency in location, modernity, price, and service range cannot mask fundamental differences in physical infrastructure. Forte PLC achieved an optimum level of market coverage in order to serve national markets and share the cost of brand support. The success or failure of the rebranding exercise will have to be measured in terms of occupancy, market share, consumer attitudes, and financial results over the short, medium, and long terms..
Connolly, D.J.O., Michael D. 2001, Tourism and Hospitality Research Vol 3 side 73-93.
To help the hospitality industry develop foresight in a disciplined manner, identify the antecedents of change and prepare for the future, the International Hotel and Restaurant Association called together over 160 people worldwide from various organizations, industries and geographic regions to participate in a series of Visioning Workshops and Technology Think-Tank sessions. Collectively, these sessions define the forces shaping change and identify what is in store for the industry as the future draws near. The findings to date suggest that information technology is the single greatest force affecting change in the hospitality industry.
Copp, C.B.I., Russell L. 2001, Journal of Small Business Management Vol 39 side 345-353.
This article combines the fields of small business behavior, transition economies, and tourism development. Specifically, the reorganization of the tourism industry within a transition economy and the usage of networks by small businesses are analyzed in a case study of the Slovak Republic. Geographic differences between these small business and their use of networks is an underlying theme..
Curtin, S. , Journal of Ecotourism Vol 9 side 149-168.
A meaningful understanding of the constituents of a memorable wildlife encounter is required to underpin wildlife tour operators' and destinations' marketing, product development and management strategies based on the premise that consumers' future expectations and behaviours are often based on memories of prior experiences. To this end, this paper presents the results of a qualitative study based on the stories and experiences of 'serious' wildlife tourists. When asked to describe their most memorable wildlife encounters, participants gave a wide range of responses which depended upon a number of key factors such as the charisma of the species, spontaneity, seeing something for the first time, the degree of close proximity, embodied experiences and species congregated in large numbers. On tour, 'wildlife moments' can vary in duration from lasting only a matter of seconds to long undisturbed views of wildlife. They can also come in close succession making the importance of what is being seen lost in the moment; it is only later that the true meaning becomes 'hard-wired'. Surprisingly, unforgettable wildlife experiences are not necessarily made up of the exotic. Highlights can also include endemic birds and animals which visit participants' wildlife-friendly gardens. Â© 2010 Taylor & Francis..
Dube, L.E., Cathy A.; Renaghan, Leo M.; Siguaw, Judy A. 2000, Cornell Hospitality Quarterly Vol 41 side 30-39.
A study of the US lodging industry best practices found that managers use innovation to create customer value. A resounding majority of best practices arose at the corporate level, with a minority at the property level. Of those coming from properties, most came from upscale, full-service hotels, rather than limited-service or budget properties. However, there is no evidence that innovation is inherently a function of corporate offices or upscale hotels. Relatively few best practices were in the areas of design or information technology, while many appeared in human resources, marketing and operations. Virtually all innovations began with one person's idea and survived only because of that person's initiative. Lodging companies need to develop ways to measure the outcomes of their innovative practices. In many cases a given practice was thought to have improved employee morale, customer satisfaction, or profitability, but specific, outcome-related measurements were frequently unavailable..
Eskilsson, L.H.g., E. 2009, Scandinavian Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Vol 9 side 65-80.
Cultural heritage has developed into an important tool in marketing and destination development projects. Cultural heritage, as well as multiplicity, is also a political concept that has become important in the academic and public debate. The aim of our study is to analyse cultural heritage as a tourism and marketing product in relation to multiplicity. The discussion focuses around how the story of cultural heritage is constructed, whom it is for and what is incorporated and what is not. These questions are discussed using a marketing project in southern Sweden aimed at developing attractive activities related to the story of the Snapphanes (a resistance group active in the Swedish-Danish war in the 17th century) as a case study. The conclusion highlights how local identity-making is not always easily combined with place marketing processes. The article claims that it is important to leave space for the "bottom-up" to keep a more diversified storytelling..
Forgacs, G. 2003, International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management Vol 15 side 340-342.
Branding is a topic of great interest in the global hotel industry. In the USA, over 70% of the hotels are branded; in Canada, brand penetration is around 40 percent, in Europe it is under 25% and growing. Branded hotels tend to outperform comparable independent properties. A fundamental understanding of the dynamic relationship between brand asset value and the management of marketing and operations can be the key to success of branded hotels. A model has been developed to demonstrate the relationship of these key factors. In order to achieve brand integrity and consistency, a balanced approach is suggested. The integrity of any brand will ride on doing well what they say and saying it right what they do every day at every point of guest contact. The article offers an insight both to owners and operators of branded hotels and for those who consider joining a brand in the future..
Frehse, J. 2006, Journal of Quality Assurance in Hospitality and Tourism Vol 6 side 129-146.
The hotel industry has a hard time resisting the continued globalization pressure. In order to survive the fierce international competition, even hotel chains need to offer their potential customers an added value that they do not receive from their competitors. The product development offers promising integrated solution approaches. Numerous unique characteristics can be established through entrepreneurial implementation of innovative product concepts in hotel operations. Indicating that this can occur in the fullest sense, this theoretical article concludes with an actual product development. Its objective is to demonstrate that the integration of the resource-based view in the product development processes in hospitality and tourism is necessary to generate competitive differentiation opportunities. Environment-based and resource-based views are no longer interpreted as monistic and mutually exclusive, but as complementary management approaches. A practical example underlines the fact that such considerations are already being implemented in hotel chains although they still tend to be neglected in tourism-scientific research. Copyright Â© 2005 by The Haworth Press, Inc. All rights reserved..
Gabbie, O.O.N., Martin A. 1996, Managing Service Quality Vol 6 side 25-32.
In the first part of a 2-part investigation, the relationship between quality service and customer expectations and the relationship between quality service and customer expectations in the Northern Ireland hotel industry are explored. It is noted that, in line with customers' demands for higher and higher service quality, the province's tourism sector has recognized the need to raise its profile from the backseat position it has taken for some years. The Northern Ireland Tourism and Hospitality Training Council's introduction, in conjunction with the northern Ireland Quality Center, of the TQM program, is detailed. The findings of a study are reported on using the SERVQUAL instrument, carried out on 2 hotels within the province, one of which has successfully implemented the new program..
Gartner, W.C. 2004, The International Journal of Tourism Research Vol 6 side 151-164.
Rural tourism has been a subject of study since the early days of tourism scholarship. Most of tourism's deleterious impacts were identified from studies conducted in rural settings. It is only recently, however, that rural tourism has become a special focus of study, dissimilar enough from urban tourism, to be a study subject unto itself. This paper reviews some of the history of rural tourism development in North America with most of the attention paid to the USA's experience, with some examples from Canada. The reason for this is the huge economic difference between the two countries with respect to tourism flows and impacts. In reviewing the history of rural development in the USA, the argument is made that most developments are unplanned and result from market and economic forces that have greatly transformed the American rural landscape. A review of these transformational forces is provided. It is also shown that rural destinations are used, primarily, by local tourists and do not, with few exceptions, cater to an international clientele. After the historical perspective is presented an argument is made that current rural tourism development practices rely on an old paradigm, which is to use local attributes as the primary basis for development and marketing strategies. This has led, in recent years, to a great deal of development attention being paid to the cultural/heritage attributes of a place. Using research conducted in the state of Minnesota on highway travellers and tourists to rural destinations, a new way to look at actual and potential visitors is offered. Instead of an attribute-specific development approach, a benefits-based model is suggested as a different way to position rural tourism destinations. [PUBLICATION ABSTRACT].
Haahti, A. 2003, Journal of Business and Management Vol 9 side 303-321.
The aim of this paper is to outline a theory of relationship cultivation as a marketing management model for small and medium tourism enterprises. Secondarily, it attempts to contextualize the proposed model for more efficient grounding of experience design to the entrepreneurial needs and reality of tourism enterprising in difficult arctic conditions through a case study. As a marketing management model, the theory of relationship cultivation puts forward a hierarchical model that consists of the following sub-models: 1) bonding to create customer capital and trust capital (i.e., a model of relational ethics); 2) enabling and direction: a model of co-creation of values, 3) dramaturgy for experience design: a process of scripting, role playing, and staging the experience: a model of tourism drama. Some of the central conceptual issues are illustrated with a case study in village tourism where a contextually grounded tourism drama model was developed and applied to create authentic coulisses. The ideas for the manuscript and for the staged experiences were sought in the myths, stories, anecdotes and social and cultural history of the community and events having taken place there. [PUBLICATION ABSTRACT].
Hankinson, G. , Place Branding and Public Diplomacy Vol 6 side 300-315.
After years of separate development, there has recently been a convergence between the academic domains of urban policy, tourism and mainstream branding resulting in the emergence of a new domain of place branding. This convergence has, in part, been assisted by developments in the mainstream branding domain associated with corporate and services brands. At the same time, at least one book and several articles have been published, setting out agendas for future research. However, these might be regarded as deficient in two ways. First, they take no account of the conceptual development of mainstream branding theory, and second they take no account of the views of practitioners. In both these cases, further opportunities for research might be identified. This article addresses these deficiencies by supplementing the recently published research agendas with a thematic review of the mainstream branding and place branding literatures, and field interviews with 25 senior managers in place branding organisations. The identified themes are compared with recently published place branding research agendas and a cross-disciplinary agenda for future research is discussed. [PUBLICATION ABSTRACT].
Haukeland, J.V.G., B.; Veisten, K. , Scandinavian Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Vol 10 side 248-271.
This paper presents an exploratory analysis of foreign tourists' quests for facilities in Norwegian national parks, related to their expressed nature orientation. The analysis was based on a survey among German, Dutch and Danish tourists during the summer season of 2008. Exploratory factor analysis was applied to identify underlying dimensions from indicator questions related to nature orientations and to quest for facilities inside and outside the national parks. The indicator questions were primarily inspired by Nils Uddenberg's classification of modern Swedes' nature orientations. We found a significant, although fairly weak, relationship between nature orientation and quest for facilities, applying multivariate regression modelling. The strongest relationship was found for the quest for larger management measures - "Infrastructure & services" - supported by nature orientations labelled Challenge or Sightseeing, while these were disapproved of by the traditional outdoor Recreation orientation. The wish for "Tracks and signposts" was also upheld by nature orientations Challenge and Sightseeing. A segment of the tourists, based on cluster analysis, indicated that one third requested development of "Infrastructure & services", but this segment demanded all kinds of facility developments. The results indicate national park development potentials, clarifying which developments are contended, and diversifying the demand from three major nationalities visiting Norway. Â© 2010 Taylor & Francis..
HelgadÃ³ttir, G. 2006, Current Issues in Tourism Vol 9 side 535-548.
The nature of attractions in tourism is complex. Attractions can be places, events or experiences. In this paper the attraction of experience in horse-based tourism as promoted by horse-based tourism businesses, and in documentation from riders, is discussed. The argument is made that attractions must be considered as philosophical topics. Horsemanship is a cultural phenomenon, hence horse-based tourism is essentially cultural tourism. Classical perspectives of defining culture are used to interpret the findings, which suggest that the ideal of horse-based tourism is rather a romantic notion of horsemanship that incidentally fits very well with the elements of nostalgia and romance inherent in tourism as experience. Â© 2006 G. HelgadÃ³ttir..
Henderson, S. 2009, Marketing Intelligence and Planning Vol 27 side 549-557.
Purpose - This paper aims to provide a look at an unusual emerging market though its main aim is to provide a rich and colourful exercise for teaching marketing. Rich in that the teacher has a variety of options, colourful in that the student will be engaged by the language and content. Design/methodology/approach - The case study focuses on an unusual and relatively new leisure product that combines two growing areas: cruise tourism and music festivals. The case is written in a narrative style to allow student interpretation of the material and application to a range of marketing concepts. The information within the case is derived from a number of published sources including market data, internet chatrooms, blogs and an interview with a customer. Findings - The case builds to provide a picture of an innovative niche product in an emerging growth market. In the introduction, it demonstrates that popular music is no longer limited to low-income youth. The sections that follow the introduction set the scene for a (variable) market definition. Next, the experiences revealed in the Sixthman Blog show their lack of understanding of this "new product". Whilst, the personal experience that follows highlights typical customer demographics and needs. The research from Mintel pulls much of this together before leaving some thoughts for the future in the final section. Originality/value - The case can be used for teaching in a number of ways, for example, relating to market development, segmentation, targeting and marketing communications. Â© Emerald Group Publishing Limited..
Henriksen, P.F.H., H. 2009, European Planning Studies Vol 17 side 1445-1462.
Public policies promoting the development of tourist destinations, not least in North-western Europe, have traditionally focused on attracting more tourists through local promotional activities, but in many localities these have now been supplemented by strategies that attempt to change the tourist product on offer, often operating at the regional level, and thus, tourism policies have changed with regard to scale, aims and instruments. Research on the tourism policy has mainly centred on the difficulties inherent in destination development with regard to orchestrating changes in the wide raft of services, typically provided by small local firms, that make up the tourist experience, while less attention has been given to an important prerequisite for these new, product-development strategies, namely the process of policy change from local promotion towards regional tourism policies, despite the potential difficulties involved in shifting geographical scales of governance and adopting a more risky focus on new types of visitors. The aim of this article is to investigate the factors that drive or hamper the tourism policy change from localized marketing towards regional innovation strategies, focusing especially on the role of stakeholder networks and knowledge processes in overcoming spatial fragmentation and product conservatism. Adopting an institutionalist perspective, an in-depth case study of a destination management organization, "Top of Denmark", situated at the tip of one of northern Europe's prime locations for seaside tourism, is undertaken in order to identify factors that drive or hamper the policy change from localized marketing towards regional, product-development initiatives. This article concludes that the issue of localism has been effectively addressed by establishing and operating as a network-based body where individual stakeholders are mutually dependant on the specific capacities of their partners, a consensual style of decision-making is prevailing, and a division of labour has been established that engages local actors in destination-wide tasks while at the same time enabling them to maintain close links with small tourism businesses in their area. Both in the emergence and in the redevelopment of the organization, the internal wish for change has clearly been stimulated by extra-destinational incentives, but the perceived success of the early, joint-marketing activities has clearly made the current focus on product-development activities easier.Â© 2009 Taylor & Francis..
Hjalager, A.-M. 2001, Managing Service Quality Vol 11 side 287-296.
This paper identifies and discusses modes of collective consumer pressure that might affect tourism quality in a comprehensive way. Organised tourists are empowered tourists, and as such can provide a needed incentive to improve standards. Discusses: intermediating tour operators; consumer organisations; controlled certification systems; public regulation; and anarchic Internet-based consumer networks. Suggests that only transnational organisations are able to take full advantage of the potential benefits to the industry of consumer empowerment. Finally, puts forward possible policy actions in the European Union, as well as issues for further research..
Holloway, L.C., R.; Venn, L.; Kneafsey, M.; Dowler, E.; Tuomainen, H. 2006, Geographical Journal Vol 172 side 219-229.
This paper focuses on a case study of an 'alternative' food network based in the Abruzzo National Park, Italy, to explore how ideas of sustainable farmland management can be expressed through broader understandings of developing networks of care concerned with local economies and societies, high-quality specialist food products, particular 'traditional' farming practices and livestock breeds, as well as the ecology of a farmed landscape. The scheme allows customers, internationally as well as in Italy, to 'adopt' a milking sheep on a large mountain farm. In return, adopters are sent food products from the farm. The adoption scheme is inter-twined with an agri-tourism project which provides accommodation, runs a restaurant and engages in educational activities. The scheme is the result of the individual initiative of its founder, and is associated with a strongly expressed ethical position concerning the value of sustaining valued local rural landscapes and lifestyles, and the importance of 'reconnecting' urban dwellers with rural areas, farming and 'quality' food production. Yet the localness of the scheme is sustained through wider national and international networks: volunteer and paid workers are drawn from several European countries, funding has been acquired from the EU LEADER programme, and internet and transport technologies are essential in connecting with and supplying an international customer base. The broader economy of care instanced in this case study draws attention to a need to develop strategies for sustainable farmland management constructed around wider programmes of social, economic and cultural, as well as environmental, concern. Â© 2006 The Author(s). Journal compilation Â© The Royal Geographical Society..
Hu, M.-L. , Journal of Hospitality, Leisure, Sports and Tourism Education Vol 9 side 65-72.
The purpose of this project was to explore the content of innovative culinary development competency. In order to analyse the competencies through which chefs create an innovative work (a specific cuisine, meal service or dish experience), the researchers used a qualitative research method including deep interviews of 20 senior executive chefs, R&D managers of food factories, professors and research chefs. Results revealed 69 items in seven dimensions of the innovative culinary competency model - culture, aesthetics, technology, product, service, management, and creativity. [PUBLICATION ABSTRACT].
Hudson, S.R., J. R. B. 2006, Journal of Travel Research Vol 44 side 387-396.
Film tourism is a growing phenomenon worldwide, fueled by both the growth of the entertainment industry and the increase in international travel. This article proposes a model for exploiting film tourism marketing opportunities. It identifies the optimum marketing factors that encourage film tourists to visit destinations that appear (or are depicted) in the movies. Factor analysis reveals four types of marketing activities in which destinations can engage to promote film tourism: proactive efforts to encourage producers and studios to film at the location, efforts to generate media publicity around the film and its location, marketing activities that promote the film location after production, and peripheral marketing activities that leverage film tourism potential. Results of a stepwise multiple regression analysis indicate a high correlation between film tourism success and one of the four factors: the proactive efforts of destinations that encourage producers and studios to film at their location. Â© 2006 Sage Publications..
Huijbens, E.H. 2011, Scandinavian Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Vol 11 side 20-41.
This paper deals with the development of Iceland as a wellness destination with specific focus on a development project in the north-east (NE) of the country. Iceland is known as a destination for nature-based tourism with the vast majority of people visiting the country for the wilderness or natural elements. Complementing the nature-based tourism on offer, especially in the uninhabited highland interior, has been the occasional dip into a natural geo-thermal pool, often to be found in unique settings and of a great variety when it comes to water qualities. Since the 1970s, Icelanders have been very actively using these geo-thermal waters for the build up of heating utilities in the country, in swimming pools and for producing electricity. The most famed tourism consequence of these developments is undoubtedly the Blue Lagoon. In the NE of Iceland a similar service facility has been built but under wholly different terms. This paper demonstrates a lack of a vision in the development of Iceland as a wellness destination on the entrepreneurial level. Moreover, in terms of the case outlined, these entrepreneurs find little commonalities with a specific Nordic wellbeing concept and have a much more internationally-oriented comparative outlook. © 2011 Taylor & Francis..
HÃ¶gstrÃ¶m, C.R., Marina; Gustafsson, Anders , Marketing Intelligence & Planning Vol 28 side 385-402.
Purpose - The aim of this paper is to understand the differences across various quality dimensions and how these contribute to experienced quality and satisfaction among users. Design/methodology/approach - The study applies the Kano model of attractive quality to a destination (in this case a snowpark). The fact that the Kano model was used means that a quantitative approach was applied. In total 270 respondents responded to the survey instrument, which in turn was based on qualitative interviews. Findings - The research shows the great importance of a destination that offers conditions that support specific goals or desired activities in order to achieve customer satisfaction. It also finds that the physical service environment has a major influence on customer satisfaction. Finally, the physical conditions seem to affect the destination's image to a greater degree than the interactions. Practical implications - In order to create the most attractive offering, managers should focus primarily on the physical service environment. Originality/value - The Kano model is widely discussed and well known. There are, however, very few applications for which the Kano model has been used, especially with regard to hedonistic services, the motivation for this study. The theoretical contribution of this paper is an extension of Brady and Cronin's model of what creates service quality. In this model, the location or place is added as an important construct for explaining the experience..
Ignatov, E.S., S. L. J. 2006, Current Issues in Tourism Vol 9 side 235-255.
Researchers in culinary tourism often implicitly treat visitors interested in culinary products as a relatively homogeneous market. Using data obtained from the Canadian Travel Activities and Motivations Study, three a priori segments are defined: visitors who participate only in food-related activities, those who participate only in wine- related activities, and those who participate in both. The food segment was the largest of the three, with nearly 25% of respondents fitting this category; wine was the smallest segment with less than 4%. Wine and food accounted for about 7%. The food segment had a higher proportion of females than the other segments, with lower average educational attainment and lower incomes. Wine-oriented visitors were more balanced between male and female, had average ages and educational attainment, and higher incomes. Those visitors involved in both sets of activities were predominantly male, older, had the highest educational levels, and much higher incomes. Trip motivations and activities also differed significantly among the three segments with the food and wine segment showing the greatest diversity of motivations and activities. In other words, there are distinct types of culinary tourists who seek distinct types of culinary experiences. Different methods of communications, and different packaging and product development strategies need to be employed to reach each of the segments identified here. Â© 2006 E. Ignatov & S. Smith..
Ingram, H. 1997, International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management Vol 9 side 295-303.
This article reviews journal articles and worldwide hospitality and tourism trends research entries relating to three themes: business performance and performance measurement, process and quality improvement and teamworking. Draws on generic and industry-specific material to identify best practice approaches adopted in other industries that might be applied in the context of hospitality and tourism settings..
Khan, M.K., Mahmood A. 2009, International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management Vol 21 side 509-522.
Purpose - This paper seeks to deal with an exploratory analysis of the impact of technological innovations on the extent of outreach of hospitality services to customers. Design/methodology/approach - After a review of several hospitality services, two factors were selected to assess their outreach to customers: location of service provider; and direct or indirect service delivery mode. Findings - Placing these factors on different axes, cells were created to distinguish innovative features of these services. It became apparent that, as the technological innovations develop, new categories of services are emerging. These categories were placed into six different cells identifying services based on their innovative characteristics. When the proximity of the service provider to the customer is less, the range of services involves: service and style improvements; service-line extensions; and major service innovations. With the increase in distance between service provider and customer, service processes become prominent and involve: process improvements; process-line extensions; and major process innovations. With the advancement of technology, services move from direct to indirect delivery mode in both service and service process innovations. In order to illustrate the assumptions, examples of services and technology used are provided. Research limitations/implications - Recommendations are provided for utilizing technology for enhancing services based on the location of their target markets. This is an exploratory analysis of the current situation, which will rapidly change with technological developments. Practical implications - Findings led to the recommendations for service innovations, location of desired markets, and providing services to customers at near and far locations. Service providers and marketers can benefit by utilizing innovative technology suitable for reaching their selected target customers. Originality/value - The work is a first step in studying services, technology use, and outreach to customers. Identifying service categories will help service marketers in locating their target market and providing services to customers using developing technology. [PUBLICATION ABSTRACT].
Kljajic-Dervic, M. 2011, Technics Technologies Education Management Vol 6 side 1165-1174.
The case study is the role of authenticity, as a possible element in the selection of the tourism product in the field of economics and education, and part sociology. As the theoretical sources and previous studies with the observed field results, that the different significance is attributed to the different groups of tourists as the authenticity of the tourist product, so we used a relationship to authenticity as a specific psychographic segmentation criterion of the tourism market. Using conjoint analysis in the study has done in the specific field of this area and in general the first time through the mentioned analysis. We remain with the inclusion of existing information about the opportunities and trends in the work of the tourism market, which is relevant to the processing of area, wanted to prove that authenticity of tourism offer has a significant influence on long-term economic success and provides a sustainable development of tourism destinations. For this we linked to some theoretical concepts, such as the price of tourism products, the level of education and defensible competitive advantage. We believe that the results of research will enable better understanding of the problem, and that will be useful guidance for designing and selling tourism products, and the positioning of tourist destinations..
Konu, H.T., A.; Komppula, R. , Journal of Vacation Marketing Vol 16 side 125-139.
Eastern Finland is an area that is rich in lakes, aquatic environments and pure nature. Unfortunately, this rich potential is scarcely utilized in well-being and wellness tourism product development. To answer this, the purpose of this article is to discuss if the experiential environment of the lakes and lake landscape can act as a potential resource for the core content of a 'Lake Wellness' experience product. This article introduces the well-being and wellness concepts in general, and further defines the Lake Wellness concept in a Finnish context. The main aim of the article is to present the product content and design of a new Lake Wellness experience. Â© The Author(s) 2010..
Kutzner, D.W., P. A.; Stark, A. 2009, Journal of Ecotourism Vol 8 side 99-114.
Recent research on the Aboriginal tourism market has revolved predominantly around establishing a profile of the traveller interested in Aboriginal tourism (hereafter referred to as the Aboriginal tourism traveller). Currently, the Aboriginal tourism traveller is generally described as a mature individual who is interested in having authentic experiences of different cultures. However, there is a need for a better understanding of what specific products this particular traveller is interested in, and in what style, format or nature of delivery. The study presented in this article attempts to provide insight into this topic. In a collaborative research effort between Tl'azt'en Nation and the University of Northern British Columbia, a questionnaire containing four potential Aboriginal tourism product descriptions and 31 individual features of Aboriginal tourism products was administered to 337 visitors of northern British Columbia during the summer of 2007. Despite a primary interest in nature experiences by the majority of visitors, one-third of our sample demonstrated considerable interest in experiences of Aboriginal culture. Results suggest the need for marketing diverse Aboriginal tourism attractions to attract repeat visitors and for offering an introductory experience to Aboriginal culture for first-time visitors. © 2009 Taylor & Francis..
Leask, A. , Tourism Management Vol 31 side 155-166.
Visitor attractions (VAs) play a crucial role in the success of a tourism destination, where they act as key motivators for visits and as resources for local communities. The range of stakeholders involved means their effective management is of key importance in the destination and in the overall success of a country's tourism product, yet they are an under-researched sector of the tourism system. This Progress in Tourism Management paper reviews and reflects on research publications in relation to this sector. ItÂ sets the wider research context and identifies the key management issues experienced at VAs. The paper identifies the limitations of current work in this field and establishes how factors such as ownership and visitor volume help to explain the complexities encountered in managing VAs. The paper then covers a set of themes to structure discussion of previous research activity and offers a model of factors involved in the effective management of VAs. The paper concludes with the development of a research agenda for VA researchers. Â© 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved..
Leask, A.R., Ivana , International Journal of Culture, Tourism and Hospitality Research Vol 4 side 118-129.
Purpose - This paper aims to determine the role of heritage tourism in Shetland Island destination development and how this links to tourism public policy in island communities. Design/methodology/approach - The study is conducted in the Shetland Islands, located off the north coast of Scotland, UK. Descriptive and inductive approaches are utilized to enable the researchers to recognize multiple social structures and draw conclusions from observations and specific information. Primary research focuses on semi-structured interviews with key informants. Data is analyzed via a mix of content analysis and interpretation of the responses through a connected narrative approach. Findings - Seasonality is a key feature of Shetland Island tourism, alongside other key limitations to growth including transport links and climatic conditions. Potential conflicts exist between tourism stakeholders and their perceptions of the effectiveness of the heritage tourism public policy in Shetland, though overall stakeholder collaboration succeeds in enhancing heritage conservation and development. Practical implications - While the findings relate specifically to the Shetland Islands, the general conclusions offer an example of best practice concerning tourism public policy for heritage-focused tourism in island communities, which could be used in comparable destinations. Originality/value - The choice of the Shetland Islands as an example of a cold water island destination offers the opportunity to extend existing research and examine how the community of Shetland embraces the opportunities afforded by tourism as an alternative to traditional industries. [PUBLICATION ABSTRACT].
Lebe, S.S. 2006, Kybernetes Vol 35 side 1136-1146.
Purpose - To work out an innovative organisation model for tourism destinations in rural areas. Design/methodology/approach - By outlining the problematic of tourism development in rural areas and implementing the concept of network management and the systems theory, we developed an innovative approach to destination management for non-urban areas. Findings - Network management means a new lesson for destination management. Our model has been conceived to systematically deal with different subsystems and both systemic and non-systemic entities in a rural destination. Research limitations/implications - The focus is limited to destination management in rural areas only. Although several methods suit different types of destinations, some seem to be less adequate for rural areas. The model was intended to search an optimal organisational model only. Originality/value - The model introduces an original approach to the destination management and allows its application in a wide range of real situations. It can help achieving a better organisation and thus an improved competitiveness of a rural destination. [PUBLICATION ABSTRACT].
Lee, B.C.W., Bruce , Journal of Hospitality, Leisure, Sports and Tourism Education Vol 9 side 39-52.
Most DMOs are not familiar with new Internet-based technologies, and have not had sufficient opportunities to learn about and evaluate these dynamically changing technologies. Therefore, this study aims to demonstrate how educational content has developed to provide tourism professionals with basic training in new technologies, and to improve the delivery of additional training by discovering their opinions, constraints and needs regarding the adoption of tourism technology. The lack of time to learn, and funds to implement technologies, were indicated as the greatest constraints that DMOs have. Implications for effective learning and content development are discussed. [PUBLICATION ABSTRACT].
Lemelin, R.H.K., R.; Woznicka, I.; Metansinine, K.; Pelletier, H. 2010, Tourism in Marine Environments Vol 6 side 101-118.
With a substantial amount of natural (e.g., islands, estuaries, shoals) and cultural (e.g., pictographs, lighthouses, shipwrecks) heritage, the Lake Superior National Marine Conservation Area (LSNMCA), located in Northwestern Ontario, is a protected area steeped in history. Apart from a few exceptions, this region of Ontario has lacked the opportunity to capitalize on potential tourism and recreational opportunities. An historic overview of the region highlights past tourism achievements, such as brook trout fishing in the Nipigon River, and the Rossport Fish Derby, and indicates new tourism opportunities in Northwestern Ontario (e.g., sailing regattas and kayak symposia). The significance of tourism in a region largely dependent upon mining and forestry is also highlighted. The article then reviews the potential role of the LSNMCA in regional tourism development by utilizing Kelleher's levels of stakeholder engagement framework. Although stakeholder involvement in the LSNMCA, according to Kelleher's model, requires further work, the establishment of this protected area (the very first of its kind in Canada) appears to be engaging stakeholders in regional tourism development. © 2010 Cognizant Comm. Corp..
Lemmetyinen, A. 2009, Scandinavian Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Vol 9 side 366-386.
The purpose of this study was to analyze the coordination of cooperation in strategic business networks in the tourism industry. The various facets of the coordination are explored in an intensive single case study on Cruise Baltic. The data includes the narrative accounts of 22 actors in the case network, a strategic network promoting cruise tourism in the Baltic Sea region. The study reveals different forms of coordination which enhance network development. Through the adoption of the strategic network approach it offers a current and fresh perspective on destination management and marketing. Furthermore, it pinpoints the need for coordinative activities on the different levels and dimensions of cooperation. Â© 2009 Taylor & Francis..
Lumsdon, L.M.M., P. 2011, Journal of Sustainable Tourism Vol 19 side 265-279.
This paper discusses the sociocultural phenomenon of slow travel and explores and clarifies definitional issues. The 30-year-plus antecedents of slow travel are examined. A literature review shows a concentration on four key features: slowness and the value of time; locality and activities at the destination; mode of transport and travel experience; and environmental consciousness. Links to the slow food and slow city movements are discussed, and evidence that slow travel is an important emergent form of tourism in Europe, accounting for 10% of the holiday market, is provided. A grounded theory approach continues the exploration, involving 23 in-depth interviews with practitioners and academics, which revealed that their core requirements for slow travel centred on slowness, the travel experience and environmental consciousness. There was a lack of consensus about the eligibility of car travel and high-speed rail. Slow travel is seen as a group of associated ideas rather than as a watertight definition; it is a mindset about travel rather than a tangible product and concentrates on lack of speed rather than slowness per se. The conclusion shows it to be a growing part of the sustainable tourism paradigm and proposes a working definition of slow travel. © 2011 Taylor & Francis..
Lundmark, L.M., R. 2005, Tourism Vol 53 side .
The second home tourism provides a fundamental contribution to domestic tourism. The failure to identify these, as part of the tourism product would exclude a large part of travel, infrastructure and tourist behaviour. Second home tourism is a relatively cheap and efficient way of getting more people and their consumption to rural areas, at least on a temporary basis. Second home tourists are also loyal to the destination, with repeat visits and low marketing cost for the receiving area. The aim of this study is to determine the importance of different factors for the second home localization. This is achieved by developing a spatial statistical model. Utilizing data from a comprehensive geo-referenced database, the localization of second homes are examined and analyzed. Results show that the most important factor for the development of second home agglomerations is the number of permanent residents in the immediate area surrounding the second home. Rural areas suffering from out-migration are attractive for a large part of the population, however not for permanent living but in terms of leisure and recreation. Nonetheless, in the future the significance of permanent tourists or vacation residents for these rural areas may be of increasing economic importance..
Mair, H. 2009, Tourism Geographies Vol 11 side 462-483.
While many have explored fantasy-based and themed cities, relatively few consider these developments within small communities. This paper investigates the implications for fantasy-themed tourism development in one small community on the Canadian Prairies. Vulcan, Alberta was a product of the agricultural industry but economic hardships have threatened the community, leading to ongoing attempts to'cash in' on the community's name in connection with the Star Trek television series. Three main features of this case of worldmaking are presented: (1) why and how this image/identity has been brought into the community; (2) how it has been contested and negotiated by visitors and locals; and (3) how this case helps develop our critical understanding of the implications of themed environments. In addition, a critical, interpretivist research methodology is presented as offering valuable insights into the making and re-making of communities through tourism. Â© 2009 Taylor & Francis..
Marques, H. 2006, Tourism Economics Vol 12 side 147-155.
This paper discusses the role of agritourism in deprived rural areas as an instrument of regional development that builds on local cultural and natural advantages. This is illustrated with preliminary data collected from interviews carried out at agritourism enterprises from the demarcated wine-producing regions of the north of Portugal. The evidence gathered shows that tourism may have a role in marketing unique local products, preserving architectural heritage and developing physical and human capital in which rural regions are lacking. Moreover, the LEADER capital provided by the European Union was a crucial factor in the interviewees' initial investment decisions..
Mitchell, R.C., S.; Albrecht, J. N. , Annals of Tourism Research Vol 39 side 311-335.
Regionally distinct cultural systems are manifest in the landscapes of all cultures. Geographers have begun to explore such cultural systems in an attempt to better understand a range of cultural geographical phenomena, but such an approach has yet to be applied to our understanding of tourism. Using Bonnemaison's cultural systems approach, this paper explores the relationship between rural cultural systems and the production and consumption of wine tourism in two culturally distinct wine regions: Champagne, France, and Margaret River, Western Australia. In so doing, it highlights the importance of situating wine tourism within the wider system of rural land tenure, local mythologies of rurality and the regional wine cultural complex. Â© 2011 Elsevier Ltd..
Mottiar, Z.T., H. 2007, Current Issues in Tourism Vol 10 side 279-295.
It has been widely noted in the tourism small business literature that collaboration between groups of businesses operating within clusters contributes both to business development and the success of destinations and regions. This paper aims to contribute to the research on tourism destination networks by focusing on multiple ownership, or portfolio entrepreneurship, where more than one small or micro business within a specific destination are owned by the same entrepreneur. Courtown in Ireland and GÃ¶reme in Turkey are presented as two case studies in which the existence of multiple owners was identified. The implications of multiple ownership on tourism operation in these two destinations are examined taking, first, a supply side approach in studying the effect on the firms and products in the area of Courtown. Second, a demand side approach is taken by assessing the implications of multiple ownership for tourists in GÃ¶reme. Factors considered include implications for inter-firm cooperation, barriers to entry for potential firms and the tourist experience. It is concluded that the practice of multiple ownership creates webs of power which embroil tourists and significantly impact on the business structure and operation of the tourism destination. Â© 2007 Z. Mottiar & H. Tucker..
Mueller, S.P., M. 2009, Tourism: An International Interdisciplinary Journal Vol 56 side 339-354.
bSeveral approaches with reference to customer involvement in the product development process can be found in the research literature. The majority of studies, focusing primarily on customer involvement in the product or service development process, are based on research in the area of new product development. However, these studies did not describe which customers or groups of customers are suitable to be involved in the product development process of services. Meanwhile some researchers have drawn their focus on this topic. The empirical personality psychological traits approach as well as the differential psychology put the individual in the focus of the analyses. To this end, a research of snowboarders personality profile and their involvement in product design was carried out on a sample of 50 respondents active in the alpine region of Austria, Switzerland and Italy. The results have revealed that snowboarders differ from general population. The standard deviations of all five scales are lower for the freestyle snowboarders than for those of the reference population. Freestyle snowboarders are scoring higher on dimensions of extraversion, open ness to experience, compatibility and conscientiousness. This research is an attempt to bring together psychology and social leisure sciences and to derive new findings regarding this underinvestigated extreme sport segment, which in many cases displays typical lead user consumers in the field of sport tourism..
Mykletun, R.J.G.t., S. , Tourism Management Vol 31 side 434-446.
Attempts have been made to make traditional local foods a part of the tourists' experiences, but few have caught great interest among the tourist and leisure consumers. An exception is the Norwegian traditional Sheep's-head meal. This article focuses on driving factors behind this success. Sheep's heads have been continuously available and used at private meals, albeit the status of the meals has changed from everyday food to party food, and a festival and commercial meals with unique ceremonies have developed. Participation in these may give a sense of symbolic proximity to traditions and historical "roots". The culinary qualities of the product are important especially for the experienced sheep's-head meal participants. The scariness of the product itself and the measures taken to make the meal an enjoyable adventures trigger the feelings of courage, mastery and inclusion in the "in-group" of sheep's-head eaters. Most important for the success were the individual entrepreneurships and entrepreneurial networks which were the number one drivers behind the rejuvenation of these unique meal experiences. This case illustrates the significance of the individual and network entrepreneurial processes in the branding and development of tourism destinations. Â© 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved..
Müller, D.K.H., S. K. 2009, Journal of Ecotourism Vol 8 side 115-127.
Indigenous populations are frequently used in tourism promotion and marketing. This is also true for the Sami people in northern Europe. In the area, sometimes called Europe's last wilderness, the Sami and their culture are epitomised as a main asset for a growing tourism industry. Previously this has caused problems and irritation among the Sami. Nevertheless, tourism development is indeed also seen as a potential solution to problems affecting the Sami society, offering new sources of income and future employment in situ. Against this background, it is an interesting notion that only few Swedish Sami choose to make a living within tourism. Instead, tourism appears to be a complementary activity to reindeer herding only. Hence, the purpose of this article is to analyse constraints preventing Sami from getting more involved in tourism development. The article mainly draws on a study conducted in Jokkmokk, Sweden. Here, interviews were carried out with Sami tourism entrepreneurs who were also members of local cooperatives for reindeer husbandry. The results of the study indicate that cultural norms and legal obstacles form the main limitation for Sami tourism development. © 2009 Taylor & Francis..
Novelli, M.S., B.; Spencer, T. 2006, Tourism Management Vol 27 side 1141-1152.
In an era where tourism is dominated by requests for tailored experiences, SMEs play a key role in providing adequate products and services to tourists by responding to their most specific requirements. This paper uses network and clusters as a framework providing SMEs with innovative opportunities to operate in a competitive tourism environment. A review of relevant literature on clusters, networks and tourism business innovation is undertaken, then focusing on the specific issues of Healthy Lifestyle Tourism. The UK 'Healthy Lifestyle Tourism Cluster' experience is employed to discuss the process and the implication of network and cluster development in tourism. However, the development of clusters should not be seen as a simple and spontaneous process due to the nature of businesses involved, but as a very complex process linked to strong stakeholder collaboration. Â© 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved..
Nowak, J.J.P., S.; Sahli, M. , Journal of Travel Research Vol 49 side 228-245.
An important facet of globalization is the international fragmentation of production. This phenomenon, also called international division of production processes, outsourcing, vertical specialization, and so on, has been studied for goods and many services but has so far been ignored for tourism. This article attempts to rectify that by providing theoretical and empirical evidence of various aspects of the international division of tourism production. In the modeling section, the traditional Ricardian paradigm of international trade theory is deliberately chosen to explain how the international splitting up of value-added chains in the tourism industry can occur across countries. The authors then conduct an empirical study of a sample of 38 countries to measure these countries' comparative advantages in two segments of the tourism product system. Data from 1980-2004 indicate that tourism production is globally fragmented and that the scale of such fragmented production is quite substantial. Using more disaggregated data for 15 EU countries, the authors find evidence of a high level of fragmented tourism production as well. Â© SAGE Publications 2010..
Ottenbacher, M.C.H., Robert J. 2009, Tourism and Hospitality Research Vol 9 side 235-249.
This study compares the innovation process used by Michelin-starred chefs, and examines the potential impacts of institutional, cultural and contextual factors. The findings reveal a synthesis of similarities and differences used by the Spanish, German and US chefs. Similarities include a relatively sequential and top-down process and a stress on the importance of a closely connected network within culinary innovation. Key differences include the level of involvement throughout the process, the level at which technology is embraced in the process, the level of customer-focused decisions, and the likelihood of using test kitchens or food scientists in the innovation process. [PUBLICATION ABSTRACT].
Pearce, D.G. 2007, Journal of Travel and Tourism Marketing Vol 23 side 57-69.
This paper contributes to the literature on business-to-business relationships in tourism distribution by examining questions of supplier selection in the New Zealand inbound tourism industry. In particular, the paper examines the factors that influence offshore intermediaries' selection of new suppliers; analyses the factors that would lead them to change suppliers; and investigates the ways they stay abreast of what products and suppliers are available in New Zealand. An open-ended approach is taken to addressing these questions based on interviews with a range of intermediaries in New Zealand's three main international markets: Australia, Great Britain and the USA. Three broad sets of factors are found to influence their behaviour in terms of selecting and changing New Zealand suppliers of travel products: those related to products, people and pricing. In contrast to earlier work in this field, product-related factors are shown to be particularly important. TRENZ, the country's annual travel trade fair, and the activities of the national tourism marketing organization are the main means by which intermediaries remain abreast of product development. The paper concludes by outlining the implications of these results for those researching tourism distribution and for suppliers operating, or seeking to operate, in international markets. Â© 2007 by The Haworth Press, Inc. All rights reserved..
Pechlaner, H.H., M.; Kofink, L. 2009, Tourism Vol 57 side 285-307.
To rejuvenate a destination means to develop growth strategies whilst in a phase of maturation or stagnation. Stagnation tendencies have been prevalent in Alpine tourism since the 1980's. In recent years, mature destinations in the Alps have attempted to maintain their appeal by defining and inventing new products and promotions rather than by further market penetration. The rapid (spatial) growth of tourism enterprises in the 1960's and 1970's in the Alpine destination South Tyrol led to restrictive spatial legislation and as a result, greatly limited the quantitative and qualitative development capacities of hotel businesses in these mature destinations. Consequently, the entrepreneurs in South Tyrol and the surrounding region often perceive spatial planning as a restrictive instrument limiting the growth and strategic planning and development of their enterprises. In 2007, after a period of stagnation, the South Tyrolean legislature opened up possibilities of quantitative growth for tourism enterprises, but connected it with an obligatory spatial planning and strategy concept for the entire municipality. Consequently, the municipality has to justify the declaration of new tourism zones by demonstrating the potential for growth in tourism. The aim of this paper is to demonstrate, by way of the three South Tyrolean municipalities, that spatial planning and strategic tourism development are not necessarily conflictive but that spatial planning, in combination with tourism planning and product development, can be a pro-active and creative tool with an important role in developing and implementing growth in mature destinations. As such, the scope of both spatial planning and product development have been jointly defined and tested in a case study..
Plaza, B. 2000, Urban Affairs Review Vol 36 side 264-274.
Bilbao Spain is an outstanding test case for the impact of an internationally famous cultural facility in a context that otherwise does not lend itself to large flows of tourism. Although early for a complete impact study, Plaza attempts to quantify the influence of the Guggenheim Museum Bilbao in the attraction of tourism and to identify the potential factors that explain such impact in the short run..
Richards, G.W., J. 2006, Tourism Management Vol 27 side 1209-1223.
As culture is increasingly utilised as a means of social and economic development, the cultural tourism market is being flooded with new attractions, cultural routes and heritage centres. However, many consumers, tired of encountering the serial reproduction of culture in different destinations are searching for alternatives. The rise of skilled consumption, the importance of identity formation and the acquisition of cultural capital in (post)modern society point towards the use of creativity as an alternative to conventional cultural tourism. This paper considers the development of creative spaces, creative spectacles and creative tourism from the perspective of supply and demand. The need for creativity in developing new products and how to address the challenge of serial reproduction are discussed, and examples of creative tourism projects are examined and contrasted to traditional models of cultural tourism. © 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved..
Sandvik, I.L.A., D. B.; Sandvik, K. , Journal of Travel Research Vol 50 side 641-653.
This survey study examines whether tourism businesses that have developed systematic processes and procedures for new product development (i.e., firms that have new product development [NPD] proficiencies) perform better than those that do not. The study outlines the concept of NPD proficiency, which is conceptualized as a second-order reflective construct, whose first-order facets include opportunity analysis, technical development, product testing, and product commercialization. A model is developed in which product advantage is hypothesized to be a key mediating variable between NPD proficiency and three important indicators of tourism business performance-price premium, capacity utilization, and profitability. The model is tested using data collected from the Norwegian hotel industry. The findings provide support for the view that NPD proficiency influences positively product advantage, which, in turn, both directly and indirectly influences tourism business performance. Â© 2011 SAGE Publications..
Savastano, I.S., Alessandra 2009, International Journal of Quality and Service Sciences Vol 1 side 225-240.
The purpose of this paper is to study service innovation applied to archaeological sites' management, in terms of enrichment of primary cultural product with auxiliary products (cultural activities). The research design is based on the application of the main issues in strategic management, with particular reference to resource-based theory and service-dominant logic, to cultural archaeological sites' management. The empirical part concerns a case study analysis conducted on some cases in the Mediterranean area: Hercolaneum (Italy), Masada (Israel) and Petra (Giordania). By the cases' study, it comes out a clear awareness of the need to bring innovative forms to archaeological sites' management, both through the use of information and communication technology techniques and to the enrichment of "integrated and complex" offers that go far beyond the archaeological core product. The analysis provides a foundation for further development in the field of service innovation applied to archaeological sites' management. The paper proposes an analytical model and a positioning matrix, according to some variables, that could be applied to other cases for a more relevant analysis. The paper provides policy makers, private and public actors a possible approach for developing and applying strategic management concepts to cultural offer in an innovative way. The paper gives some first important hints to innovate cultural service in archaeological sites. It is not just an attempt to apply a managerial optic in this business: an interdisciplinary approach is adopted, even consulting scholars in culture and archeology, trying to enrich the contents of managerial approach..
Scott, B. 2006, International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management Vol 18 side 60-68.
Purpose - The purpose of this research is to provide a qualitative insight into contemporary issues of consumption and associated lifestyle identities within the branded coffee house sector in Scotland. Design/methodology/approach - Based on summary case findings, the ethno-methodological approach has provided a consumer-based focus via the use of narratives which have helped to build pictures on routine aspects of this social phenomenon for analysis. Findings - The study has highlighted a number of emergent issues and patterns pertinent to this popular sector as it infiltrates Scottish society. The addictive mix of quality products, sophisticated packaging, high levels of personal service with added social and environmental scruples have led to phenomenal growth in the postmodern Scottish urban landscape. Scottish consumers has become daily devotees to the designer cup with 83 per cent claiming that this type of consumption is fuelled by lifestyle considerations. Research limitations/implications - Fieldwork was facilitated by nominated access in four branded operations across four Scottish cities. Controlled conditions were employed to facilitate generalization with further research desirable over a wider timeframe to allow evaluation of potential relationships between gender, geography and usage patterns. Practical implications - Implications for the ubiquitous Scottish public house are clear in that there is evidence of competition with the branded coffee sector in terms of share of discretionary leisure spend. This, coupled with the apparently increasing feminization of social space with its preference for clean, healthy and positive lifestyle choices as opposed to the negative, predominantly male dominance of Scottish pub culture, indicates potential decline and further gender segregation at a time when companies are trying to involve the family more in the public house market. Originality/value - This paper will be of interest to anyone who has pondered life over a cup of designer coffee in or from a branded outlet and wondered whatever one did before the advent of this US-led revolution which people have adopted and adapted as their own brand of café culture. © Emerald Group Publishing Limited..
Scott, N.C., C. 2010, Inovação para o turismo Urbano sustentável: Algumas reflexões sobre as melhores práticas Vol 44 side 1171-1190.
This paper examines a series of strategic initiatives that have been undertaken by Tourism Queensland (TQ), a State Tourism Organization in Australia, to develop tourism and in particular to develop networks in tourism destinations. This paper firstly examines the nature of sustainable urban tourism (SUT) and discusses approaches to defining it. It suggests that developing SUT requires a generic approach to improving sustainable tourism operations amongst all suppliers in an urban area. Further, this approach suggests that best practice in marketing and policy development can be adopted to attract tourists to a SUT destination and examples of this approach are provided..
Sharpley, R.P., T. 2007, Journal of Sustainable Tourism Vol 15 side 557-573.
This paper examines the work of the English National Park Authorities (NPAs) in relation to aspects of the development of sustainable tourism. The NPAs have implicitly sought to achieve sustainable tourism development since the parks were first designated, striving to balance the needs of visitors and the environment within the context of living, working landscapes. Studies have revealed, however, that some NPAs are not fully championing sustainable tourism development. The paper examines the NPA's use of marketing and marketing perspectives in encouraging sustainable tourism, exploring attitudes, roles and activities. A diverse, piecemeal and sometimes under-informed approach is revealed. The paper concludes with ways forward for English NPAs and for other protected area management organisations. © 2007 R. Sharpley & T. Pearce..
Sims, R. 2009, Journal of Sustainable Tourism Vol 17 side 321-336.
In recent years, attempts to improve the economic and environmental sustainability of both tourism and agriculture have been linked to the development of "alternative" food networks and a renewed enthusiasm for food products that are perceived to be traditional and local. This paper draws on research from two UK regions, the Lake District and Exmoor, to argue that local food can play an important role in the sustainable tourism experience because it appeals to the visitor's desire for authenticity within the holiday experience. Using evidence from qualitative interviews with tourists and food producers, the paper records ways in which local foods are conceptualised as "authentic" products that symbolise the place and culture of the destination. By engaging with debates surrounding the meaning of locality and authenticity, the paper challenges existing understandings of these concepts and offers a new way forward for tourism research by arguing that "local food" has the potential to enhance the visitor experience by connecting consumers to the region and its perceived culture and heritage.© 2009 Taylor & Francis..
Stiakakis, E.G., C. K. 2011, Operational Research Vol 11 side 149-169.
The possible interactions among tourism organizations, their customers and other organizations are considered in this article. Based on these interactions, three drivers of an integrated e-business strategy in the tourism sector are suggested: (1) customizing tourist products, personalizing services and supporting mobile services, (2) sharing tourism information and operational data, and (3) offering tailor made products and supporting user-generated content. In order to emphasize our suggestions, the most representative figures derived from recent surveys conducted by the Sectoral e-Business W@tch are selected and analyzed. These figures are: (a) the use of customer relationship management applications in tourism and the importance of mobile services for different sectors of the economy including tourism, for the first driver, (b) the use of supply chain management systems, online purchasing and finally the use of broadband Internet as a complementary indicator, for the second driver, and (c) the use of ICT-enabled product and process innovations and dynamic packaging, for the third driver. The clear positive tendencies of these figures indicate the rising importance of our suggested directions as basic drivers of a tourism e-business strategy. © 2009 Springer-Verlag..
Stierand, M.L., Paul 2008, Tourism and Hospitality Research Vol 8 side 337-350.
The life worlds of innovating chefs are identified as important aspects towards a better understanding of culinary innovation. Hence, the concept of personal culinary innovation is proposed as a verifiable way to identify innovators in the field. Current studies, however, interchangeably use the term invention and innovation and fail to address central dimensions such as artistic aspiration, continuous and discontinuous conditions, learning and networking, adoption and diffusion as well as perceived newness and change. As a result, improving the dialogue between chefs and scholars is believed to be the key to better research in the field. [PUBLICATION ABSTRACT].
Tirados, R.M.G. 2011, Service Industries Journal Vol 31 side 1589-1601.
This paper presents a retrospective analysis of the service sector focusing on the hotel industry with reference to how internationalisation and globalisation are having a major effect on demand, and as a result how changes must be made to what is offered. The socalled mass tourism must evolve; we are about to enter the second decade of the twenty-first century and mass tourism needs to be transformed. A large number of issues need to be borne in mind, such as the influence technological progress is having on the ways of travelling and booking and on sustainable, environmental tourism. Also to be taken into account is the competitiveness of the so-called emerging nations, for which a mature country like ours can provide new tourist packages. © 2011 Taylor & Francis..
Trumbach, A.E.W., Albert A.; Mujtaba, Bahaudin G. 2009, Journal of Applied Management and Entrepreneurship Vol 14 side 93-99.
In an interview, Michael Singh, the chief executive officer in the Ministry of Tourism and Civil Aviation in Belize, talked about tourism. According to Singh, he believe a good tourism brand lies in the uniqueness in experiences that a country can offer to its guests. Today's traveler will react to that which evokes his or her emotion. Countries can no longer rely on the generic sun, sand, sea, and shopping, but must now mix in the active, the exciting, and the extraordinary. He added that tourism is about service. It is clear that a nation's culture has a lot to do with the level of service that is provided. Mexico, for instance, understands service, which comes from a long tradition of Latin mannerism. In many Caribbean countries, the service ethic is missing, and this comes from a tradition of resistance due to a typically leisurely lifestyle..
Tzokas, N.S., Michael 2004, The Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing Vol 19 side 124-135.
An organization's ability to enjoy long-term competitive advantage is closely related to its capacity for knowledge creation, dissemination and use. From a practical point-of-view the value of this statement could be increased if suggestions could be made to managers as to what kind of knowledge to seek for their organization, where and how to look for it. This article provides tentative answers to these questions from a relationship marketing perspective. In doing so the scope, processes and technologies of relationship marketing are discussed and their knowledge content and potential outlined. Finally, a conceptual framework for knowledge generation and dialogue in relationship marketing is proposed and directions for further research, alongside their practical implications for contemporary firms, delineated.[PUBLICATION ABSTRACT].
Weidenfelda, A.B., R.; Williamsc, A. W. , Current Issues in Tourism Vol 14 side 595-629.
Cooperation and complementarity are important but understudied components of tourism clusters, in general, and of the tourist attraction sector, in particular. This paper addresses product similarities, in general, and thematic similarity, in particular, in the context of spatial proximity and clustering among tourist attractions. These relationships are examined by exploring cooperation between tourist attractions in two tourism clusters in Cornwall, UK. Interviews with attraction managers and other key informants, and case studies, reveal that tourist attractions have established cooperative-complementary relationships of production based on external economies at both the local and the regional scales. Differences between the two clusters in terms of interviewees' perceptions of the relationships between factors indicate the importance of understanding the specific features of individual clusters. Â© 2011 Taylor & Francis..
Weiermair, K. 2006, Journal of Quality Assurance in Hospitality and Tourism Vol 6 side 59-72.
The tourism product is a composite one with its production, distribution and marketing being configured along a value chain involving many activities which are vertically, horizontally and diagonally related and integrated in varying degrees. Both orthodox and non-orthodox economists agree that innovations will only be undertaken when there is a sufficiently high innovation dividend which pays for the added cost and risk of innovation. Thus profitability appears to be the strongest explanatory variable both behind investment and innovation. Based on the notion that expected profitability from innovation can serve as the primary independent variable determining innovation behaviour across different economic sectors and/or sub branches of tourism, the paper sets out to establish the innovation potential for each of the tourism value creating economic activities from the provision of information to prospective customers (tourists) in the sending region to post-trip (after sale) services. In addition to the usual profit-generating forces of costs and revenues, such dimensions as firm size and economics of scale, proximity to relevant science and technology (know-how for innovation) through human capital and forms of organisation (e.g., network-organisation and/or clusters) will equally be taken into consideration. This analysis will therefore help in pinpointing those areas of the tourism value chain where innovations are most likely to occur. The paper concludes with the presentation of a model aimed at empirically testing innovation behaviour across the tourism value chain. Copyright © 2005 by The Haworth Press, Inc. All rights reserved..
Weiermair, K.B., T. 2006, Journal of Teaching in Travel and Tourism Vol 5 side 39-60.
Both Austria and Switzerland are small countries with a long tradition hosting tourists. Irrespective of high levels of economic development, the two countries also have high levels of tourism intensity when measured either in terms of number of tourists per native population or in terms of tourism receipts per population (e.g., per gross national product). Consequently, both countries also display a long tradition and evolution in their development of systems of tourism education and training albeit under differing market conditions and pressures. Both countries provide similar products like in the field of cultural tourism and alpine tourism. The tourism structure is also comparable. Both countries are dominated by family owned small and medium size businesses. However, their political structures are very different. This paper shows how each country under the three forces of labour market pressures and industry requirements, on the one hand and tourism education policy initiatives on the other has evolved two slightly different tourism education systems. Furthermore, an attempt was made to provide, based on the discussion in the first part of the paper, a more general explanation with respect to the response of tourism schooling/ training supplies to varying conditions in tourism product markets, tourism employment and labour market systems, public choice decisions and general economic conditions. Finally, the paper discusses the paradigmatic shift (i.e., structural change) of tourism factor and product markets from the "Old to New Tourism" and discusses its implications for new types of tourism schooling and training in these two countries. Copyright Â© by The Haworth Press, Inc. All rights reserved..
Weiss, G.M., Suzanne; Matilainen, Anne; Vennesland, Birger; Nastase, Carmen; Nybakk, Erlend; Bouriaud, Laura 2007, Small Scale Forestry Vol 6 side 423-442.
This article examines innovation processes in forest recreational services on the basis of case studies in five European countries with differing institutional backgrounds of forest ownership and access rights. The analysis reveals that forest-related recreation services are developed under varying institutional conditions and on public as well as private land. Ideas for innovations in recreational services may come from within but often outside the forestry sector. Financing is provided from public and private sources. Both public and private spheres have important roles in providing natural, human and financial resources and usually a network of public and private actors are involved in innovation processes. Of particular importance are cross-sectoral interactions between forestry and tourism. Greater institutional support is needed for the development of forest-related recreation services because the field is at an early stage of development. It is concluded that support should focus on providing ideas and financial resources for product development and on facilitating cross-sectoral interaction between forestry and tourism actors. A particular need is seen for development of models for durable interaction between land owners and tourism operators on a regional scale..
Williams, P.W.R., Christine 2002, Journal of Travel Research Vol 40 side 404-415.
Because of the often remote and fledgling character of Canada's aboriginal tourism attractions, developing alliances with knowledgeable and culturally sensitive distribution channel operators are especially important. The distribution channels developed can affect the patterns of destination use, target markets attracted, and economic impact created for aboriginal communities. This research describes the structure and perspectives of the European tour operator industry as it relates to the distribution of North American aboriginal tourism experiences to European travelers. The findings suggest strategies for working with tour operators in configuring, positioning, promoting, and delivering aboriginal tourism..
Wolf-Watz, D.S., K.; Fredman, P. 2011, Scandinavian Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Vol 11 side 190-204.
This article explores the linkages between nature-based recreation and preferences of individuals classified as "environmentalists". Following an overview of the literature, this paper reports on an empirical investigation of the nature-based recreation vs. environmentalism nexus using data from a national Swedish survey. Study findings show that environmentalists (environmentally-oriented individuals) behave differently in terms of their recreation-related preferences when compared to non-environmentalists. Environmentalists prefer outdoor activities with little or no impact on the environment as demonstrated, for example, by their avoidance of extractive (e.g. hunting) and motorized activities (e.g. snowmobiling). Despite these differences, the findings were inconsistent in that while environmentalists avoid some extractive and motorized activities, other similar activities were not avoided. Thus, the results question the use of simplistic recreational classification systems for the understanding of activity preferences and the authors call for more in-depth, qualitative research to further understand the nature-based recreation choices of environmentalists. Study findings also show that environmentally-oriented individuals do not hesitate to travel away from residential areas for participation in nature-based recreation. Therefore, this paper helps us to understand which nature-based activities environmentalists demand and can provide a more informed basis for tourism planning and management. © 2011 Taylor & Francis..
Zehrer, A.P., H. 2006, Journal of Quality Assurance in Hospitality and Tourism Vol 7 side 53-73.
The growing world-wide competition of tourism regions, changing demand patterns, the claim for better products and offers, the decreasing attractiveness and increasing uniformity of offers consistently lead to new challenges for the quality assurance of destinations. High service quality enables tourism entrepreneurs to achieve decisive competitive advantages. Quality within a destination comprises all services which the guest is engaged in and is not limited by time or location of the stay. A crucial point is the first contact of a guest with the destination, which happens by e-mail inquiries in the majority of cases. The development of information technology has lead to more and more guests gathering pieces of information via the internet and has induced researchers to study this phenomenon (Buhalis and Licata, 2002; Raman-Bacchus and Molina, 2001). Therefore, response behavior becomes a key factor for the success of tourism organizations (Pechlaner et al. 2002). From the guest's point of view, the speed of response and breadth of information are to be seen as decisive factors for service quality and customer satisfaction. A mystery guest check by means of e-mail inquiries sent to selected tourism organizations was undertaken to determine the response behaviour and breadth of information provided by tourism organizations and to reveal potential gaps in the knowledge management and transfer of these organizations. According to elaborated quality criteria and standards, the paper reports a two-year mystery guest study of tourism organizations of an Alpine destination in Europe. Copyright Â© by The Haworth Press, Inc. All rights reserved..
Zemla, M. 2008, Managing Global Transitions Vol 6 side 421-444.
The topic of local stakeholders' collaboration for success on the tourism market is a popular one, however research is usually devoted to well established Western economies. Created in this way, rules of cooperation are not fully suitable for new democracies in Central and Eastern European countries. Western standards of cooperation can not be achieved in Polish winter sports destinations, which is mirrored in the analyzed example of the Polish biggest ski resort - Szczyrk. Mutual mistrust and hostile attitude are typical for stakeholders in this example. The very low competitiveness level of the product is the most visible effect. Additionally, ski product development in Poland is highly criticized from the environmental point of view, which results in another difficult to manage, severe conflict sourced in different interpretations of the idea of sustainable tourism development..
Ziaco, E.A., Alfredo; Blasi, Silvia; Di Filippo, Alfredo; Dennis, Steve; Piovesan, Gianluca 2012, Biodiversity & Conservation Vol 21 side 131-144.
This paper describes the experience of developing an educational trail inside an old-growth beech forest in central Italy. In the last 150 years local people exploited this stand almost exclusively for recreational purposes and now the beechwood has acquired new ecological value after having reached old-growth status. Despite the cultural-historical importance of the site, there is a substantial lack of knowledge about this magnificent stand among members of the public, who have no tools to understand its dynamics nor to accept those structural changes related to its natural evolution. Tourist facilities were restored at the site, according to non-restricting criteria, and an educational program was developed in order to promote a shared comprehension of old-growth forests, their ecological processes and value, the services they provide, and to increase tourist awareness toward this fragile ecosystem. We discuss the educational role ecotourism might potentially hold in western developed countries to link the public with the scientific world, educating people about nature, while preventing negative impacts on natural environments. Even if the importance of local communities in conservation of natural resources has been widely recognized by a number of conservationists, public involvement, particularly in forest conservation and management, still represents a difficult challenge, since it requires the implementation of a common understanding about forest ecosystems, forest goods and forest services. The educational trail inside the beech forest of Monte Cimino may represent a low impact strategy for preserving forest aesthetic functionality, limiting potential damages to the forest while increasing its importance for nature conservation.[PUBLICATION ABSTRACT].
Zou, Y. 2009, Journal of Chengdu Sport University Vol 35 side 35-36.
Compared with large cities, medium and small sized cities have underdeveloped economy, small internal market and inadequate sports venues. To develop sports tourism demands innovation in the development mechanism which includes the motivation mechanism, investment mechanism, product development mechanism, marketing mechanism and talent cultivation mechanism..