Gårds- og bygdeturisme

Velg kategori:

Family business goals in the tourism and hospitality sector: Case studies and cross-case analysis from Australia, Canada, and Sweden

2002, Family Business Review Vol 15 side 89-106.

This paper compares 3 case studies of family businesses in the rural tourism and hospitality sectors in Canada, Sweden, and Australia. Goals for start-up, and ultimate disposition of the businesses are examined through cross-case analysis within the theoretical framework of the business and family life-cycle. Analysis reveals remarkable similarities reflecting the prominence of lifestyle considerations, location preferences, and the uncertainty over disposition of the businesses. This paper assesses goals revealed through these cases and pertinent literature from the tourism and hospitality sectors in the context of 3 stages in family business evolution..

Sustainable leisure life modes and rural welfare economy. The case of the Randers Fjord area, Denmark

2004, The International Journal of Tourism Research Vol 6 side 177-188.

As increasing attention has been paid to rural tourism as a specific form of tourism development, so too has the scope of research into tourism in rural areas become more diverse. Typically, studies focus primarily upon the economic developmental contribution of rural tourism, although a significant amount of work has been undertaken on the consequences of rural tourism development and attitudes/motivations on the part of visitors and/or local communities. However, no attempt has yet been made to integrate studies of both visitors and local communities within the framework of rural tourism development policy. The purpose of this paper is to address this gap in the literature. Drawing on a study of tourism in the Randers Fjord, a relatively underdeveloped area of rural Denmark, it identifies and analyzes three groups of tourists characterized by life modes: (i) traditionalists, (ii) peace seekers and (iii) adventurers. In each case, expectations, behavior and future needs are revealed through qualitative interviews. The predominant (traditionalist) life mode of tourists, it is argued, closely matches that of the area's residents. This, the paper suggests, presents significant barriers to the development and enhancement of tourism, as do the prevailing economic structures and employment patterns. Thus, tourism development policy should take into account both tourists' and locals' life modes in order to progress towards sustainable rural tourism development. [PUBLICATION ABSTRACT].

Developing opportunities for people in agriculture

Alliston, J. 2007, Journal of the Royal Agricultural Society of England Vol 168 side .

The rapid change of pace in global agriculture makes education, training, Continuous Professional Development, career structures and leadership more important than they have ever been. University and College courses must now encompass all aspects of land use as well as climate change, water management, energy input and output, pharmaceutical product development, environmental and waste management, agri-tourism and leisure pursuits, the food chain and business and people management. Recognised Continuous Professional Development could raise the whole status of the industry. This paper outlines some of the assessment methods used together with the barriers to its uptake. Benefits from taking part in the Institute of Agricultural Management Leadership programme include increases in self confidence and networking which enable participants to further their careers successfully to the benefit of the industry..

The development of olive tourism in Western Australia: A case study of an emerging tourism industry

Alonso, A.D.N., J. 2010, International Journal of Tourism Research Vol 12 side 696-708.

The recent development of olive growing in Western Australia, and its amalgamation with tourism and hospitality, provides opportunities for growers to showcase their products and for visitors to experience olive-tasting and learn about an ancient food culture and rural activity 'transplanted' into the 'New World' from its 'Old World' roots. The present study examines the dimensions of this emerging niche market in Western Australia. Face-to-face and telephone interviews were conducted among 23 small olive-growing operations located in this region to understand their scope for developing olive tourism. Overall, respondents' comments suggest that their involvement in olive tourism and hospitality could substantially provide benefits for visitors to rural areas and become a complementary alternative to other activities. To fulfil this potential, however, growers heavily rely on greater collaboration within their own industry, as well as on local authorities and tourism bodies in ways that include assistance, partnerships and promotion. Moreover, collaboration between olive growers and regional/tourism stakeholders, as well as government support may not only contribute to the sustainability of olive growing, but also to the emergence of olive tourism. In turn, these developments may also help develop a culinary identity and a tourism concept that may help minimise the threats of outside competition (cheaper olive imports) and rural decline. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd..

Knowledge in food tourism: The case of Lofoten and Maremma Toscana

Bertella, G. 2011, Current Issues in Tourism Vol 14 side 355-371.

The aim of this paper is to contribute towards a better understanding of knowledge in food tourism in agricultural and/or fishery areas. The presence and role of different types of knowledge are investigated adopting a multiple case study strategy in the regions of Lofoten (Norway) and Maremma Toscana (Italy). The following types of knowledge are investigated: local and scientific food knowledge, tourism knowledge, local and global managerial and political knowledge. The results from the case study indicate that scientific food knowledge and global managerial and political knowledge are particularly important in Lofoten. These types of knowledge are identified as the strengths on which a form of gourmet food tourism could develop. In Maremma Toscana, local food knowledge and local managerial and political knowledge are identified as the basis of the development of a generic form of food tourism. It is concluded that food tourism development requires different types of knowledge and their role is strictly dependent on the specific context. Any policy regarding food tourism should be based on the peculiarities of the specific terroir. Further research is required to investigate the tacit dimension of knowledge and those factors that can favour the establishment of global knowledge-based networks. © 2011 Taylor & Francis..

Visitors to farm tourism enterprises in Norway

Blekesaune, A.B., B.; Haugen, M. S. 2010, Scandinavian Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Vol 10 side 54-73.

In Norway, as in many other countries, rural and farm tourism is becoming an important activity for promoting the vitality and sustainability of rural communities. This paper focuses on the analysis of visitors to Norwegian farms, which offer various tourism activities and services. The countryside has increasingly become a place of consumption and recreation, and as such, farm tourism is part of the shift in the economic base of rural societies. Moreover, in building appreciation for the distinctive features of local places and people, farm tourism represents a counter-trend to homogenisation and mass tourism. In this paper we focus on the Norwegian domestic market. Based on data from ten representative national Norwegian surveys conducted by Synovate Norway between 1991 and 2007, our analysis shows significant increases in the proportion of the population visiting farm tourism enterprises since 1991. In addition to describing who the visitors are, the paper also characterises potential visitors within the domestic tourism market. © 2010 Taylor & Francis..

Resource configuration and creative practices of community entrepreneurs

Borch, O.J. 2008, Journal of Enterprising Communities Vol 2 side 100-123.

Purpose - This paper aims to focus on the role of the community entrepreneur and the process of community entrepreneurship. It seeks to emphasize the social context as critical for gaining access to the resources needed by a community venture and elaborates on the action pattern of the community entrepreneur towards raising critical resources from the environment. Design/methodology/approach - The analysis is based on a longitudinal field study of community entrepreneurs in four Norwegian rural municipalities. The data consists of interviews, observations, and documents. Findings - Community entrepreneurs create local arenas and thereby facilitate cooperative entrepreneurial action, through bridging social capital. The actors are part of these community contexts and are involved in a range of reciprocal relations. Thus, the actors' creative practices toward the community have to run parallel with the resource configuration process. Research limitations/implications - Future studies may provide a broader empirical platform in different communities, and take part in the process for a longer time period. One may also develop comparative studies focusing on the basic resource platform, the action pattern, and the performance of the different social ventures. Practical implications - A major finding is that government support should be flexible and develop tools "tailored" to the characteristics of the rural communities. The combined resources of the entrepreneurs, social networks, and more formal institutions create more ambitious results. Originality/value - The paper contributes to the field of entrepreneurship by studying community entrepreneurs and their entrepreneurial ventures. Further, an integration of a resource configuration approach and a practice-oriented approach gives an increased understanding to the community venture creation process. [PUBLICATION ABSTRACT].

Farm diversification into tourism - Implications for social identity?

Brandth, B.H., M. S. 2011, Journal of Rural Studies Vol 27 side 35-44.

This article deals with how diversification and transformation of farming into tourism may influence the social identity of farmers. Based on a study of 19 farms run by couples engaged with agritourism, it shows how the development of tourism on the farms can be understood in a perspective of repeasantization; and how the couples draw on their farm resources, culture and place to sustain the farm. As hosts offering local food, stories, and various activities, they mediate a strong farm identity. The article also explores how farm identities change through three processes by which the 'new' work of tourism destabilizes identities. One is a shift in the meaning of farmer identity. Another is the gradual change towards a new master identity, and thirdly there is a multiplicity of identities that shift as they relate to various social memberships and settings. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd..

Sustaining production and strengthening the agritourism product: Linkages among Michigan agritourism destinations

Che, D.V., Ann; Veeck, Gregory 2005, Agriculture and Human Values Vol 22 side 225-234.

Agricultural restructuring has disproportionately impacted smaller US farms, such as those in Michigan where the average farm size is 215 acres. To keep agricultural land in production, entrepreneurial Michigan farmers are utilizing agritourism as a value-added way to capitalize on their comparative advantages, their diverse agricultural products, and their locations near large, urban, tourist-generating areas. Using focus groups, this paper illustrates how entrepreneurial farmers have strengthened Michigan agritourism by fostering producer networks through brochures and web linkages, information sharing in refining the agritourism product, referrals to other agritourism businesses that serve different markets or offer different products, purchase linkages, and a regional approach to establishing agritourism destinations and increase visitation. Successful entrepreneurial, agritourism developers thus work cooperatively, rather than individualistically and competitively. Agritourism destinations facing stiff competition from alternative venues for leisure time and food purchases benefit from supportive linkages that help sustain a critical mass of producers who offer diverse goods, maintain land in agriculture, and thus, reinforce Michigan's image for agritourism. [PUBLICATION ABSTRACT].

Hazard or disaster: Tourism management for the inevitable in Northeast Victoria

Cioccio, L.M., E. J. 2007, Tourism Management Vol 28 side .

In recent years, analysts have focussed on building a range of strategic responses to enhance the ability of communities and businesses to manage and recover from natural disasters. The experience from each new crisis adds further to the process of hazard management. The results in tourism research have expanded the community's collective capacity to respond to such circumstances, but little consideration has been given to how small firms, which are the mainstay of the industry, actually deal with the impacts of a regional catastrophe. The 2003 bushfires in northeast Victoria (Australia) devastated over 1.1 million hectares, destroying the livelihood of some operators and leaving more than one thousand small tourism firms without a revenue base. This paper examines how they prepared for, and recovered from, the event. Perhaps not surprisingly, it exposes their vulnerability and lack of preparedness for dealing with a hazard of this magnitude. On the other hand, it demonstrates the resilience of real-world operators and their reliance on accumulated experience to manage their own recovery. There are lessons here that may well apply in similar circumstances. For example, the paper notes the inadequacy of insurance as a risk management strategy, but emphasizes the value of collective approaches to marketing to rebuild the confidence of future visitors. © 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved..

Measuring integrated rural tourism

Clark, G.C., M. 2007, Tourism Geographies Vol 9 side 371-386.

If the concept of integrated rural tourism, as developed in the SPRITE (Supporting and Promoting Integrated Tourism in Europe's Lagging Rural Regions) project, is to be used as an operational tool to assess the all-round value of tourism in rural areas, there needs to be a means of measuring the value of tourism, and changes in it. Statistical, 'objective' methods of achieving this are critiqued. This paper describes the development of an alternative methodology for assessing the changes in the value of tourism witnessed by different groups of stakeholders in the study areas across Europe between 1992 and 2002. The methodology allows for a holistic view of the extent to which rural tourism is integrated into the local economies and cultures. Differences in perceptions regarding change in the value of tourism between actor groups and countries are noted. Illustrative examples are given of specific events and forms of rural tourism that are perceived as being of high value. It is concluded that while tourism is now better integrated than it was ten years ago, further improvements can be made in identifiable areas and dimensions and for particular actor groups..

Entrepreneurship within rural tourism: A private walkway on Banks Peninsula, New Zealand

Cloesen, U. 2007, Tourism Vol 55 side 81-91.

Rural tourism is considercd an economic alternative for farmers who are facing sinking profits and require additional income. This in turn can lead to an entrepreneurial response. The distinction between simple diversification and entrepreneurship takes place when separate legal entities for new ventures are formed. Entrepreneurship is commonly defined as creating something of value from practically nothing. It is the process of creating or seizing an opportunity, and pursuing it regardless of the resources currently personally controlled. This involves the definition, creation and distribution of value and benefits to individuals. In New Zealand's modern history, the main factor supporting rural development was how a well educated rural population reacted to the withdrawal of farm subsidies in the mid 1980s. Treeby and Burtenshaw (2003) see this as the key, historical driver in the diversification of rural enterprises. New Zealand moved from a highly regulated economy prior to 1984 to one of the most deregulated in the Western World. The thrust of the new government in 1984 was to make farming more efficient by removing subsidies and exposing the rural sector to international prices, including government services, virtually overnight. After initial growing pains, farmers of the post 1984 period are now more confident of their future and reluctant to going back to government subsidized farming. One example of entrepreneurial response resulting from these events has been the establishment of the first private rural walkway in New Zealand on Banks Peninsula..

'Pulling up the Tent Pegs?' The Significance and Changing Status of Coastal Campgrounds in New Zealand

Collins, D.K., R. 2010, Tourism Geographies Vol 12 side 53-76.

This article considers the importance of beach-front campgrounds in New Zealand, both as physical sites offering affordable public access to coastal environments, and as sites of social and psychological meaning. It traces the evolution of coastal campgrounds from 'freedom camping', to more formal (if initially basic) facilities, to the development of relatively up-market holiday parks offering a wide range of services and accommodation options. While camping styles and options changed significantly over the twentieth century, coastal camping itself became valorized as a 'kiwi tradition'. This mainstay of domestic tourism is widely perceived as an ideal way to use and access the coast. However, as part of a coastal property boom, many campgrounds are at risk of closure, and conversion to residential uses. Drawing on multiple sources of data, we chart the ongoing social and emotional significance of coastal campgrounds in New Zealand. While the immediate effect of closure is the displacement of a discrete number of current campers, the longer-term consequences include lost opportunities for future generations, the destruction of a sense of community, and a loss of place attachment..

Developing agritourism in Nova Scotia: Issues and challenges

Colton, J.W.B., G. 2005, Journal of Sustainable Agriculture Vol 27 side 91-112.

Agritourism or farm tourism is increasingly recognized as an important alternative farming activity that can contribute to agricultural sustainability through diversification of the economic base, provision of educational opportunities to tourists, and the engendering of greater community cohesion. Farm tourism activities can include farm markets, wineries, U-Picks, farming interpretive centers, farm-based accommodation and events, and agriculture-based festivals. Nova Scotia is well positioned to offer a competitive agritourism product given its rich farming heritage and increasing pressure on farmers to diversify, however, it is apparent that certain barriers exist to developing market-ready agritourism-related products. This paper reports on the findings of a research project, which sought to identify the issues and challenges of developing agritourism in Nova Scotia from the perspective of stakeholder groups. Through the use of interviews and a focus group using a modified Nominal Group Technique (NGT) process, stakeholders identified several issues that impact on the development of agritourism in Nova Scotia. These include issues related to marketing, product development, government support, education and training, and partnership and communication. As agritourism is a relatively new concept in Nova Scotia, this study represents exploratory research with the purpose of bringing to light potential issues and challenges that future agritourism development must address. © 2005 by The Haworth Press, Inc. All rights reserved..

Negotiating landscape in rural tourism

Daugstad, K. 2008, Annals of Tourism Research Vol 35 side 402-426.

Landscape is a vitally important asset for Norwegian rural tourism. Different views and perceptions of landscape are negotiated among key actors such as operators, tourists, and farmers. This article investigates these negotiations in relation to three dimension of landscape: values and requirements; how it is experienced; and future development prospects. The study shows that while actors hold different positions and attitudes, all of them unite in their concerns about landscape change, and in their desire to preserve food traditions and local produce. Further, this paper argues that there is a general re-orientation in landscape perception from "spectacularization" towards "multi-sensing". © 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved..

Agriculture as an upholder of cultural heritage? Conceptualizations and value judgements - A Norwegian perspective in international context

Daugstad, K.R., K.; Skar, B. 2006, Journal of Rural Studies Vol 22 side 67-81.

The multifunctional role of agriculture as a producer of collective goods in addition to food and fibre, has been stressed within the context of negotiations on the liberalization of the world market for food (WTO) and in general in discussions concerning restructuring of the agricultural sector. One of these collective goods, cultural heritage, is connected to agricultural practice and covers objects, sites and areas influenced by agricultural activity, as well as experience based knowledge of work, resource utilization and management. Agriculture is seen both as a threat to and a caretaker of cultural heritage. This double role is recognized in Norway, although the responsibility of the agricultural sector as a caretaker of cultural heritage is stressed. This article investigates the connection between agriculture and cultural heritage as expressed by public and private actors who define the policy agenda, namely the cultural heritage or environmental, the agricultural and tourism sectors. This is done by analysing explicit and implicit value judgements in central concepts like "cultural heritage", "active agriculture" and "added value". The Norwegian case is compared to the international context. The analysis shows that within a Nordic context active farming and cultural heritage is positively linked and the farmer is seen as a major caretaker, while in documents from dominant international actors cultural heritage is seen as something on the side of active farming. Although differences reflect some actual variation in the consequences of agricultural practices, it is clear that concepts serve as 'legitimizing tools' placing central actors within a specific political agenda. © 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved..

Farming and tourism enterprise: Experiential authenticity in the diversification of independent small-scale family farming

Di Domenico, M.M., G. 2012, Tourism Management Vol 33 side 285-294.

This article examines the business choices made by independent farming families, when confronting the need to diversify away from traditional agricultural activities by starting farm-based tourism businesses. Based on interviews with farm family members who have set up tourism attractions on their farms, and drawing upon the concept of experiential authenticity, the article explores their self-conceptions of their family identities. In so doing, it addresses the choices and dilemmas facing farm families who attempt diversification through the tourism attraction route, and considers how this affects their attitudes towards more traditional farming activities. Using qualitative case study data, an empirically grounded framework is proposed that expresses the choices and challenges facing tourism entrepreneurial family farm members in the UK, through the conceptual lens of experiential authenticity. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd..

Rural residents' opinions about second home owners' pursuit of own interests in the host community

Farstad, M. 2011, Norsk Geografisk Tidsskrift Vol 65 side 165-174.

Many second home owners demand rights, benefits, and influence in their host community, and the article examines how second home owners in pursuit of their interests can gain acceptance among local residents. The analysis is based on interviews with local residents in four rural Norwegian second home municipalities. The findings show that local residents' attitudes towards second home owners' pursuit of their own interests in the host community depend to a large degree upon the residents' perceptions of the outcome of second home tourism in their municipality. Local residents can tolerate second home owners' demands as long as the second home owners satisfy some of the community's significant economic-material or social needs. When second home owners make demands while their presence does not bring any evident benefits to the host community they are perceived as trying to take without giving. Based on these findings, the author argues that it is not second home owners' (objective) otherness from locals that is the main problem in cases of a conflictual climate between the two parties. Rather, it is the local structural context that constitutes the main problem if it does not make it possible for second home owners to contribute to the host community. © 2011 Norwegian Geographical Society..

Impacts of short-time visitors on local communities in the mountain areas of Southern Norway

Flognfeldt, T. 1999, The International Journal of Tourism Research Vol 1 side 359-359.

Many of the rural municipalities in the mountain areas of southern Norway want to develop their tourism possibilities, in addition to agriculture and industrial production. Until now most studies of tourism development in these areas have focused on possibilities of developing facilities for guests staying at resorts, or at tourist bases. Tourists that are passing quickly through the area, just stopping for some hours or just one night, have been looked upon as a type of non-visitor or non-important tourists. As such they are often regarded as a type of non-user of attractions and non-spenders. Our studies show that, measured in economic figures or by activity utilisation, this view is not based on reality. In this paper the focus is to look closer at the roles of such short-time visitors, and to compare their behaviour with that of other types of visitor to the area. [PUBLICATION ABSTRACT].

Stability and variety – Products, organization and institutionalization in farm tourism

Forbord, M.S., Markus; Grießmair, Karin , Tourism Management Vol 33 side 895-909.

Products, collective organization and institutions are factors that shape farm tourism. The aim of this paper is to present new knowledge of the way these factors are designed and provide lessons for management in the sector. Research findings to date suggest these factors are varied but similarities within findings exist. However, while there have been a number of studies on the importance of each of the factors, few studies focus on the combined impact of them. This study attempts to go some way toward filling this knowledge gap. The empirical cases for the study are derived from three European locations: two regions in the Alps: North Tyrol in Austria and South Tyrol in Italy, and Norway. The breadth and variety of the product range differ. We also find clear contrasts between the cases when it comes to the structure of farm tourism organizations. However, the goals of the organizations are quite similar emphasizing three types of tasks: marketing, competence building and quality assurance. Concerning systems for quality assurance, a type of institutional factor, two cases are similar, while the third case (Norway) has a different (less strict) system. Based on a comparative analysis of the cases we develop a conceptual model showing the interdependence between products, organization and institutions in the farm tourism sector, and the influence of market and location. We provide some examples of application of the findings by various actors and agencies in tourism..

Re-conceptualising rural resources as countryside capital: The case of rural tourism

Garrod, B.W., R.; Youell, R. 2006, Journal of Rural Studies Vol 22 side 117-128.

Commentators tend to agree that the rural resource is becoming increasingly subject to pressures arising from an ever wider range of economic, social, political and environmental influences. This paper focuses on the case of rural tourism in illustrating the advantages of adopting a sustainable development approach to identifying suitable policies and strategic action plans to assist in addressing these increasingly complex challenges. The central proposition is that much can be achieved in raising the profile of rural tourism and the nature of its interdependence with rural resources by re-conceptualising the rural resource as a kind of 'capital asset' of the rural tourism industry. Drawing on recent thinking by ecological economists, an approach based on the concept of the constant capital rule is set out. The paper then outlines some of the benefits of re-casting the rural resource as 'countryside capital', using two case-study vignettes by way of illustration. A major conclusion is that re-conceptualising the rural resource as countryside capital provides a more holistic and integrated understanding of the rural tourism production system, which will be required if rural communities are to capture more effectively the potential benefits rural tourism has to offer them. This, in turn, enables a much clearer articulation of the rationale for public-, private- and voluntary-sector investment in rural resources to be made. © 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved..

The importance of destination image analysis to UK rural tourism

Greaves, N.S., H. , Marketing Intelligence and Planning Vol 28 side 486-507.

Purpose: The Forest of Dean attracts relatively low numbers of staying visitors and low visitor spend. The paper aims to explore the image of this destination and identify the potential to visit along with any underlying factors that may deter visitors. Design/methodology/approach: A mix of qualitative and quantitative methods were used to gather and analyse responses to an online survey. Respondents offered a range of words and pictures from which they were asked to select those they felt best represented the destination, and also then asked to explain their selection. Quantitative data were also analysed for frequency of occurrence. A content analysis of qualitative data was conducted to generate destination image clusters of the Forest of Dean. Findings: The findings show there is a very positive and unique image associated with the Forest of Dean among previous visitors, with many expressing an intention to visiting the area again. Research limitations/implications: Although response rates are relatively low, and results are heavily concentrated on actual visitors, the research provides very broad ranging and meaningful data that have offered a deeper and richer insight into the image of the Forest of Dean. Practical implications: The paper has provided important data from which new competitive brand image strategies can be developed for the destination. The paper also provides a first step towards a comprehensive image analysis for the Forest of Dean, from which future promotional strategies can be developed. Originality/value: Many visitor guides promote UK rural destinations on their superb scenery, relaxation, outdoor leisure activities, quality accommodation, locally-sourced food, a range of attractions and a full calendar of events and festivals. To date there has been very little research carried out on UK rural destination brands and no academic research carried out on the image or branding of the Forest of Dean as a unique rural destination. © Emerald Group Publishing Limited..

Do buses help meet tourism objectives? The contribution and potential of scheduled buses in rural destination areas

Guiver, J.L., L.; Weston, R.; Ferguson, M. 2007, Transport Policy Vol 14 side 275-282.

A review of tourism policy documents reveals three key objectives: environmental, social and economic sustainability. This paper examines the role of scheduled buses in meeting these objectives, using data from a large survey of bus passengers in rural tourist destinations. It finds that buses achieve modest modal shift from cars, allow access to the countryside for people without cars and generate spending in local economies. It suggests how these functions could be improved by market-segmentation, better publicity and service delivery and questions why many such services struggle for funding each year. © 2007..

Selling Canadian culinary tourism: Branding the global and the regional product

Hashimoto, A.T., D. J. 2006, Tourism Geographies Vol 8 side 31-55.

Canadian identity with respect to attracting tourists is often associated with the natural environment. Canadian society is, however, also associated with the policy of multiculturalism and diversity. Agencies such as the Canadian Tourism Commission (CTC) have recognized the growing interest in cuisine and have begun to promote Canada as a culinary tourism destination. One of the challenges facing agencies such as the CTC is that there is not an easily definable Canadian cuisine. Canada's culinary traditions have been influenced by a long history of immigration, together with regional product availability. Chefs have combined cultural traditions and local products, creating new forms and styles of cooking. Efforts from different geographical regions across the country will highlight the rich diversity available in Canadian culinary tourism influenced, not only by global but also by regional forces, which can be branded under the umbrella of cuisine in Canada. © 2006 Taylor & Francis..

Harmony or Conflict? A Focus Group Study on Traditional Use and Tourism Development in and around Rondane and Jotunheimen National Parks in Norway

Haukeland, J.V.D., K.; Vistad, O. I. 2011, Scandinavian Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Vol 11 side 13-37.

Rural industries in Norway are increasingly being marginalized, and rural populations are decreasing. Rural areas and the mountain landscapes which often characterize them are, however, highly valued for their biodiversity, and for amenity values, which in many cases are associated with national parks and other protected areas. In this context, the present study seeks to explore local stakeholders' views on issues associated with tourism development in Norwegian national parks - in particular, their personal interests, rural discourses and management planning processes. Four focus group meetings were undertaken in two prominent national parks in Norway, Rondane National Park and Jotunheimen National Park, and with two main user groups: traditional rural user interests and local tourism interests. Findings revealed strong support across all groups for the existence of the two national parks. Both groups in both parks were in favour of some level, and certain types, of tourism within the parks. The local tourism interests, however, felt more strongly than their counterparts that a more extensive tourism strategy was needed to support the local communities. A general frustration with the present management regime was noted among several stakeholders. A key conclusion is that local stakeholders should be significantly involved in future park management processes..

Current Tourism Patterns in the Swedish Mountain Region

Heberlein, T.A.F., P.; Vuorio, T. 2002, Mountain Research and Development Vol 22 side 142-149.

Tourism has been part of the mountain economy in Sweden for the past century. With the current decline of the extractive industries in this rural area, tourism is taking on new significance for many communities. This article gives an overview of tourism in the extensive Swedish mountain region, with a focus on types of recreational activities and their regionality. The data presented are based on a national sample of participation in mountain tourism. Findings show that 43% of the Swedish adult population (2.66 million individuals) visited the mountains at least once during a 5-year period (1995-1999). Winter activities-skiing and snowmobiling-were the dominant forms of mountain recreation. Tourism activity patterns differ distinctively across the 4 mountain counties: whereas winter tourism dominates in the southern parts of the region, the north receives visitors mostly in the summer. Only 5% of visitors to the Swedish mountains are from outside Scandinavia. In a single year, 9 times as many people visited the Swedish mountains as live there, but despite these numbers the population in the region is continually decreasing..

Depathologizing the tourist syndrome: Tourism as social capital production

Heimtun, B. 2007, Tourist Studies Vol 7 side 271-293.

The intention of this article is to discuss and contrast two central aspects of a published interview with Zygmunt Bauman addressing the nature of 'the tourist syndrome' (Franklin, 2003). First, the tourist syndrome is a metaphor for contemporary living in liquid modernity and second, tourism is referred to as 'a substitute satisfaction of a genuine need' (Franklin, 2003: 214). The interview presents a critical and somewhat sceptical perspective on tourism and social life, in which the tourist syndrome is labelled a 'peg community' and the tourism industry characterized as an insatiable seducer. Based on the experiences of Norwegian midlife single women, a more positive notion is suggested. Although most of the midlife single women do not seek difference as tourists, the meaning of tourism is not superficial and/or contrived. It is rather a space for bonding with significant others and about social integration in everyday life. © 2007 SAGE Publications..

Horse-based tourism: Community, quality and disinterest in economic value

Helgadóttir, G.S., I. 2008, Scandinavian Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Vol 8 side 105-121.

Although horse-based tourism is an important and growing sector of the tourism industry, it has not been extensively researched. The findings from the current research project, which involved interviews with owners/ operators of horse-based tourism businesses and a survey of their business practices, suggest that they belong to a culture of horsemanship rather than a culture of tourism as business operations in a service industry. The background, interests and outlook of the participants is that of horsemen: that is people involved with the breeding, training and riding of horses. This is also what they expect their guests to be interested in, and a passion they believe to be shared between hosts and guests. The business operation, including finances, insurance and business plans, were topics that the participants seemed less knowledgeable about and less interested in..

Environmental impacts of rural second home tourism - Case lake district in Finland

Hiltunen, M.J. 2007, Scandinavian Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Vol 7 side 243-265.

Second homes are widespread in the Finnish countryside and represent a significant part of domestic tourism. In this paper impacts of rural second home tourism on natural environment and landscape are discussed mainly from a non-anthropocentric point of view and from the perspective of ecological sustainability. Both negative and positive impacts of second home tourism on nature, climate and landscape are distinguished Environmental impacts caused by housing and living, shoreline building and physical mobility related to second home tourism are highlighted. It is argued that mobility related to second home tourism and year-round use of second homes are likely to increase in the near future and consequently pose negative environmental impacts. The argument is based on current societal trends and on results of a questionnaire survey conducted amongst second-home owners living in the metropolitan region of Helsinki and possessing second homes in eastern Finnish Lake District. There is today a large political will to enhance second home tourism in Finland, which is seen crucial for revitalizing the declining countryside. Contradictions between rural development policy on one hand, and environmental protection on the other, are critically discussed and ecological sustainability of second home tourism explored..

Sustainable leisure life modes and rural welfare economy. The case of the Randers Fjord area, Denmark

Hjalager, A.-M. 2004, International Journal of Tourism Research Vol 6 side 177-188.

As increasing attention has been paid to rural tourism as a specific form of tourism development, so too has the scope of research into tourism in rural areas become more diverse. Typically, studies focus primarily upon the economic developmental contribution of rural tourism, although a significant amount of work has been undertaken on the consequences of rural tourism development and attitudes/motivations on the part of visitors and/or local communities. However, no attempt has yet been made to integrate studies of both visitors and local communities within the framework of rural tourism development policy. The purpose of this paper is to address this gap in the literature. Drawing on a study of tourism in the Randers Fjord, a relatively underdeveloped area of rural Denmark, it identifies and analyses three groups of tourists characterised by life modes: (i) traditionalists, (ii) peace seekers and (iii) adventurers. In each case, expectations, behaviour and future needs are revealed through qualitative interviews. The predominant (traditionalist) life mode of tourists, it is argued, closely matches that of the area's residents. This, the paper suggests, presents significant barriers to the development and enhancement of tourism, as do the prevailing economic structures and employment patterns. Thus, tourism development policy should take into account both tourists' and locals' life modes in order to progress towards sustainable rural tourism development..

Farm-based tourism as an alternative farm enterprise: A case study from the Northern Pennines, England

Ilbery, B.B., Ian; Clark, Gordon; Crockett, Alastair; Shaw, Alastair 1998, Regional Studies Vol 32 side 355-364.

The development of farm-based tourism in the less favored area of the northern Pennines is examined. Farm tourism is conceptualized as an alternative farm enterprise comprising 1 of 7 possible pathways of farm business development. As such, the development of farm-based tourism is influenced by a range of factors both external and internal to the farm. Lower levels of family labor distinguish tourist AFE farms from non-tourist AFE farms, while different types of FBT are associated with particular farm and household characteristics. Nevertheless, the reason for adopting tourist enterprises are diverse and often very individualistic. Institutional involvement in FBT in the study area is increasing, but it is reactive rather than proactive and tends to constrain as well as enable the development of farm tourism. Few farmers have contacted institutions about new or existing farm tourism enterprises. However, levels of inter-agency networking are increasing and a core of 8 institutions is now dominating institutional behavior towards AFEs and FBT in the northern Pennines, especially in Northumberland. More research is needed on the interactions between farm households and institutions in the development of FBT..

Exploring tourists and gatekeepers' attitudes towards integrated rural tourism in the England- Wales border region

Ilbery, B.S., G.; Kneafsey, M. 2007, Tourism Geographies Vol 9 side 441-468.

This paper investigates the perceptions of tourists and gatekeepers (such as tour operators and destination marketing organizations) on integrated rural tourism (IRT), noting their role in consuming and marketing the more recently acknowledged qualities of rurality, such as food processing, creativity and the arts, heritage and outdoor recreation. The focus is on the potential for IRT development in the England-Wales border region, an atypical tourist destination, peripheral in character and lacking a consolidated tradition of well-established destinations. Results from tourist questionnaires suggest that their overall experience in the region is positive, but one that can improve further with progress on the key dimensions of IRT. Findings also indicate that, while the national border presents a unique opportunity for cooperative branding and marketing efforts, only a few gatekeepers are capitalizing on the brand of the 'Marches' (the border) to promote the market and visual presence of the region, both nationally and internationally..

The impacts of foot and mouth disease on a peripheral tourism area: The role and effect of crisis management

Irvine, W.A., A. R. 2006, Journal of Travel and Tourism Marketing Vol 19 side 47-60.

This study reports on the consequences of endemic cattle and sheep disease (2001) on two separate areas on the tourist industry; (a) the Grampian Region of Scotland (indirectly affected) and (b) Cumbria in England (directly affected), and secondly on the effects of various crisis management strategies to alleviate the ensuing problems in both areas. Data were collected by a survey of a sample of 200 tourism orientated SME operators in Grampian and 170 businesses in Cumbria. The results show two forms of impact caused by the disease, direct and those less obvious or tangible. Direct impact was the dramatic loss of trade, most dramatically experienced by the lack of tourists visiting the areas. Indirect effects included loss of supply, change to the product offered and cuts in future investment. In the combination of these impacts, it was clear that the effects would have longevity far beyond the period of the actual crisis. Although the actual presence of the disease was geographically limited in Grampian, the consequences rippled out to affect areas that had no direct connection. In Cumbria, the effects were only slightly more severe but the response more direct and initially effective. Significantly the data also demonstrated a perception of minimal effort by the government to limit the consequences to the farming industry especially in Grampian. We conclude that the tourist industry in peripheral regions is fragile and highly vulnerable to any external shocks. However, we also note the ability of small rural firms to respond to such catastrophes and to avert the worst impacts of crisis. © 2005 by The Haworth Press, Inc. All rights reserved..

Social mediation in remote developing world tourism locations - the significance of social ties between local guides and host communities in sustainable tourism development

Jensen, O. 2010, Journal of Sustainable Tourism Vol 18 side 615-633.

This article discusses the role of the local, or regional, guide as a social mediator between a host society and tourists, as a means of sustainable tourism development in developing world locations. The debate illustrates how previous studies have neglected this social aspect of mediation by tourist guides and partly absorbed it into the concept of cultural mediation. Empirical illustrations are offered from the context of small tourist group visitations to local villages in rural areas of Madagascar, where collective social norms still play an important role. A qualitative approach based on personal interviews with guides and on field trip experience and observation is employed. Empirical findings indicate that the inclination of the host society to welcome accompanied tourists is facilitated by the capacity of local guides to develop relatively strong social ties with the host society. It is suggested that the increased use of local guides with good social relationships with the local communities as against the mere employment of non-local accompanying guides working for centrally located tour operators can enrich the mutual experience quality in the encounter between visitors and hosts and support local sustainable development by enhanced local involvement. Implications for sustainable tourism practice are discussed..

Resident Attitudes Towards Mountain Second-Home Tourism Development in Norway: The Effects of Environmental Attitudes

Kaltenborn, B.P.A., O.; Nellemann, C.; Bjerke, T.; Thrane, C. 2008, Journal of Sustainable Tourism Vol 16 side 664-680.

Rural tourism, especially through second-home development is increasing rapidly in much of Europe, the USA and Canada offering new economic opportunities for local communities, but also challenges related to environmental impacts and differing perceptions within communities about appropriate development paths. This study examines associations between the environmental attitudes of residents and attitudes towards second-home development in two regions in Southern Norway, with community attachment and economic dependency as additional predictors. Ecocentrism was found to have a strong negative effect on attitudes towards tourism development, while, in contrast to previous findings, community attachment did not have significant effects. Economic dependency is significantly related to attitudes towards development; both ecocentrism and economic dependency are mediated by other variables, such as expected impacts and benefits. The findings are important in planning to reduce potential conflicts..

The meaning of place: attachments to Femundsmarka National Park, Norway, among tourists and locals

Kaltenborn, B.P.W., D. R. 2002, Norwegian Journal of Geography Vol 56 side 189-198.

In Norway, the management of natural and cultural resources is subject to increasing public scrutiny. Conflicts are escalating over many issues concerning the balance between preservation and utilisation. Traditionally conflicts over issues like growth in commercial nature tourism, predator control, forest policies, protected areas management, cultural heritage protection, and rights associated with common access, have been explained in terms of opposing values, attitudes, and goals between urban and rural interests. However, historical differences between the urban and rural in terms of social conditions, employment opportunities, services, cultural norms, and lifestyles are no longer clear-cut or predictable. Nor can differences between urban and rural communities easily explain attitudes or values held in relation to the environment. To examine how a local community and a population of tourists feel about an area we examine data from two separate surveys from the Femundsmarka-Roeros region in Southern Norway. This region includes a wilderness-type national park and a historic mining town recognised as a World Heritage Site and including a diverse agricultural landscape. We compare the perspective of the community with that of tourists regarding the strength and nature of attachment to place, and reasons and priorities for resource protection. We also assess how residence and experience of using the area affect attachment to place and attitudes to management priorities. The results have implications both for the management of this particular area, and for how we approach attitude diversity in resource management..

Locals' and Tourists' Sense of Place: A Case Study of a Swiss Alpine Village

Kianicka, S.B., Matthias; Hunziker, Marcel; Müller-Böker, Ulrike 2006, Mountain Research and Development Vol 26 side 55-63.

The development of Swiss Alpine landscapes must comply with the needs of different interest groups. We assume that the way people relate to places, and particularly the sense of place they have, is a basis for their needs and aims regarding future landscape development. Conflicts among aims can be better understood if the underlying place relations are known. Therefore, we inductively examined differences between locals' and tourists' sense of place by means of a qualitative interview study in Alvaneu, a Swiss Alpine village. In social science theory, "sense of place" is used as an umbrella concept for manifold people-place relations. The findings reveal that the place characteristics relevant to sense of place are approximately the same for both groups. However, locals and tourists attribute different meanings and significance to these characteristics, and thus have distinct needs regarding landscape development. Consequently, a balance between appropriate economic development desired by locals and the preservation of the cultural characteristics and authenticity sought by tourists must be found when pursuing sustainable landscape development. [PUBLICATION ABSTRACT].

Tourism as a mechanism for farm survival

Knowd, I. 2006, Journal of Sustainable Tourism Vol 14 side 24-42.

This case study explores the linkages between tourism, community and development forces in the peri-urban zones of Sydney, Australia. The Hawkesbury Harvest Farm Gate Trail (HHFGT) emerged as a response to market, development, settlement and consumer pressures threatening the survival of farming in the region, together with connections to community health initiatives in food access, safety, security and quality that were spawned by the Healthy Cities programme and Agenda 21. The interaction created between farmers and tourists involved new challenges for farmers in production, marketing and service provision. Although challenging, community-based initiatives like the Farm Gate Trail are shown to hold great potential for sustainable development and sustainable tourism despite the attendant risks associated with small-scale, intensive agriculture, tourism management issues and the land use conflicts that are created when town and country meet in the urban fringe areas of major metropolises. © 2006 I. Knowd..

Appreciative inquiry and rural tourism: A case study from canada

Koster, R.L.P.L., R. H. 2009, 'Recherche appréciative' et le tourisme rural: Un cas d'étude canadien Vol 11 side 256-269.

Many Canadian, resource-based communities are facing an economic crisis and often turn to tourism for economic diversification and some recent trends in the growth of tourism employment in Canada's rural areas suggest that such choices are well founded. Despite positive growth indicators, rural tourism is criticized for several reasons, including issues with employment, ownership and lack of understanding of the industry. Although much has been written on the development of community-based tourism and its potential to address such concerns, much of the discussion remains at theoretical levels, with few examinations of practical frameworks for rural communities in crisis, such as the current experience in Northwestern Ontario, Canada. Enquiries into tourism's contribution to rural community economic development identified two gaps concerning how rural tourism can be a viable industry in resource-dependent communities and how to embed the industry within a community seeking alternatives from a deficit/crisis context. Interviews with a tourism operator in rural Manitoba, Canada seemed to provide an answer to both of these questions, through the application of Appreciative Inquiry (AI) to rural tourism development. Such an examination indicates that although such an approach does not solve the issues, it does provide a new lens through which to understand the potential for tourism in rural communities. © 2009 Taylor & Francis..

Last-chance tourism: The boom, doom, and gloom of visiting vanishing destinations

Lemelin, H.D., J.; Stewart, E. J.; Maher, P.; Lueck, M. 2010, Current Issues in Tourism Vol 13 side 477-493.

Popular press and industry stakeholders are reporting a travel trend whereby tourists increasingly seek to experience the world's most endangered sites before they vanish or are irrevocably transformed. Termed 'last-chance' or 'doom' tourism in the popular media, the desire for tourists to witness vanishing landscapes or seascapes and disappearing species may have important consequences for tourism management, yet the nature of these consequences is poorly understood by the academic community. This paper describes how last-chance tourism is promoted in various tourism marketing strategies, especially in the Arctic. The analysis is supported through a literature review of web-based information and an analysis of three different studies conducted in Churchill, Manitoba, Canada - the self-declared polar bear capital of the world. The authors also examine more closely the concepts of dark and last-chance tourism, and elaborate on the possible connections between the two. The paper concludes with a discussion of the implications of this type of tourism and identifies potential risks and opportunities. © 2010 Taylor & Francis..

Farm-based entrepreneurs: what triggers the start-up of new business activities?

Ljunggren, E. 2003, Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development Vol 10 side 435-443.

This exploratory study combines three theoretical approaches to investigate why farmers start additional business activities: the rural sociology perspective, the opportunity perspective and the resource-based perspective - as applied within entrepreneurship research. Building on in-depth interviews of respondents from Norwegian farm households, three types of entrepreneurs were identified: the pluriactive farmer, the resource exploiting entrepreneur and the portfolio entrepreneur. These entrepreneurial types differed in regard to their basic motivation and objectives for start-up, the source of their business ideas, the basis of competitive position and the connectivity between the new business and the farm, as well as in several other ways. [PUBLICATION ABSTRACT].

Farmer's participation decisions regarding agro-tourism activities in Norway

Loureiro, M.L.J., A. M. 2005, Tourism Economics Vol 11 side 453-469.

This paper assesses the roles played in the adoption of agro-tourism activities in Norway by socio-demographic factors, the financial situation of the farm household, and the productive orientation and physical location of the farm. Rural tourism activities in Norway fall into two broad categories: (a) licensing of fishing and hunting rights and (b) letting of rooms on the farm, huts and cabins, and the provision or direct selling of food to travellers. The results of the analysis indicate that factors such as the size and the location (rural or semi-rural) of the farm play a statistically significant and more important role in the decision to license fishing and hunting rights than in the development of other agro-tourism activities on the farm. On the other hand, socio-demographic factors, such as the presence of a female partner in the household and the age of the main farm operator, play a statistically significant role in the adoption of on-farm agro-tourism activities..

The Warwickshire Rural Hub - Working together for the future

Lucas, H.R., J. 2005, Journal of the Royal Agricultural Society of England Vol 166 side .

The Warwickshire Rural Hub is a group started for farmers by farmers and rural businesses. Since it got off the ground in autumn 2003 more than 1,000 people have attended its events on subjects including waste management, hemp, rural tourism, equestrian enterprises, information technology and bio-energy. It has also helped the development of a major food distribution project, The Green Grocer. There are nine specialist groups tasked with developing areas as diverse as rural tourism and bio-fuels, IT and farm waste. The Hub has received support from several organisations including the RASE and the members of the Rural Forum for Coventry, Solihull & Warwickshire which provided a co-ordinator and helped with the appointment of a facilitator for Defra's Rural Enterprise Scheme. She has helped rural businesses to gain more than £1.7 million of support for their projects. Funding from the Coventry & Warwickshire Learning & Skills Council has paid for Hub events and best practice visits, and covered the cost of research to enable the Hub to better understand the learning needs of its members. An important function of the Hub is to ensure that rural voices are heard by the key agencies involved in rural development. Copyright © 2005 Royal Agricultural Society of England All rights reserved..

Second home localizations in the Swedish mountain range

Lundmark, L.M., R. 2005, Tourism Vol 53 side .

The second home tourism provides a fundamental contribution to domestic tourism. The failure to identify these, as part of the tourism product would exclude a large part of travel, infrastructure and tourist behaviour. Second home tourism is a relatively cheap and efficient way of getting more people and their consumption to rural areas, at least on a temporary basis. Second home tourists are also loyal to the destination, with repeat visits and low marketing cost for the receiving area. The aim of this study is to determine the importance of different factors for the second home localization. This is achieved by developing a spatial statistical model. Utilizing data from a comprehensive geo-referenced database, the localization of second homes are examined and analyzed. Results show that the most important factor for the development of second home agglomerations is the number of permanent residents in the immediate area surrounding the second home. Rural areas suffering from out-migration are attractive for a large part of the population, however not for permanent living but in terms of leisure and recreation. Nonetheless, in the future the significance of permanent tourists or vacation residents for these rural areas may be of increasing economic importance..

Searching for a new enterprise: Themed tourism and the re-making of one small Canadian community

Mair, H. 2009, Tourism Geographies Vol 11 side 462-483.

While many have explored fantasy-based and themed cities, relatively few consider these developments within small communities. This paper investigates the implications for fantasy-themed tourism development in one small community on the Canadian Prairies. Vulcan, Alberta was a product of the agricultural industry but economic hardships have threatened the community, leading to ongoing attempts to'cash in' on the community's name in connection with the Star Trek television series. Three main features of this case of worldmaking are presented: (1) why and how this image/identity has been brought into the community; (2) how it has been contested and negotiated by visitors and locals; and (3) how this case helps develop our critical understanding of the implications of themed environments. In addition, a critical, interpretivist research methodology is presented as offering valuable insights into the making and re-making of communities through tourism. © 2009 Taylor & Francis..

Global restructuring and local responses: Investigating rural tourism policy in two Canadian communities

Mair, H. 2006, Current Issues in Tourism Vol 9 side .

The paper examines the relationship between rural development strategies and tourism in two Canadian communities from 1975 to 2000. Concentrating on these case studies, the paper utilises a political economy approach to consider the forces leading to tourism having been positioned as a saviour in local economic development, and makes links between this and overarching ideological changes within the globalising capitalist economy. As capital cements its latest form through the withdrawal of the state and the extension of the consumption, service-based economy, tourism is naturalised as an appropriate policy response to rural development problems. The response of local governing structures to this era of political and economic restructuring can be seen as a move towards establishing a new regime of accumulation based upon the service industry. It is argued that the actions of the local state cannot be considered without a reflection upon the broader political economy; tourism is presented as a policy option that is part of a more general response to the changing place of rural areas in the continental and global economy. The paper contributes to a growing literature addressing strategies of tourism promotion within the context of economic development as four dimensions are presented: rationale, responsibility, execution, and content. © 2006 H. Mair..

The displacement myth: Second home tourism in the Stockholm archipelago

Marjavaara, R. 2007, Tourism Geographies Vol 9 side 296-317.

Second homes are important for many households in Sweden. However, second homes are not uncontroversial and sometimes cause conflicts between the second home owners and locals. In attractive destinations, second homes are frequently blamed for creating price inflation, increased property values and higher property tax for all dwellings, including permanent homes. It is argued that this development is causing a displacement of permanent residents from these areas. However, others argue that the current depopulation trend in attractive second home destinations is caused by a restructuring of the rural labour market. This study departs from this societal and scientific conflict and has its aim in testing the displacement theory. This is done through an empirical case study dealing with essential issues regarding the development of second homes, permanent homes and changes in property values. The case area is the most popular second home destination in Sweden: the archipelago of Stockholm. Results show that increased assessed property values are caused primarily by increasing numbers of permanent homes, and the area is being repopulated rather than depopulated. The study concludes that no evidence of displacement caused by second home demand can be traced on a regional geographical level..

Research report: Searching for complementarities between agriculture and tourism - The demarcated wine-producing regions of northern Portugal

Marques, H. 2006, Tourism Economics Vol 12 side 147-155.

This paper discusses the role of agritourism in deprived rural areas as an instrument of regional development that builds on local cultural and natural advantages. This is illustrated with preliminary data collected from interviews carried out at agritourism enterprises from the demarcated wine-producing regions of the north of Portugal. The evidence gathered shows that tourism may have a role in marketing unique local products, preserving architectural heritage and developing physical and human capital in which rural regions are lacking. Moreover, the LEADER capital provided by the European Union was a crucial factor in the interviewees' initial investment decisions..

Developing woodlands for tourism: Concepts, connections and challenges

Martin, S. 2008, Journal of Sustainable Tourism Vol 16 side 386-407.

Driven by potential economic benefits for rural communities, tourism has become an increasingly central focus of sustainable woodland management in Great Britain. Knowledge of the values and uses of woodlands for tourism, and the impacts of woodland management on tourism is, however, limited. This paper outlines qualitative research in three study areas which used in-depth interviews and discussion groups to engage with tourism providers to explore these issues. It argues that woodlands are an important constituent of 'countryside capital', with woodlands' imagery and accessibility, and their natural and man-made resources used directly and indirectly by tourism enterprises. A landscape-scale approach to tourism planning and development is advocated to ensure a more holistic use of woodlands for tourism. Critical issues are identified as being strategy and integration, local engagement, sharing of information, resources, costs and benefits between stakeholders, and policies and practices to stimulate innovation and growth..

Exploring the relationship between local hockey franchises and tourism development

Mason, D.S.D., G. H. 2008, Tourism Management Vol 29 side 1157-1165.

This paper examines six Western Canadian communities in order to explore how existing local hockey franchises have been used for tourism development purposes. Themes emerging from interviews with 24 prominent members of the communities, including tourism and economic development officers, team owners and managers, arena operators, and mayors, are discussed. Efforts made by select local business owners and operators are outlined. While franchises are considered integral parts of their local communities that generate significant exposure, they remain an untapped tourism development opportunity. The discussion revisits the literature on small cities and tourism development. Recommendations are then made to develop more comprehensive, city-initiated development strategies that emphasize the team's importance as a winter activity that celebrates the sport and local culture. © 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved..

An agritourism systems model: A Weberian perspective

McGehee, N.G. 2007, Journal of Sustainable Tourism Vol 15 side 111-124.

Agritourism is growing as a form of agricultural diversification in rural communities in the United States, as is research targeting the impact of agritourism on its various stakeholders. This paper examines the needs and obstacles of farm families acting as agritourism providers, Destination Marketing Organisations (DMOs), and agritourists, and develops a model to address each of these three stakeholder group's unique motivations and needs for participating in an agritourism system. The model features the three stakeholders communicating successfully with each other and engaging in mutually beneficial relationships, primarily due to the application of Weber's formal and substantive rationality. Ultimately, the model will be applied in the field, and specific strategies recommended for improving the agritourism system's success. These strategies could serve as decision-support tools for entrepreneurial farms and firms leading to an improved quality of life and community as well as economic sustainability. © 2007 N.G. McGehee..

Gender and motivation for agri-tourism entrepreneurship

McGehee, N.G.K., K.; Jennings, G. R. 2007, Tourism Management Vol 28 side 280-289.

The purpose of this study was to explore the potentially gendered nature of motivations for agri-tourism entrepreneurship among Virginia farm families. Three elements of Chaippe and Flora's [Gendered elements of the alternative agriculture paradigm. Rural Sociology, 63(3), 372-393] modification of Beus and Dunlap's [Conventional versus alternative agriculture: The paradigmatic roots of the debate. Rural Sociology, 55(4), 590-616] alternative agricultural paradigm were tested as a possible theoretical framework for agri-tourism motivation. Chiappe and Flora [Gendered elements of the alternative agriculture paradigm. Rural Sociology, 63(3), 372-393] found that overall the alternative agriculture goals of men and women were similar: for example, both men and women were seeking independence, an opportunity to contribute to the community, and diversity of product. However, there were very different meanings and contexts attached to each of these ideas. For example, when discussing independence, women were more focused on "expense-reducing" rather than the "income-inducing" activities preferred by their mate counterparts. Results of this study indicate that women were found to have higher motivation for agri-tourism entrepreneurship in all categories, but not consistently significant or in ways that necessarily supported the framework. (c) 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved..

My Home Is My Castle: Defiance of the Commercial Homestay Host in Tourism

McIntosh, A.J.L., P.; Sweeney, M. 2011, Journal of Travel Research Vol 50 side 509-519.

The intrinsic nature of small tourism business provision has rarely been captured in previous literature, but it has recently gained momentum within scholarly discourse exploring the role of the "home" in tourism and hospitality. This article contributes an examination of the commercial homestay host in New Zealand with a particular focus on the hosts' personal relationship with their "commercial home." The article reports the findings of in-depth interviews conducted with commercial homestay hosts in New Zealand. Findings allude to the tyranny of the homestay hosts in their tourism hosting role, their oppressive social need, self-marginalization, and distinctive identity-one that is notably defiant of other commercial hospitality and tourism business norms. In contrast, previous studies rarely showcase the personal perspectives, conscious defiance, or marginalization of commercial hospitality provision. Consequences for understanding the tourism and hospitality phenomenon of commercial home hosting are thus discussed..

From passenger to driver: Creativity and culture in rural communities

Mitchell, P.F., R. 2010, Tourism, Culture and Communication Vol 10 side 187-200.

This study examines the activities of an arts group in a small rural town in Australia through the lens of the Creative Industries paradigm. The aim of the study is to gain deeper understanding of the potential of arts activities to impact on a community. The study evaluates how future growth of the arts in such communities may be augmented by use of the paradigm supported by a branding approach based on creativity and innovation. The research uses in-depth interviews of volunteers and other key actors in a rural arts festival. Findings suggest that the Creative Industries paradigm provides a framework that supports and develops the work of community art in rural communities. The paradigm also supports the development of a branding strategy based on creativity and innovation. © 2010 Cognizant Comm. Corp..

Land use in the Swedish mountain region: Trends and conflicting goals

Moen, J. 2006, International Journal of Biodiversity Science and Management Vol 2 side 305-314.

This paper describes historical and current trends in the use of natural resources in the Swedish mountain region, with the aim of providing a background for understanding the complexity of managing natural resources in the area. The mountain region is a sparsely populated area with low productivity and large conservation values. Traditionally, hunting, fishing and reindeer husbandry were important and still are important. Mining, hydroelectric energy production and forestry have also employed many people, although less in recent times. Tourism is sometimes seen as a potential saviour in terms of employment, but has not yet reached high enough levels to compensate for other losses. The intensity and types of land use have thus varied over time, with some rapid changes. The contribution of different forms of land use to the well-being of local societies has also varied. This highly dynamic pattern is likely to continue in the future, and the question is how to meet these changes in order to achieve a sustainable use of natural resources. The current management of different natural resources is a complex issue, not least because of conflicting goals and many hierarchical levels in the decision processes. Underlying many of these conflicts are also unclear legal rights which will have to be clarified..

The importance of networks in special interest tourism: Case studies of music tourism in Australia

Moscardo, G.M., B.; Murphy, L.; Pearce, P. 2009, International Journal of Tourism Policy Vol 2 side .

Music tourism can be seen as a type of special interest cultural tourism. This paper addresses the role of themed music festivals in regional development. Three diverse and recurring music tourism events in regional Queensland, Australia are studied. The case studies describe the festivals and their impacts and contributions to tourism development in their area. These analyses specifically examine the roles of clusters and networks in the contributions made by these events to regional tourism and associated development. The results of the analyses are used to examine government policies and recommendations are made to support better outcomes for host communities. Copyright © 2009, Inderscience Publishers..

Second home ownership and sustainable development in northern Sweden

Muller, D.K. 2002, Tourism and Hospitality Research Vol 3 side 343-355.

Second home tourism can be considered a good option for contributing to sustainable development in rural areas due to its limited negative impact on environment and host community and due to its important contribution to local service suppliers. This is particularly true when the second home is not rented but owned. Hence, the purpose of this paper is to provide a broad overview of second home ownership in peripheral parts of Sweden and to discuss the interrelationship between sustainable development and second home tourism in those areas. It is argued that a decreasing demand for second homes due to societal changes in the metropolitan areas challenges the role of second home tourism for a sustainable development. The analysis is mainly based on a unique geographical database covering more than 500,000 second homes in Sweden and providing information about their value, location and owners..

Beyond the renaissance of the traditional Voss sheep's-head meal: Tradition, culinary art, scariness and entrepreneurship

Mykletun, R.J.G.t., S. , Tourism Management Vol 31 side 434-446.

Attempts have been made to make traditional local foods a part of the tourists' experiences, but few have caught great interest among the tourist and leisure consumers. An exception is the Norwegian traditional Sheep's-head meal. This article focuses on driving factors behind this success. Sheep's heads have been continuously available and used at private meals, albeit the status of the meals has changed from everyday food to party food, and a festival and commercial meals with unique ceremonies have developed. Participation in these may give a sense of symbolic proximity to traditions and historical "roots". The culinary qualities of the product are important especially for the experienced sheep's-head meal participants. The scariness of the product itself and the measures taken to make the meal an enjoyable adventures trigger the feelings of courage, mastery and inclusion in the "in-group" of sheep's-head eaters. Most important for the success were the individual entrepreneurships and entrepreneurial networks which were the number one drivers behind the rejuvenation of these unique meal experiences. This case illustrates the significance of the individual and network entrepreneurial processes in the branding and development of tourism destinations. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved..

'Cittáslow' eco-gastronomic heritage as a tool for destination development

Nilsson, J.H.S., A. C.; Widarsson, A.; Wirell, T. 2011, Current Issues in Tourism Vol 14 side 373-386.

Slow Food has gained considerable attention as a social movement trying to counteract increasing globalisation in eating habits and food production. Cittáslow, a network of towns, are working with qualitative local urban development, based on similar principles as Slow Food. The 'slow' movements could be expected to have influences on tourism development. This possible connection has been neglected in the scientific tourism literature. Based on a study in three Cittáslow towns in Northern Italy, this article concentrates on how destination development is conducted in a Cittáslow context, unveiling some contradictions between the commercial sides of tourism and the non-commercial ethos of the Cittáslow movement. The studied towns were involved in various efforts in the field of sustainable planning, thereby also improving destination specific resources and local identity. One example is their focus on 'slow' events, mainly based on local gastronomy. Tourism marketing was, however, only of secondary importance; which mirrors some scepticism towards mass tourism and commercialisation, and even against marketing as such. Despite this, the Cittáslow concept may have an indirect potential for tourism development by improving product development and increased visibility. The risks involved concern gentrification and overexploitation. © 2011 Taylor & Francis..

Opportunity or threat? Finnish hunters' attitudes to hunting tourism

Nygard, M.U., L. 2011, Journal of Sustainable Tourism Vol 19 side 383-401.

This article examines elements of the social sustainability of hunting tourism development by scrutinising Finnish hunters' opinions on three possible scenarios related to hunting tourism: the threat of an exclusion of local hunters, the threat of rising rents of hunting land and the threat to Finnish hunting customs and practice due to increasing numbers of foreign hunting tourists. Hunters' positions on these three issues are mapped and the determinants of their attitudes are analysed using unique national survey data on Finnish hunters and their attitudes (N= 1193). The results show a clear ambivalence to hunting tourism among hunters. While a majority of hunters tend to view hunting tourism as a threat, a large minority relate to it more positively. These attitudinal patterns can be explained only partly by socioeconomic factors, whereas factors pertaining to hunting experience and hunting profile play a somewhat more prominent role in understanding the legitimacy that hunting tourism enjoys in the eyes of hunters in Finland. Age, rural residence and participation in wildlife management are also found important for some issues. The ambiguities revealed could pose major problems for social sustainability and hunting tourism management and development..

A GIS Approach to Evaluating Ecological Sensitivity for Tourism Development in Fragile Environments. A Case Study from SE Iceland

Olafsdottir, R.R., M. C. 2009, Scandinavian Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Vol 9 side 22-38.

Expansion of tourism in the northern periphery regions provides innovative resources for an economic boost to many of the peripheral communities. The northern ecosystems are however extremely vulnerable. It is therefore of vital importance for such communities to plan the growth of tourism along sustainable lines in order to secure long-term economic benefit from tourism. Geographical Information Systems (GIS) can handle multiple spatial criteria and provide a tool for the allocation of resources between conflicting demands and aid decision-makers in planning. Despite increased use of GIS in environmental planning and management, the application of GIS to tourism planning is still limited. This study aims to develop a methodology to generate a Tourism Decision Support System (TDSS) to aid planning of sustainable tourism. A GIS model was developed based on classification of identified impact factors and variables, as well as selected classification algorithms that were used to assess categories of ecological sensitivity that may aid decision makers in planning and managing sustainable tourism in sensitive areas that are facing the risk of being subjected to ecological degradation..

Stated economic and social motivations of farm tourism operators

Ollenburg, C.B., R. 2007, Journal of Travel Research Vol 45 side 444-452.

Farm tourism enterprises combine the commercial constraints of regional tourism, the nonfinancial features of family businesses, and the inheritance issues of family farms. They have theoretical significance in regional tourism geography and economics, family tourism business dynamics, and rural diversification. We examined motivations of farm tourism operators throughout Australia using both qualitative and quantitative methods. In contrast to Europe and the United States, social motivations are marginally more important overall than economic motivations. For most operators, however, both are important; and different motivations are dominant for different types of farm landholders and at different stages in farm, family, and business lifecycles. For some families, tourism is a critical component of income streams to keep the current generation on the family property and provide opportunities for succeeding generations. For others it combines social opportunities with retirement income. Tourism, agricultural, or rural initiatives, including farm tourism, need to incorporate this diversity. © 2007 Sage Publications..

THE INTERRELATIONSHIP OF BIODIVERSITY AND RURAL VIABILITY: SUSTAINABILITY ASSESSMENT, LAND USE SCENARIOS AND NORWEGIAN MOUNTAINS IN A EUROPEAN CONTEXT

Olsson, E.G.A.R., K.; Hanssen, S. K.; Wehn, S. 2011, Journal of Environmental Assessment Policy and Management Vol 13 side 251-284.

The decline and restructuring of agriculture is particularly evident in mountain areas, leading to forest recolonisation on former mountain pastures threatening biodiversity and landscape qualities, and the appeal of the mountain landscape for recreation and tourism. Land use change scenarios based on different agri-environmental incentives were developed for the Jotunheimen mountains, Norway, in collaboration with local stakeholders. Sustainability assessments of the scenarios underscored the connections between landscape, biodiversity and local cultural heritage as the fundament for the development of local enterprises for tourism and niche production. Biodiversity values solely, were not considered to be of major importance by the stakeholders..

Second Homes, Rurality and Contested Space in Eastern Norway

Overvåg, K.B., Nina Gunnerud 2011, Tourism Geographies Vol 13 side 417.

From international experience, second homes often lead to 'contested space issues'. This seems to be grounded mainly in the fact that second-home owners and local populations share the same spaces but disagree about the future development of them. Tensions are often rooted in second-home owners' eagerness to prevent local developments that may spoil their new-found rural lifestyle. This article, based on a study of eastern Norway and particularly the municipalities of Ringebu and Kragero, examines how conceptions of Norwegian rurality and the Norwegian second-home phenomenon impact on the level and types of contestations connected to second homes in eastern Norway. The main conclusion is that second homes are a less contested issue in eastern Norway than in many other countries, mainly because vast unpopulated and relatively cheap land has made possible a separation of first and second homes. Simultaneously, rural restructuring processes are changing this picture. Rural land for second-home development is becoming a confined resource in many attractive areas, especially along the coast where the density of second and permanent homes is quite high. Thus, the potential for contestations between second-home owners and rural residents is increasing. [PUBLICATION ABSTRACT].

Implementing integrated rural tourism: An event-based approach

Panyik, E.C., C.; Rátz, T. 2011, Tourism Management Vol 32 side 1352-1363.

In the past two decades, community involvement in local policy-making has gained increasing attention as an alternative approach to rural development in the European Union (EU), particularly in the context of the complementary sectors of agriculture such as tourism. Although there is a wide range of integrated approaches to tourism development in rural areas identified in the literature, the event-based approach has not been at the centre of attention so far. This paper aims to fill this gap and reports on the collaborative capacity building of the LEADER. 11A French acronym derived from 'Liaison Entre Actions de Développement de l'Économie Rurale', meaning 'Links between the rural economy and development actions'. Local Action Groups (LAGs) for rural tourism promotion in the context of an innovative, national-level event, the 'Hungarian Rural Tourism Days'. A mixed-method approach was applied to explore and compare the supply-side views on the successes and failures of the event planning and organisation process and to derive key success factors of the event-based approach to Integrated Rural Tourism (IRT). The results provided evidence on the consequences of the failure to integrate local concerns into the event organisation process and highlighted the critical role of the intermediary management in establishing trust relationships with the rural service providers. Furthermore, it is argued that the major challenge of the event-based approach to IRT rests in the capacity of the stakeholders to collectively plan and implement a marketing strategy at the local level. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd..

Landscape governance for or by the local population? A property rights analysis in Austria

Penker, M. 2009, Land Use Policy Vol 26 side 947-953.

Diverse and unique landscapes not only are one of the key assets of Austrian tourism industry, but are also highly valued for local identity, quality of life and their ecological functions. Society tries to prevent unintended landscape change and thereby purposefully intervenes in landscape development by countless environmental regulations, contracts with landholders, agri-environmental schemes, landscape and nature reserves, food-related activities such as 'eat the view' and labels of origin. In the face of increasing state control and the growing influence of (inter-) nationally acting civil society groups, the paper poses the question whether the local population still has a saying in the governance of their landscape. Is it the local people, their costumes and institutions that shape the diversity and uniqueness of landscapes (i.e., the 'root meaning of landscape' [Olwig, K.R., 2002. Landscape, Nature, and the Body Politic. From Britain's Renaissance to America's New World. The University of Wisconsin Press, Madison.]) or is local peculiarity lost to national or international landscape control? The paper analyses the changing structures of use and control rights to Austrian landscapes and resulting shifts between locally driven and centrally controlled landscape change. The paper is a meta-analysis of ten empirically founded interdisciplinary research projects on cultural landscapes in Austria. The results are compared with international literature that indicates a loss of control of the local rural population over their natural resources. In the Austrian case however, the local population (re-) negotiates and (re-) interprets complex and conflicting international and state regulations according to their respective needs before concretizing them in actual land use practises. Some participation projects and self-governed local civic society movements integrate non-landholders. In few of homogenisation forces such as CAP and international regulations, diverse and unique landscapes call for the involvement of the local preferences, traditions, knowledge and skills-of both local non-landholders and landholders. © 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved..

Presentation of Personal Control in the Rhetoric of Farm Families Engaged in Business Diversification in Finland

Peura, J. 2005, Journal of Comparative Family Studies Vol 36 side 443-III.

There is increasing pressure on farmers to become entrepreneurial. Business diversification on farms is a literal step towards this direction. However, even the diversified businesses on farms are often in an underdog position within vertical networks. The business may be dependent on only one big client. Achieving personal control in the market arena, which is essential for entrepreneurial identity, is problematic in these kinds of situations. The article is based on interviews with 40 farm families engaged in business diversification in Finland. The analysis focuses on the presentation of personal control in the market arena. In one end, there were cases in which the farmer could take advantage of a wide set of marketing and customer related means of control. In the other end, there were cases in which these means of control were practically nonexistent to the farmer. The variation of personal control in the market arena was-to a great extent-contingent on the farmer's relation to vertical networks. [PUBLICATION ABSTRACT].

The split entrepreneurial identity of the farmer

Peura, J.M., Gerard 2007, Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development Vol 14 side 48-63.

This research shows that entrepreneurship is currently at the focus of much theoretical, practical and political interest. In Europe, agriculture has faced increasing pressures for restructuring: facilitation of marketing and entrepreneurial skills of farmers and a stronger entrepreneurial orientation have been suggested as a possible solution for the emerging problems. The purpose of this paper is to examine the concept of entrepreneurial capability of farmers to diversify. The central focus of this article is on the entrepreneurial identity of portfolio farmers in Finland and the extent to which the differences between portfolio farmers, other farmers, and non-farm rural businesses can be explained. The subjects of the study were rural small-business owner-managers and farmers in Finland. The authors carried out a survey of random samples from three populations, each representing a broad cross-section of relevant industries, including a sample of non-farm rural entrepreneurs (n =590) and portfolio farmers (n =2,200). It emerges that portfolio farmers have a stronger entrepreneurial identity than conventional farmers. Compared to conventional farmers, the portfolio farmers in the sample perceive themselves as growth-oriented, risk-takers, innovative, optimistic and having more personal control upon their business activities..

Exploring agritourism entrepreneurship in the UK

Phelan, C.S., R. 2011, Tourism Planning and Development Vol 8 side 121-136.

Farm-based recreation or agritourism is increasingly seen as a diversification strategy to promote a more diverse and sustainable rural economy and to protect farming incomes against market fluctuation. Thus, farmers are increasingly being recognised as entrepreneurial, needing to develop new skills and capabilities to remain competitive. However, few studies have addressed the role of entrepreneurship within the context of the diversified farm tourism business. This paper examines the range of skills and competencies that farmers in the north-west of England identify as important for successful diversification and explores the extent to which these competencies are evident. The findings indicate that although farmers are increasingly turning to agritourism as a means to generate additional income, they lack many of the fundamental business competencies required for success. This has implications for rural development policies and signals the need to address these skill deficiencies through farm advisory processes and via more effective training of and support for agritourism providers. © 2011 Taylor & Francis..

A typology for defining agritourism

Phillip, S.H., C.; Blackstock, K. 2010, Tourism Management Vol 31 side 754-758.

Agritourism has been studied in various ways and contexts. It can be argued, however, that studies have yet to provide a clear and basic understanding of the characteristics that underpin and define agritourism. This paper proposes an original typology for defining agritourism by identifying the key characteristics currently used to define agritourism in the literature and organising them into a transparent and structured framework. For the first time, the agritourism typology clarifies and classifies definitions of agritourism that currently exist in the literature. It therefore offers a comprehensive framework that can be used as a basis for more informed debate and discussion and for future empirical research. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd..

Assessing the recreational demand for agricultural land in Finland

Pouta, E.O., V. 2006, Agricultural and Food Science Vol 15 side 375-387.

It is widely assumed that the scenic attractiveness and other public good aspects of agricultural land can be utilized as a source of livelihood in rural areas in the form of recreation and tourism. In this study we use two approaches to consider whether agricultural landscapes are preferred as a destination for recreation (day trips) and rural tourism (overnight trips). We first analyse the choice of recreation site type based on a model that aggregates sites using the presence of agricultural land as an aggregation variable. Population survey data on recreation trips reveal an association between the respondent's living environment, recreational activities and visit characteristics and the probability of choosing a destination with agricultural land. Second, we also estimate the demand functions for trips to agricultural sites and other destination types to consider whether the presence of agricultural land, as opposed to other land use categories, increases the number of trips and the benefits of recreation. The results suggest that agricultural landscapes are inferior to alternative site types in terms of per-trip benefits. However, agricultural landscapes are associated with high annual benefits because of the high rate of visitation. © Agricultural and Food Science..

Agritourism and Rural Economic Development

Ramsey, M.S., Nathan A. 2006, Indiana Business Review Vol 81 side .

Indiana's Office of Tourism Development reports that the state's tourism industry brings in approximately $6.7 billion in spending from 58 million leisure visitors. According to Destination Indiana: Indiana Office of Tourism Development 2006 Strategic Plan, tourism is essential to Indiana's economy and is growing almost 5% annually, which is above the national average. Well-developed agritourism systems in rural areas have the potential to reverse negative economic trends by bringing in visitors and creating new jobs and local business ventures for rural residents. Indeed, agritourism is critical to the economic health of rural Indiana and the sustainability of family farms. If rural communities have the goal of enhancing their economy through tourism, local leaders should identify which agency or institution would be best suited to be responsible for agritourism planning and development. Job creation, economic development, and increasing the quality of rural life are just a few strategies that may prove effective when working to counter negative social, economic, and demographic trends..

Understanding the role of food in rural tourism development in a recovering economy

Renko, S.R., N.; Polonijo, T. 2010, Journal of Food Products Marketing Vol 16 side 309-324.

Despite its primary, vital function of satisfying physiological needs, food can be the key factor in the tourist industry by adding value to the image of a destination and by reinforcing the tourists' experience in certain places. Till recently Croatian geographic characteristics presented key elements of market differentiation. However, the importance of food for tourism development has been recognized by Croatian authors. They mostly point out food as the driving force for health tourism and gastronomic offer preconditions for the development of rural tourism. This article addresses two dynamic segments of the economy: agriculture along with food production and tourism. In thisarticle we try to find out whether food presents an effective instrument for enhancing rural tourism development in a country emerging from war and transitioning from central economic planning to a market economy. Using data from a study on the sample of 300 tourists in 12 tourist destinations in Croatia, the authors find that foreign tourists mostly buy food during their holidays in Croatia due to high quality of the Croatian local food. Also, a large number of respondents think that Croatian food is more expensive than the food in their countries and experienced difficulties in obtaining and consuming local food. The main problem is that some Croatian tourists' entities have failed to promote local food and regional cuisine which results in ignorance on the part of tourists, thus also contributing to lower demand and consumption levels. © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC..

Assessing the economic impact of wind farms on tourism in scotland: Gis, surveys and policy outcomes

Riddington, G.M., D.; Harrison, T.; Gibson, H. 2010, International Journal of Tourism Research Vol 12 side 237-252.

The impact of wind farms on the environment and subsequently on tourism is the subject of much heated debate. The research was concerned with making a robust quantitative assessment of the economic impact, to help resolve the debate and inform government policy on planning for renewable energy. In addition to a broad description of the intercept surveys and the advanced local economic models used to ascertain impact, the research details two novel elements; a Geographic Information Systems (GIS) model for the analysis of the number of tourists and bed spaces exposed to wind farms and a large internet-based survey of the willingness to pay for landscape. The research found a very small but signifi cant negative economic impact and, on the basis of the survey information, suggests ways of minimising this impact. Both GIS modelling and internet surveying were found to be extremely useful and, it is suggested, both should become standard tools for the tourism researcher. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd..

The destination image gap - visitors' and residents' perceptions of place: evidence from Waiheke Island, New Zealand

Ryan, C.A., M. 2010, Current Issues in Tourism Vol 13 side 541-561.

This paper reports results derived from a survey of 2229 residents of, and 2151 visitors to the island of Waiheke, New Zealand. The study finds there was a close similarity of place image held by both visitors and residents. The paper examines the proposal that where congruency exists between visitor and resident image of place, there may be less negative perceptions of visitor impact on the part of residents. Both qualitative and quantitative data were collected and analysed, the former involving the use of CatPac (TM), a neural network program for analysing textual data. Little support was found for the contention that place images shared by residents and tourists would increase tolerance of tourists on the part of residents..

Rural families, industry change and social capital: Some considerations for policy

Sampson, K.G., C.; McManus, R. 2011, Social Policy Journal of New Zealand Vol side .

Rural communities are an important part of New Zealand society, and the New Zealand economy is highly dependent on rural-based activities. Substantial changes occurring in the rural economy have the potential to significantly affect local communities. This study has taken a social capital perspective to examine how 12 rural families have attempted to resolve dilemmas that have arisen as a consequence of local industry change. This change included the loss of the forestry industry, and growth in the tourism and dairy sectors. The social responses observed highlight the strong presence and substantial buffering role of social capital in assisting rural people to balance family, work and community life. We suggest that the level of self-determination afforded to the community and control over the processes required to amass social capital are fundamental to successfully fostering it. Agencies taking approaches that embrace the norms inherent in social capital itself, such as trust, reciprocity and mutuality, will be advantaged in their capacity to "bring along" families and community. These insights will be discussed in terms of their social policy implications..

Conceptualizing integrated rural tourism

Saxena, G.C., G.; Oliver, T.; Ilbery, B. 2007, Tourism Geographies Vol 9 side 347-370.

Rural spaces are no longer associated purely with agricultural commodity production but are seen as locations for the stimulation of new socio-economic activity, often incorporating tourism, leisure, speciality food production and consumption and e-commerce. Within the context of debates about integrated and territorial approaches to rural development in Europe's 'lagging regions', this paper introduces the notion of 'integrated rural tourism' (IRT) and describes the various methods of research used in an EU research project that forms the basis of this special edition. IRT is theorized as tourism explicitly linked to the economic, social, cultural, natural and human structures of the localities in which it takes place. The argument is that IRT-as a theory and approach-leads to more sustainable tourism (broadly conceived) than other forms of tourism because it creates powerful network connections between social, cultural, economic and environmental resources. The notion of IRT is also intended to open up practical ways of thinking about improving linkages between tourism and local and regional resources, activities, products and communities in the light of changing trends in tourism demand..

Integrated rural tourism a border case study

Saxena, G.I., B. 2008, Annals of Tourism Research Vol 35 side 233-254.

Within the context of debates about integrated and territorial approaches to rural development in Europe's lagging regions, this paper introduces the notion of integrated rural tourism, theorized in relation to the concepts of embeddedness, dis-embeddedness, endogeneity, and empowerment. The paper reports on qualitative research which explored the existence of such characteristics in rural networks operating among small businesses and resource controllers in the English-Welsh borders. It is argued that the creation of embedded and endogenous networks does not necessarily result in empowerment for all concerned. Complex issues of participation and inclusion remain central to the creation of equitable, sustainable, and integrated rural tourism. Crown Copyright © 2007..

Flagship attractions and sustainable rural tourism development: The case of the Alnwick Garden, England

Sharpley, R. 2007, Journal of Sustainable Tourism Vol 15 side 125-143.

This paper proposes an alternative approach to rural tourism that returns to a more traditional model of development: large, flagship attractions that act as a 'growth pole' for the local economy and community. It questions some of the accepted beliefs about sustainable rural tourism development current in recent years. It is based on a case study of Alnwick Garden in Northumberland, England. It suggests that, under certain circumstances, flagship or mega-attractions can not only increase substantially the number of visitors to rural areas but also, through appropriate policies and processes, can underpin the longer-term, sustainable development of those areas. © 2007 R. Sharpley..

Tourism, farming and diversification: An attitudinal study

Sharpley, R.V., A. 2006, Tourism Management Vol 27 side 1040-1052.

Although farm-based tourism has a long tradition, particularly within Europe, farm diversification into tourism has, in recent years, become more widely seen as an effective means of addressing the socio-economic problems of rural areas in general and the agricultural sector in particular. Accordingly, not only has there been significant growth in the supply of farm-based tourism in many countries (and evidence of rural development policies supporting such growth), but also increasing academic attention has been paid to the phenomenon. However, although a number of studies consider specific issues related to farm diversification into tourism, such as marketing or financial challenges, little or no research has been undertaken into the attitudes of farming families that have diversified. The purpose of this paper is to address this omission in the tourism literature. Based on a survey of farms in north-eastern England, it explores farmers' attitudes to a variety of issues related to diversification into tourism, including the socio-cultural context within which it occurs. In doing so, it both confirms and challenges previously held assumptions regarding the problems of diversification. In particular, however, it identifies a widespread desire amongst farmers to maintain a distinction between the farm/farming business, suggesting that the development of farm tourism enterprises is an employment, as opposed to diversification, issue. It concludes, therefore, that the role of public sector agencies in the support of farm tourism should be reassessed. © 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved..

Recreational home users - Potential clients for countryside tourism?

Sievanen, T.P., E.; Neuvonen, M. 2007, Scandinavian Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Vol 7 side 223-242.

Today, almost half of the Finnish population has regular access to a recreational home in a rural area. As recurrent visitors, recreational home users create the potential for rural development. This study uses population survey data to approach recreational home use from the perspective of a way-of-life and lifestyle framework. The results demonstrate that Finnish recreational home users are more likely to be city-dwellers and highly educated and to be employed in clerical and administrative positions. Older people who use a recreational home tend to spend more time there than users in other age categories. Recreation activity choices that reflect a more general life style were analyzed in order to obtain a picture of the recreational home users as potential consumers of recreation services. Active recreational home users appear to differ distinctively from occasional users in terms of their patterns of participation in outdoor activities. Motivated by a desire for self-sufficiency, active users participate more often in traditional rural recreational activities, such as fishing and berry and mushroom picking, than less active users. Occasional users are more likely to participate in sports-oriented activities and spend more money on recreational home trips than active users. This family-oriented group thus shows the greatest potential to use commercial recreation services..

Community understanding of the impact of temporary visitors on incidental destinations

Simpson, K.B., P. 2010, Community Development Vol 41 side 340-353.

Influential changes in global economics have posed important survival and sustainability questions for small urban communities. In response, many such communities have turned to the tourism industry as a potential economic saviour, and have thus embarked on a developmental journey that has been exhaustively examined in the tourism literature of the past thirty years. However, this literature is all but unanimous in examining the benefits and costs of community tourism after the event, when those costs and benefits have become clearly evident and significantly entrenched. In seeking to evaluate the extent to which residents of four small cities are aware of potential costs and benefits, before the advent of any significant tourism activity, this paper analyses the content of 782 responses to a written survey procedure. Results indicate a generally realistic local awareness of the economic aspects of increased tourism activity, but an over-optimistic assessment of environmental impacts, societal impacts, and the ability of local stakeholders to successfully manage the process of tourism industry development. © 2010 Community Development Society..

Growing rural tourism opportunities

Tweeten, K.L., L.; Hodur, N. 2008, Journal of Extension Vol 46 side .

Agritourism is an important industry in rural states. Assisting rural operators to design and develop on-farm or ranch experiences to attract some of the more than 645,000 visitors to the state to their businesses has became an important educational program for the NDSU Extension Service. North Dakota's experience provides an example of how Extension can provide the educational programming and applied research necessary to help facilitate growth and sustainability in the rural and nature-based tourism industry. Copyright © by Extension Journal, Inc..

Seeing, not Participating: Viewscape Fetishism in American and Norwegian Rural Amenity Areas

Van Auken, P.M. 2010, Human Ecology Vol 38 side 521-537.

Based on participant-driven photo elicitation and in-depth key informant interviews conducted in an American and Norwegian rural amenity area, this article argues that newcomers, seasonal home owners and other stakeholders in rural amenity areas may fail to appreciate, or choose to ignore, the social relations tied to their property or the consequences that their seemingly innocuous decisions can have for local communities. Viewscape fetishism can cause the "magic" of commodified natural amenities to obscure more complex, holistic understandings of the land in favor of a simplified view based on individualized use or exchange value, both of which are highly influence by the sign value inherent in property situated with access to scenic viewscapes. This phenomenon can create barriers to social interaction and community building, and lead to environmental degradation in places that are rich in natural amenities and vulnerable to change. [PUBLICATION ABSTRACT].

Synergies between farming and rural tourism: Evidence from Flanders

Van Huylenbroeck, G.V., I.; Calus, M.; van de Velde, L. 2006, EuroChoices Vol 5 side 14-21.

Support for rural development and agri-environment measures is often defended on the basis of the contribution of farming to the attractiveness of rural areas and the growing rural tourism sector. Farmers may benefit from the presence of tourism by offering accommodation or selling farm products to tourists. We analyse rural tourism data for Flanders to determine whether agricultural amenities contribute to the price rural tourists are willing to pay for lodging at a farm. We find that farming practices do indeed influence attractiveness of an area for tourism and have an impact on the prices that can be charged for accommodation. Amenities from agriculture such as permanent grassland have a positive influence on rental prices. However, the presence of intensive agricultural and livestock farming and associated polluting activities decrease the attractiveness of rural regions for tourism. Farm tourism is found to make an important contribution to the farm income and economy of a rural region. Farm tourism constituted more than 30 per cent of the farm income of certain farms. Overall, our findings support the idea of major synergies between farming and rural tourism. Strengthening this relationship may therefore be a good strategy for countryside management and rural development. © The Agricultural Ecomomics Society and the European Association of Agricultural Economists 2006..

Impact of agriculture on rural tourism: A hedonic pricing approach

Vanslembrouck, I.V.H., G.; Van Meensel, J. 2005, Journal of Agricultural Economics Vol 56 side 17-30.

The increased awareness of farmers' role in the maintenance of rural landscapes may contribute to a reassessment of the place of agriculture in society. In this paper, we look at how this role, in relation to landscape, is valued by rural tourists or, in other words, whether it is a response to a societal demand, as is argued by defenders of multifunctional agriculture. The results from a hedonic pricing analysis indicate that landscape features associated with agricultural activities (such as meadows and grazing cattle) positively influence the demand for rural tourism and have a positive impact on the price tourists are willing to pay for rural accommodation. This is also illustrated by the adverse impact of perceived negative externalities from agricultural production (such as intensive maize cultivation) on this price. © Agricultural Economics Society..

Synergy or marginalisation? Narratives of farming and tourism in Geiranger, western Norway

Vik, M.L.B., T. A.; Daugstad, K. 2010, Norsk Geografisk Tidsskrift-Norwegian Journal of Geography Vol 64 side 36-47.

Tourism is increasingly seen as a necessary income diversification strategy in rural Europe, especially in areas where traditional rural businesses are facing decreasing profitability. This view is clearly expressed in Norwegian government strategies. Measures to support tourism development are launched by public management bodies at national and regional level. For rural agrarian communities the cultural landscape is seen as an asset in developing tourism. The authors study the interplay between farming and tourism in Geiranger in western Norway using narrative and discourse analysis. Since the late 19th century, tourism and farming have co-existed in Geiranger. Recently, the area has also been subject to nature conservation and obtained World Heritage Status. Inspired by political ecology literature, the authors aim to identify and compare the narratives of local actors, and link these narratives to broader environmental discourses..

The governance of coastal tourism: Unravelling the layers of complexity at Smiths Beach, Western Australia

Wesley, A.P., C. 2010, Journal of Sustainable Tourism Vol 18 side 773-792.

Fuelled by rapid population growth, coastal regions are increasingly vulnerable to the dynamic mix of coastal uses. In Western Australia, for instance, the issues associated with infrastructure shortcomings and increased population pressures have led to a spate of interest in the development of tourism and residential proposals along the coast. Many of these have emerged as hotly debated sociopolitical contests, thus raising questions in relation to the governance of coastal tourism. It is the intent of this paper to provide empirical insights into the practical nature of coastal tourism governance, using the Smiths Beach coastal tourism and residential development as a case study. An exploratory case approach is adopted so as to understand why this particular coastal tourism development has been surrounded by so much criticism and controversy. The exploration of the attitudes, experiences and views of various stakeholders have illustrated the inherent flavour of this case, with the issues of power-politics, divergent interests and agendas and lack of community consultation identified as some of the key aspects shaping the debate. The case therefore provides an ideal avenue to reveal the complex nature and key issue drivers associated with the governance of coastal tourism. © 2010 Taylor & Francis..

Biting the hand that feeds: The marginalisation of tourism and leisure industry providers in times of agricultural crisis

Williams, C.F., M. 2005, Current Issues in Tourism Vol 8 side 155-164.

The total closure of the countryside under the control regulations associated with the outbreak of the UK 2001 Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD) had major impacts on the tourism and leisure industry. The English Regional Tourist Board estimated that there was a loss of tourism revenue of £5 billion, which cost 150,000 direct jobs. Cumbria experienced a fall in tourism expenditure of around £198 million; this was 31% of the value of receipts. This paper presents an evaluation of the impact of the countryside closure on tourism and leisure organisations in the area of Keswick, UK. The use of online quotes from interested or affected parties was also drawn upon in order to further illustrate the effects of the countryside closure. This geographical location was selected due to it being the epicentre of foot and mouth disease epidemic in 2001. The authors will consider the strategic management of the crisis and its resultant outcomes with particular reference to the value of the tourism and leisure industry in rural locations. © 2005 C. Williams & M. Ferguson..

Recovering from crisis. Strategic alternatives for leisure and tourism providers based within a rural economy

Williams, C.F., M. 2005, International Journal of Public Sector Management Vol 18 side 350-366.

Purpose - To provide a critique of the strategies that the UK Government employed at that time of the closure of the countryside during the foot and mouth disease (FMD) and their subsequent effects upon leisure and tourism providers. The work evaluates the sector's responses to the FMD crisis and considers their significance and influence in relation to the strategies deployed. Possible alternative strategies are presented which both government and industries can consider. Design/methodology/approach - The complete sector of tourism and leisure providers within the market town of Keswick was surveyed twice over a two-year period. The initial survey was undertaken in 2002 and the second survey occurred in 2004. Keswick is situated in the northern sector of the English Lake District National Park, which is situated within the county of Cumbria. This area was seen to be the most affected by the foot and mouth crisis both in terms of severity and duration of infection. In addition to the survey conducted, key personnel from government agencies and voluntary organisations were also interviewed using a semi-structured approach. Additional information was accessed from a FMD discussion web site. Findings - The impact of the foot and mouth crisis devastated the rural tourism and leisure industries. The governmental policy utilized was myopic in its outlook and ineffectual in that it concentrated mainly upon the consequences to, and the needs of, the farming industry. The current proposals acknowledge to some degree that the town's tourism and leisure industry are a valued part of the rural economy, but the authors question if these are effective enough. Originality/value - The originality of the study has enabled the evaluation of the strategies put in place immediately after the FMD crisis. It not only critically appraises proposed policies (i.e. limited closure of the countryside in future) but uniquely proposes a number of alternatives. © Emerald Group Publishing Limited..

From lessees to partners: exploring tourism public-private partnerships within the New South Wales national parks and wildlife service

Wilson, E.N., N.; Buultjens, J. 2009, Journal of Sustainable Tourism Vol 17 side 269-285.

In a new protected-area management paradigm which requires close working relationships with a range of stakeholders, it is important that national parks managers recognise the individual interests of each group with whom they are expected to collaborate. A substantial body of research has investigated non-commercial collaborative activities among natural resource managers, tourism organisations and community groups. However, little academic attention has been paid to commercial tourism collaborations, particularly public-private partnerships (PPPs) with tourism operators. PPPs are often more contentious and require careful management to ensure sustainability and political acceptance. This paper reports on qualitative research, exploring the quality and nature of commercial lease arrangements between the New South Wales National Parks and Wildlife Service (NPWS) and a number of their private on-site tourism providers. In-depth interviews were conducted with fourteen key stakeholders involved in these partnerships. Based on an emergent approach to analysis, five main themes emerged which define the nature and quality of relationships between NPWS and tourism operators. Ultimately, it is argued that in commercial PPPs, protected-area managers need to move beyond viewing tourism operators as mere lessees, seeing them instead as valued and long-lasting partners..

The family farm business? Insights into family, business and ownership dimensions of open-farms

Wilson, L.A. 2007, Leisure Studies Vol 26 side 357-374.

Research into tourism and hospitality businesses, because of its breadth of scope, has been unable to provide specific insights into visitor attraction businesses. On the contrary, visitor attraction research, while defining ownership as an important variable, has yet to explore the motivations or characteristics of small business owners. Gersick et al.'s (1997) family business development model, devised around the three axes of family, business and ownership, was used to examine the population of open-farm businesses in Northern Ireland. Following a general survey of 12 farm attractions, detailed interviews were conducted with owners of seven open-farm attractions. The findings indicated that there was a wide degree of variation in terms of the scale and success of open-farms. In terms of the family and business axes they shared many similarities with other small family tourism businesses such as rural location, the provision of a multi-product experience and a strong emphasis on lifestyle needs. However, the involvement of children from an early age is unique to the family dimension and integral to the finding that lifestyle issues took precedence over business growth. The model also emphasised a generational progression in terms of ownership control that was not as relevant to these businesses where succession is generally not a consideration. Open-farms operate on a pragmatic basis and in addition to family needs, various factors such as insurance, increasing costs, the need to re-invest and update the product are currently affecting their competitiveness in the marketplace. A revised model of family business development is proposed reflecting these differences..

Factors for success in rural tourism development

Wilson, S.F., Daniel R.; Fesenmaier, Julie; Van Es, John C. 2001, Journal of Travel Research Vol 40 side 132-138.

Since the 1970s, economic restructuring and the farm crisis have reduced rural communities' economic opportunities. These changes have limited rural communities' economic development options, making older development strategies less viable and forcing many to look for nontraditional ways to sustain themselves. One of the most popular nontraditional rural development strategies has been tourism and its associated entrepreneurship opportunities because of tourism's ability to bring in dollars and to generate jobs and support retail growth. The purpose of this study was to identify and examine those factors that have helped rural communities successfully develop tourism and its entrepreneurship opportunities. Several focus groups were conducted with local businesspersons and leaders in six rural Illinois communities. The results clearly demonstrate the importance of the community approach to tourism development..

Oil depletion: What does this mean for Scottish tourism?

Yeoman, I.J.L., J.; Blake, A.; Galt, M.; Greenwood, C.; McMahon-Beattie, U. 2007, Tourism Management Vol 28 side 1354-1365.

Over the next 10 years, Scottish tourism is expected to grow by 50%. One of the keys to that growth is transport which is a sector that is dependent upon oil. This paper considers oil and the global economy and its relationship to Scottish tourism. Consideration is given to the key variables such as oil forecasts, security of supply, cost of production, world demand, alternative forms of energy including renewables and nuclear power. The combination of these facts means that high oil prices are here to stay. Two scenarios are constructed called Energy Inflation and Paying for Climate Change. These were developed using a triangulation of methods including the use of systems thinking models to construct the scenarios to computable general equilibrium modelling to analyse the impact of oil and energy price rises on Scottish tourism. The Energy Inflation scenario presumes mass belief in the plenitude of available oil reserves and the failure to respond quickly enough to alter demand. This triggers a sudden and prolonged period of economic shocks, political instability and environmental disasters. The Paying for Climate Change scenario assumes rising energy prices, combined with conservation measures such as carbon taxes. Both scenarios raise a number of policy issues for the future including oil and fossil fuels being the main sources of energy as there is no real alternative. Renewables and nuclear power will continue to grow and countries will try to reduce further their reliance on oil. Rising oil prices are also noted as a positive feature, driving innovation and new technologies, which will become more economic as oil prices rise. For Scottish tourism, the impact of rising oil prices could mean a bumpy ride with carbon taxes, more wind farms and the possible end of the low cost carrier. © 2006..

Oil depletion: What does this mean for Scottish tourism?

Yeoman, I.L., J. J.; Blake, A.; Galt, M.; Greenwood, C.; McMahon-Beattie, U. 2007, Tourism Management Vol 28 side 1354-1365.

Over the next 10 years, Scottish tourism is expected to grow by 50%. One of the keys to that growth is transport which is a sector that is dependent upon oil. This paper considers oil and the global economy and its relationship to Scottish tourism. Consideration is given to the key variables such as oil forecasts, security of supply, cost of production, world demand, alternative forms of energy including renewables and nuclear power. The combination of these facts means that high oil prices are here to stay. Two scenarios are constructed called Energy Inflation and Paying for Climate Change. These were developed using a triangulation of methods including the use of systems thinking models to construct the scenarios to computable general equilibrium modelling to analyse the impact of oil and energy price rises on Scottish tourism. The Energy Inflation scenario presumes mass belief in the plenitude of available oil reserves and the failure to respond quickly enough to alter demand. This triggers a sudden and prolonged period of economic shocks, political instability and environmental disasters. The Paying for Climate Change scenario assumes rising energy prices, combined with conservation measures such as carbon taxes. Both scenarios raise a number of policy issues for the future including oil and fossil fuels being the main sources of energy as there is no real alternative. Renewables and nuclear power will continue to grow and countries will try to reduce further their reliance on oil. Rising oil prices are also noted as a positive feature, driving innovation and new technologies, which will become more economic as oil prices rise. For Scottish tourism, the impact of rising oil prices could mean a bumpy ride with carbon taxes, more wind farms and the possible end of the low cost carrier. (c) 2006 Published by Elsevier Ltd..

The potential of rural tourism and the sustainable development of rural areas

Šimková, E. 2007, E a M: Ekonomie a Management Vol 10 side 57-62.

Paper describes role of rural tourism for the development of rural areas. It's an alternative for agricultural entrepreneurship and could be beneficial both for profitability and for revitalization and living social environment. It highlights the importance of rural tourism for the future of mankind and different needs for doing business in this area. Author assumes that meeting customer's demands in the current business environment is more and more difficult. It is also very demanding. Prior setting up a rural tourism oriented business, it is advisable to cautiously analyze the general policy of the region. It is necessary to react to changes of consumer behavior, such as increasing demand habits and orientation to goods and services that are not really necessary. The goal of this article is to set procedure of the analysis of the rural tourism potential, and stress out the necessity of exercitation of the effective planning and marketing approach as a key aspect in rural tourism entrepreneurship. The main steps of strategic and marketing planning are also described. The article also reveals the relationship of the "Local Agenda 21" as a fundamental instrument of the territorial development from the view of the sustainable development. The described CATWOE methodology and "Environmental Assessment" negotiate impacts of all activities for environment. As any business activity, also rural tourism is profit-oriented. Risk analysis must therefore be performed with systematic approach. "Risk Assessment" and its usage are shown at the SWOT analysis. The analysis of rural tourism and main strategic business rules are based upon information from a large number of literatures and practical experience of the author. She analyzed strategic documents and gathered lot of information..