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Challenges in tourism strategy implementation in peripheral destinations-the case of stewart Island, New Zealand

Albrecht, J.N. 2010, Tourism and Hospitality, Planning and Development Vol 7 side 91-110.

Peripheral tourism destinations face a variety of characteristic management challenges that differ from those experienced in more central destinations. While there is much literature addressing tourism strategy and management approaches in general, strategy implementation in peripheral destinations has not been investigated in great depth. This paper addresses this literature gap and examines tourism strategy implementation on Stewart Island, New Zealand. It is based on a qualitative investigation of implementation processes using content analysis, semi-structured and in-depth stakeholder interviews. First, challenges in tourism strategy and management in peripheral areas are presented and discussed with a specific focus of the roles and significance of various stakeholders. Implementation challenges identified include issues related to control over the implementation environments, the involvement of volunteers and low levels of government support. The serendipitous nature of planning at the community level adds to the lack of control over potential outcomes of tourism management in peripheral destinations. © 2010 Taylor & Francis..

Tourists' perceptions of environmentally responsible innovations at tourism businesses

Andereck, K.L. 2009, Journal of Sustainable Tourism Vol 17 side 489-499.

This paper investigates tourists' perceptions of environmentally responsible practices by tourism businesses by analyzing the attitudes of tourists toward "green" innovations in tourist places. It was hypothesized that tourists who were more strongly motivated by nature-oriented experiences would perceive environmentally responsible practices as more valuable than tourists less motivated by nature-oriented experiences. The study is based on a survey of individuals who visited the Arizona Welcome Center in northeastern Arizona and the Chamber of Commerce offices in Holbrook and Springerville, Arizona. As expected, visitors with a stronger nature orientation had more positive views of environmentally responsible practices by tourism businesses than tourists not nature-oriented. They felt such innovations are important and valuable. © 2009 Taylor & Francis..

Toward a product-based typology for nature-based tourism: a conceptual framework

Arnegger, J.W., Manuel; Job, Hubert 2010, Journal of Sustainable Tourism Vol 18 side 915.

The traditional view of nature-based tourists as a relatively homogeneous group has been questioned, and several scholars have suggested various segmentation typologies. This paper discusses market and industry changes and notes key trends, as Fordist tourist products have been replaced by post-Fordist and neo-Fordist products, with both McDonaldization and McDisneyization developments. A range of visitor-based typologies are reviewed, and the conflict between capturing the diversity of today's nature-based tourists while offering management bodies simple tools to segment visitors, identify core groups and improve their marketing is noted. In an attempt to overcome this conflict, the paper presents a conceptual framework which focuses on nature-based tourism products instead of tourist types, therefore incorporating aspects of both the demand and supply sides of the nature-based tourism industry market. A two-dimensional matrix is suggested, linking four basic travel motivations (nature conservation, nature experience, sports/adventure and hedonistic) to four different types of tourist products (independent, ala carte, customized and standardized), giving a total typology of 16 different types. The matrix should help protected area managers to better understand tourist needs, suggest management measures and help to create more sustainable forms of tourism. Empirical testing is suggested as a next step. [PUBLICATION ABSTRACT].

A global perspective on trends in nature-based tourism

Balmford, A.A.B., James J.; Green, Jonathan J.; Naidoo, Robin R.; Walpole, Matt M.; Manica, Andrea A. 2009, PLoS biology Vol 7 side e1000144-e1000144.

Reports of rapid growth in nature-based tourism and recreation add significant weight to the economic case for biodiversity conservation but seem to contradict widely voiced concerns that people are becoming increasingly isolated from nature. This apparent paradox has been highlighted by a recent study showing that on a per capita basis, visits to natural areas in the United States and Japan have declined over the last two decades. These results have been cited as evidence of "a fundamental and pervasive shift away from nature-based recreation"-but how widespread is this phenomenon? We address this question by looking at temporal trends in visitor numbers at 280 protected areas (PAs) from 20 countries. This more geographically representative dataset shows that while PA visitation (whether measured as total or per capita visit numbers) is indeed declining in the United States and Japan, it is generally increasing elsewhere. Total visit numbers are growing in 15 of the 20 countries for which we could get data, with the median national rate of change unrelated to the national rate of population growth but negatively associated with wealth. Reasons for this reversal of growth in the richest countries are difficult to pin down with existing data, but the pattern is mirrored by trends in international tourist arrivals as a whole and so may not necessarily be caused by disaffection with nature. Irrespective of the explanation, it is clear that despite important downturns in some countries, nature-related tourism is far from declining everywhere, and may still have considerable potential both to generate funds for conservation and to shape people's attitudes to the environment..

A Global Perspective on Trends in Nature-Based Tourism

Balmford, A.B., James; Green, Jonathan; Naidoo, Robin; Walpole, Matt; Manica, Andrea; Reid, Walt V. 2009, PLoS Biology Vol 7 side e1000144-e1000144.

Falling attendance at United States and Japanese national parks has led to claims of a pervasive shift away from nature-based recreation. A global analysis, however, now suggests that while visit rates are declining slightly in some richer countries, elsewhere nature tourism is booming. Reports of rapid growth in nature-based tourism and recreation add significant weight to the economic case for biodiversity conservation but seem to contradict widely voiced concerns that people are becoming increasingly isolated from nature. This apparent paradox has been highlighted by a recent study showing that on a per capita basis, visits to natural areas in the United States and Japan have declined over the last two decades. These results have been cited as evidence of aa fundamental and pervasive shift away from nature-based recreationaabut how widespread is this phenomenon? We address this question by looking at temporal trends in visitor numbers at 280 protected areas (PAs) from 20 countries. This more geographically representative dataset shows that while PA visitation (whether measured as total or per capita visit numbers) is indeed declining in the United States and Japan, it is generally increasing elsewhere. Total visit numbers are growing in 15 of the 20 countries for which we could get data, with the median national rate of change unrelated to the national rate of population growth but negatively associated with wealth. Reasons for this reversal of growth in the richest countries are difficult to pin down with existing data, but the pattern is mirrored by trends in international tourist arrivals as a whole and so may not necessarily be caused by disaffection with nature. Irrespective of the explanation, it is clear that despite important downturns in some countries, nature-related tourism is far from declining everywhere, and may still have considerable potential both to generate funds for conservation and to shape people's attitudes to the environment. Author Summary Nature-based tourism is frequently described as one of the fastest growing sectors of the world's largest industry, and a very important justification for conservation. However, a recent, high profile report has interpreted declining visit rates to US and Japanese national parks as evidence of a pervasive shift away from nature tourism. Here we use the largest database so far compiled on trends in visits to Protected Areas around the world to resolve this apparent paradox. We find that, while visit ratesameasured in two different waysaare indeed declining in some wealthy countries, in roughly three-quarters of the nations where data are available, visits to Protected Areas are increasing. Internationally, rates of growth in the number of visits to such areas show a clear negative association with per capita income, which interestingly is matched by trends in foreign arrivals as a whole. Our results therefore suggest that, despite worrying local downturns, nature-related tourism is far from declining everywhere, and may still have considerable potential to generate funds for conservation and engage people with the environment..

Sustainable management of an alpine national park: handling the two-edged effect of tourism

Behrens, D.A.B.-f., Birgit; Getzner, Michael 2009, Central European Journal of Operations Research Vol 17 side 233-253.

Attracting visitors to an alpine national park can open up additional sources of funding for species conservation. However, tourism also brings ecologically negative impacts to the park and, in particular, to endangered species. In this paper, we discuss the handling of this two-edged effect of nature-based tourism within the context of a national park's management decision. We develop a stylized model which frames the interaction of a representative largely unknown species, its habitat, and park visitors in an alpine ecosystem. In applying this to the protection of a rock partridge population in the Hohe Tauern National Park (Austria), we illustrate that a combined visitor and species protection policy can maximize steady state net benefits from tourism and conservation, while ensuring that the endangered species reaches its conservation target in the long run. Thus, even for a small, largely unknown species such as the rock partridge, and not only for popular species like the golden eagle, it is possible to endogenously generate a conservation budget by attracting visitors. [PUBLICATION ABSTRACT].

Understanding traditionalist opposition to modernization: Narrative production in a Norwegian mountain conflict

Benjaminsen, T.A.S., H. 2008, Geografiska Annaler, Series B: Human Geography Vol 90 side 49-62.

In Gausdal, a mountainous community in southern Norway, a conflict involving dogsledding has dominated local politics during the past two decades. In order to understand local protests against this activity, in this article we apply discourse analysis within the evolving approach of political ecology. In this way, we also aim at contributing to the emerging trend of bringing political ecology "home". To many people, dogsledding appears as an environmentally friendly outdoor recreation activity as well as a type of adventure tourism that may provide new income opportunities to marginal agricultural communities. Hence, at a first glance, the protests against this activity may be puzzling. Looking for explanations for these protests, this empirical study demonstrates how the opposition to dogsledding may be understood as grounded in four elements of a narrative: (1) environmental values are threatened; (2) traditional economic activities are threatened; (3) outsiders take over the mountain; and (4) local people are powerless. Furthermore, we argue that the narrative is part of what we see as a broader Norwegian "rural traditionalist discourse". This discourse is related to a continued marginalization of rural communities caused by increasing pressure on agriculture to improve its efficiency as well as an "environmentalization"of rural affairs. Thus, the empirical study shows how opposition to dogsledding in a local community is articulated as a narrative that fits into a more general pattern of opposition to rural modernization in Norway as well as internationally. © 2008 Swedish Society for Anthropology and Geography..

Wildlife tourism and natural sciences knowledge: Challenges and critical factors

Bertella, G. , Scandinavian Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Vol 11 side 97-114.

This paper investigates the challenges and critical factors for the development and management of a form of wildlife tourism that is based on an active and practice-near role of natural sciences knowledge, and that, ultimately, can contribute to sustainability. Based on the study of a specific firm located in northern Norway which has developed a scientific form of wildlife tourism, the main challenges are identified in the limited access to competent and dedicated human capital and the difficulties related to networking, especially in the local area. The case study suggests that the factors that contribute positively to the attractiveness of wildlife tourism are also the ones that tend to affect its development negatively. The peripheral location makes the tourist product exotic, but at the same time it makes the recruitment of qualified co-workers particularly challenging. Similarly, the peculiarities of the individual firm contribute to the uniqueness of the tourist product, but they can isolate the individual firm from the other actors of the local context. Based on the findings, policy implications and directions for further research are identified. © 2011 Taylor & Francis..

PARK VISITORS VS BEACH TOURISTS A COMPARATIVE STUDY IN AN ITALIAN COASTAL REGION

Bimonte, S. 2008, European Journal of Tourism Research Vol 1 side 112-127.

This study investigates and discusses the controversial question of whether nature-based tourists (NBTs) are more sensitive to socio-cultural and environmental resources, have different attitudes toward local products and more positive economic effects on host communities and destinations than beach tourists (BTs). In order to test these aspects, a simultaneous comparative analysis of these two types of tourist based on an a priori and activity-based segmentation was carried out. Data was collected by questionnaire at two sites in the Maremma (a costal area in southern Tuscany, Italy), each specific to the type of tourist investigated. In line with the findings of other studies, the results confirm that NBTs are older, more educated, more affluent, and more often employed in professional occupations than BTs. They also confirm the hypothesis that NBTs are more sensitive to environmental quality and have a more positive socio-economic impact. This study likewise highlights the strong role played by psychographic information in explaining tourist behavior. Three innovative findings concerning the relationship between income, education, personal commitment to the environment and tourist type are discussed at the end. [PUBLICATION ABSTRACT].

Brandscaping: From Traditional Cultural Landscapes to "Label Regions": A Strategic Scheme to Achieve Sustainable Regional Development in the Swiss Alps

Boesch, M.R., Erich; Siegrist, Dominik 2008, Mountain Research and Development Vol 28 side 100-104.

Sustainable regional development is a long-term goal for Alpine landscapes and habitats in Switzerland. Areas of high ecological quality and sufficient socio-cultural potential, but insufficient economic power, are looking for long-term perspectives. The economic options of structurally weak peripheral regions could be improved significantly through "brandscaping," ie a certification strategy for Label Regions focusing on sustainability, thereby "producing" new types of landscapes. An adequate implementation strategy should be based on a reliable indicator system, which should finally lead to certification procedures for regional management. But the implementation of Label Regions (with certification) is only feasible under an innovative development scenario in which the socioeconomic and political environment facilitates such strategies. Labeling intends to offer regional producers an advantage in the nature-based tourism market as well as for other quality products and services, and must be effectively promoted by regional as well as sectoral policies, thus shaping traditional landscapes into "brandscapes." [PUBLICATION ABSTRACT].

Fascinating remoteness: The dilemma of hiking tourism development in peripheral mountain areas

Boller, F.H., M.; Conedera, M.; Elsasser, H.; Krebs, P. 2010, Mountain Research and Development Vol 30 side 320-331.

Remote areas devoid of roads and tourist transport infrastructure are increasingly appreciated in urbanized countries because they provide the opportunity to experience tranquillity, solitude, and pristine nature, which are recreational qualities that contrast with the stress of urban life. In Switzerland as a whole, larger roadless areas are rare, but they are still common in southern Switzerland as the "inventory of remote areas," which was established in this study, shows. A crucial dilemma for tourism development in remote areas is the paradoxical situation that the installation of tourism facilities and services can reduce the experiential qualities of these areas that attracted the tourists in the first place. This study seeks possible solutions for this dilemma by analyzing the attitudes of 230 visitors to 2 remote areas of southern Switzerland with a questionnaire-based survey. The case study areas represented one "moderately remote" area (Val Cama) and one "extremely remote" area (Val di Lodrino). The respondents were divided into 3 different visitor types along the "purism scale": purists, neutralists, and nonpurists. The percentage of purists was 45% in the "extremely remote" Val di Lodrino versus 24% in the "moderately remote" Val Cama. There was a consensus among all visitor types that the existing traditional cultural landscape and the path network should be preserved and that the construction of new road or cable-car access should be avoided. The development of new huts, paths, and services was found to be controversial. A major policy recommendation of the study is to gear tourism supply in remote areas to the needs of different visitor types by carefully assessing the impact of measures on remoteness and concentrating new facilities and services in the more accessible parts of a remote area, while preserving more remote conditions in the other zones. © 2010 International Mountain Society..

Using viewsheds, GIS, and a landscape classification to tag landscape photographs

Brabyn, L.M., D. M. 2011, Applied Geography Vol 31 side 1115-1122.

Landscape scenery is inherently difficult to conceptualize because of its perceptual nature. Yet landscapes are an extremely important resource for tourism and quality of life so there is a need to classify and manage landscapes. This paper shows how viewshed analysis based on the known location and direction of a photo can be used to tag a photo and this provides a method for assessing the New Zealand Landscape Classification. GIS visibility and overlay functions are combined with digital elevation data and a landscape classification to produce the tagged photos. This tool links an oblique view with multiple distance perspectives to a GIS dataset. There are complexities associated with distance perspectives and the appropriate balance of foreground and distant landscape. This paper argues that the benefits of automated tagging of landscape photos are threefold. The process of modelling landscape tags forces researchers to confront the complexity of landscape character classification. This in turn leads to improved methods for representing and classifying landscape character. Secondly, once tagging methods have been developed then people may choose to use these tools rather than to manually tag photos. Thirdly, such a tool provides the opportunity to utilize the increasingly important volunteered geographic information on the Internet for understanding landscape categories. Landscape photographs and associated tags on the Internet provide insight about landscape categories employed by the public. This could lead to the development of what is labelled "tag clouds" and a landscape "folksonomy" © 2011 Elsevier Ltd..

Enhancing the Role of Host Communities in the Management of Protected Areas through Effective Two-way Communications: A Case Study

Carmody, J.P., B. 2011, Asia Pacific Journal of Tourism Research Vol 16 side 89-104.

The use of protected areas by the tourism industry and the subsequent impacts on host communities have been well documented. Less is known about the levels of knowledge that communities have about protected areas and how the members of host communities learn about these areas. If information search patterns used by local residents are not understood or, at worst, ignored, protected area managers may find difficulty gaining support from local communities. The research reported in this study investigates the relationship between local communities and management authorities using a case study approach based on the Wet Tropics of Queensland World Heritage Area (WTQWHA). The paper examines how residents of the communities that surround the WTQWHA seek out information on the nearby protected rainforest area and identifies the information delivery methods preferred by the community. Data used in the study were collected via a community survey (n = 853) conducted in 2007. Findings indicated that the involvement of the local community in a genuine two-way communications process about conservation strategies and the development of recreation opportunities increase the level of support for the management agency as well as the retention of the protected area..

Tourism, an ecological approach in protected areas: Karagöl-Sahara National Park, Turkey

Cengiz, T. 2007, International Journal of Sustainable Development and World Ecology Vol 14 side 260-267.

Protected areas are important potential areas from the point of view of ecological tourism because of their natural, historical and cultural richness. In this study, the environmental sustainability of protected areas has been investigated within a sample of the Karagöl-Sahara National Park in Turkey. This national park has, so far, had little exposure to recreational and tourism activities. However, an increase in the number of tourists visiting the park has been observed as a result of the demands of ecological tourism. This area was investigated with respect to ecological planning to prevent intensive usage from causing future damage, as a result of human thoughtlessness, and to protect the park. Additionally, the aim was to determine the usage potential using ecological planning and to propose variations of ecotourism thought to be helpful for the public. The Karagöl-Sahara National Park has valuable natural and cultural resources, and is an area whose recreation-tourism potential has been strongly protected. The national park also has major economic potential for ecotourism. [PUBLICATION ABSTRACT].

Developing ecotourism in First World, resource-dependent areas

Che, D. 2006, Geoforum Vol 37 side 212-226.

Ecotourism, an economic diversification tool most commonly applied in the Third World as a means to protect ecosystems, preserve local cultures, and spur economic development, has recently been applied in First World resource-dependent areas. While ecotourism has traditionally focused on Third World 'undisturbed' protected lands, it has also been developed in their First World equivalents (i.e., old-growth forests) as well as in First World sites of past resource extraction and in places where current agricultural practices maintain cherished cultural landscapes. Forest County, Pennsylvania, a timber-dependent area, sought to diversify its economy by developing ecotourism based on its unique Allegheny hardwood forests, which are produced by timber harvesting. This ecotourism would encourage amenity-based, locally-driven economic development and maintain timber harvesting. While government and foundation supported ecotourism development efforts in areas dependent on resource extraction have incorporated some of ecotourism's ideals, these operations have had mixed success. Such isolated areas, which have traditionally drawn visitors independently engaging in traditional outdoor recreation activities, have not been able to draw enough customers willing to pay for natural and cultural history tours. If ecotourism is to be successful, such areas may need further government support and destination branding to increase name recognition in order to counter the global orientation of the nature tour industry. For true community development, local collaborative efforts including resource and environmental interests are also required in which primary production is connected to processing and consumers through value-added and service sector activities such as tourism. © 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved..

Evaluation Method for Ecotourism in Nature Reserves Based on Principles of Ecotourism and Its Application

Cheng, K.Z., X. 2009, Journal of Northeast Forestry University/Dongbei Linye Daxue Xuebao Vol 37 side 102-104.

An evaluation method for ecotourism in nature reserves was put forward based on the basic principles for ecotourism. Ten indexes that the nature reserve possessed to satisfy the needs of ecotourism were determined as nature-based tourism, motives of appreciation and learning, environmental and social cultural impacts, tourists' environmental attitudes, community attitudes to resource protection, conservation benefit from ecotourism, economic benefit of community, community participation, tourists' understanding and respect to local culture. Ecotourism was classified into three grades according to the total score of each index. The method was applied to evaluate Zhalong Nature Reserve. Result shows that the ecotourism in Zhalong Nature Reserves belongs to grade II, namely part ecotourism. Some suggests were proposed to improve the ecotourism management, such as to provide more nature experience and environmental education, form community participation in ecotourism, and blend more local culture with ecotoriusm..

Fairness of prices, user fee policy and willingness to pay among visitors to a national forest

Chung, J.Y.K., G. T.; Petrick, J. F.; Absher, J. D. 2011, Tourism Management Vol 32 side 1038-1046.

Imposing user fees in Nature-Based Tourism (NBT) contexts has been a controversial issue. Based on the notions of justice and fairness, this study extended previous work examining the relationship between attitudes toward user fees and spending support. In a proposed structural model of price fairness, fee spending support, and willingness to pay (WTP), this paper identified the antecedents of WTP user fees, and empirically examined to what extent the data fit the model. Furthermore, the moderating role of place attachment in the model was investigated by using multiple-group structural equation modeling. Subjects (n = 562) were recreational tourists to a forest area in the southeast U.S. Results revealed that spending support partially played a mediating role in the relationship between perceived price fairness and WTP user fees. A multiple-group invariance test also demonstrated that while the degree of place identity moderated the effect of price fairness on spending support, the degree of place dependence did not influence the relationships among the antecedents of WTP. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd..

Birdwatching, twitching and tourism: Towards an Australian perspective

Connell, J. 2009, Australian Geographer Vol 40 side 203-217.

Birdwatching has grown in importance in recent decades as a new variant of niche tourism, but has largely escaped geographical documentation. Global growth has been reflected in the development of tourism companies, websites and guidebook coverage, mainly in Western nations. New complexity and competition are reflected in the emergence of distinct sub-categories of birdwatchers. Birdwatching has been particularly significant in more remote places including deserts and wetlands, but particularly offshore islands, where more unusual and rare species are to be found. It has contributed to the economic development and environmental management of rural and remote areas, while also being one of the most ecologically sound and sustainable of versions of wildlife tourism..

The role of UK-based conservation tourism operators

Cousins, J.A. 2007, Tourism Management Vol 28 side 1020-1030.

This paper focuses on a specialty sub-sector of the larger ecotourism market, which fuses the 'hard' ecotourist with the volunteer tourist, in which paying members of the general public travel for the purpose of participating in organised conservation work. This industry has an increasing impact on the global distribution of volunteers and resources for conservation, and despite its increasing commercialisation, there has been little examination of this industry. This paper aims to provide a broad insight into the UK conservation tourism industry, examining the scale of the industry and the diversity and practices of the organisations involved. The paper then explores the range and distribution of holidays, the volunteers participating and allocation of fees. As the industry expands further, it will be important for these organisations to keep the quality of their conservation products high and the volunteer's engagement with nature deep and meaningful. © 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved..

Wildlife tourism: The intangible, psychological benefits of human-wildlife encounters

Curtin, S. 2009, Current Issues in Tourism Vol 12 side 451-474.

This article presents the results of an ethnographic study of wildlife tourists. The findings reveal the commonalities and complexities of the wildlife experience during wildlife encounters at home and while on holiday. Nature's design, performance and immense biodiversity initiate an emotional response of awe, wonder and privilege that unlocks ecocentric and anthropomorphic connections to wild animals and a feeling that is 'beyond words'. There is time to stand and stare, and contemplate. Nature and wildlife are not only spatial events but also temporal ones. In this liminal, embodied space of a wildlife encounter, socially constructed modern fast time dissipates and is replaced by stillness and nature's time whereby participants are totally absorbed in the spectacle. All thought and action is concentrated on the moment. This provokes a deep sense of well-being that transcends the initial encounter leading to spiritual fulfilment and psychological health benefits. The implications of this research has relevance to environmental conservation particularly the recognition that conserving habitats and wildlife has an intrinsic connection to the future well-being of the human population who are part of the ecosystem and not separate from it. © 2009 Taylor & Francis..

Stakeholder Consensus Regarding Trail Conditions and Management Responses: A Norwegian Case Study

Denstadli, J.M.L., Kreg; Vistad, Odd Inge 2010, Scandinavian Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Vol 10 side 358-374.

Trail damage and vegetation loss due to recreation activities is an increasing problem in many natural areas. Managing ecological impacts through the selection of indicators and standards is a key component of developing a sustainable tourism industry, a process that appropriately is based on the judgment of different stakeholder groups. This study investigates stakeholder consensus regarding trail impacts and management preferences in the Norwegian community of Lom and the surrounding region. Evaluations are compared across three groups; tourists, residents with tourism-related income, and other residents. Results show a fairly high tolerance for trail impacts across stakeholder groups. Differences are more noticeable with respect to management actions that might be used to reduce ecological impacts, with tourists generally being more supportive of actions. Results suggest that consensus on relevant indicators and standards may be achieved relatively easily, but agreement on management actions may be more difficult..

Attitudes towards large carnivores and carnivore tourism among tourism entrepreneurs in Sweden

Ednarsson, M. 2006, Points de vue de professionnels du tourisme suédois sur les grands carnivores et sur le tourisme de découverte des carnivores Vol 94 side 47-67.

The return and the growth of large carnivore populations and especially the wolf population have caused a fierce public debate between advocates and opponents. In this debate the tourist perspective has been overshadowed by other interests, mostly by farmers and hunters, disregarded by the research and mostly promoted by environmental movement. Even if die tourism perspective has played a nearly non-existing role in the public debate it has become a much more important perspective due to growth in segments, of eco- and nature-based tourism as a tool for rural development and nature conservation. Previous research on attitudes towards large carnivores has systematically focused on public attitudes and attitudes among interests, negatively touched by these animals. The purpose of this article is to analyze the attitudes towards large carnivores and carnivore tourism among tourism entrepreneurs in the county of Värmland, Sweden. The main objective is to scrutinize the relationship between the entrepreneur's attitudes toward large carnivores and their attitudes towards, and opinion about the potential for, large carnivores as resource for tourism. The empirical data is based on survey responses from 134 entrepreneurs in spring 2004. Among other findings, the results suggest that we have to take place attachment and other place dependent aspects into account to fully understand how tourism entrepreneurs, who best represent the tourism perspective, and their attitudes affect their perceived potential for large carnivores as resources for tourism..

The role of conservation research and education centers in growing nature-based tourism

Edwards, R.T., E. 2010, Great Plains Research Vol 20 side 51-70.

There are increasing numbers of private (nonprofit and for-profit) centers that carry out conservation research and education in locations of environmental concern. Such centers generate revenue streams that directly support conservation programs and also sustain surrounding human communities. This paper assesses the size of the centers' economic impacts. We conducted separate studies of the economic impacts of the Cheetah Conservation Fund ( Namibia) and (jointly) the Rowe Bird Sanctuary and Whooping Crane Trust (central Nebraska. USA). We collected data on direct expenditures and surveyed visitors and volunteers on their spending. For the Cheetah Conservation Fund, we estimate total economic impact using a Social Accounting Matrix developed for Namibia to determine appropriate multipliers. For the Rowe Sanctuary and the Whooping Crane Trust, we employ the IMPLAN Pro modeling software. We find that the Cheetah Conservation Fund generates a total economic impact of US$4.13 million per year and Rowe Sanctuary/Whooping Crane Trust generates US$3.80 million annually; the former sustains 177 jobs and the latter creates 63 jobs. Are such impacts significant? Two considerations suggest they are. First, such centers tend to be located in remote, usually rural areas where even small impacts may be important in sustaining local human communities. Second, for Africa alone we identified some 352 active conservation centers (undoubtedly a large undercount). so if on average each had an economic impact equal to that of Cheetah Conservation Fund, their combined impact would total about $1.5 billion per year. © 2010 Copyright by the Center for Great Plains Studies, University of Nebraska-Lincoln..

Improving the factual knowledge of landscapes: Following up the European Landscape Convention with a comparative historical analysis of forces of landscape change in the Sjodalen and Stølsheimen mountain areas, Norway

Eiter, S.P., K. 2007, Norsk Geografisk Tidsskrift Vol 61 side 145-156.

A focus of implementing the European Landscape Convention (ELC) in Norway is on improving the factual knowledge of landscapes, which implies analysing the forces transforming them. The article aims to identify important forces of change and to elucidate its complexity by a comparative historical study of land cover and land use in two mountain areas in Western and Eastern Norway. The land covers and uses in focus are transport infrastructure, seasonal farming, vegetation, tourism and outdoor recreation, and nature and landscape protection. Based on an understanding of forces as something being exerted, a framework including pressure, attraction, friction, repulsion, and working force is developed. A comprehensive literature analysis shows how differences in intensity and extent of land use and development of land cover result from a complex interaction of common extrinsic forces with locally different intrinsic forces. To control landscape change and to maintain diversity among landscapes as a Europe-wide resource, the national implementation of the ELC will require a strong focus on the local level. Moreover, understanding the ELC as an origin of forces is recommended, because it allows more appropriate individual responses to landscape change..

O' sole mio: Italian charter tourists' experiences of the Midnight Sun in North Cape, Norway

Favero, P. 2000, Anthropological Quarterly Vol 73 side .

This article focuses on Italian charter tourists' experiences of North Cape, the site considered to be Europe's northernmost sport and the most privileged place for gazing at the Midnight Sun. My aim is to show that tourists' experiences and interpretation of a specific attraction are culturally shaped and contextually situated..

Primary Economic Impacts at Three Spatial Levels: The Case of Fulufjallet National Park, Sweden

Fredman, P.Y., M. 2011, Scandinavian Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Vol 11 side 74-86.

The changing nature of Swedish national parks from a primarily resource protection emphasis to a more multiple use philosophy, including tourism, requires new ways of looking at park-related planning and development. Tourism must not be considered in a vacuum spatially but from a broad regional perspective as its economic impact is greater than just that which occurs in or adjacent to a park. The aim of this study was to analyze primary economic impacts (expenditures) at three different spatial levels (in the park, the gateway communities, and the region outside these gateway communities) associated with tourism to Fulufjallet National Park in Sweden. Results show that park visitors do have significant economic expenditures beyond the national park and nearby gateway communities. The probability of expenditures, and the magnitude of those expenditures, increases with a wider geographical scale of analysis. These observations illustrate the importance of examining national park tourism from a wider spatial perspective and to ensure a diversity of opportunities are available outside the park that will complement the activities inside the park..

Seasonal Differences in Visitor Perceptions: A Comparative Study of Three Mountainous National Parks in Central Europe

Gorner, T.C., Martin 2011, Journal of Environmental Protection Vol 2 side 1046-1054.

This paper compares the views and attitudes of visitors to three key mountain national parks and Biosphere Reserves: Sumava National Park (Sumava NP, Czech Republic), Krkonose National Park (KRNAP, Czech Republic) and Karkonoski Park Narodowy (KPN, Poland). A large numbers of people visit these destinations both in the summer (e.g. hikers and cyclists) and in the winter (e.g. hikers and skiers), which threatens sustainability and creates problems regarding the management of these areas. A comprehensive understanding of visitor use, including visitors' attitudes and perceptions, is fundamental for effective park management. Most research in these national parks is carried out during the summer season, therefore different results in the winter season are expected. Using a standardised socio-environmental survey we attempt to find seasonal differences between visitors and their opinions. A total of 2252 questionnaires were gathered. There were 13 common questions for these three national parks, three of them yielded significantly different results between the two seasons (visitors' nationality, type of accommodation and financial costs). Other differences were detected in one or two national parks. [PUBLICATION ABSTRACT].

Protected Areas in the Alps: The Success Factors of Nature-Based Tourism and the Challenge for Regional Policy

Hammer, T.S., D. 2008, Gaia Vol side 152-160.

In the rural periphery of the Alpine region nature-based tourism in protected areas can considerably contribute to regional development. In order to create positive effects for sustainable regional development, certain conditions have to be met. Based on a comprehensive two-stage Delphi survey of 27 experienced actors in protected areas and the neighbouring tourism associations in the Alpine region, 14 success factors in the following three categories could be identified: 1. general conditions of protected area tourism, 2. cooperation between the actors involved, and 3. design of tourism services and products. The success factors, and accordingly the nature-based tourism in protected areas, can and must be promoted by regional politics in order to achieve positive effects for regional development. This includes, among other things, the appreciation of protected areas as well as the adaptation of the respective regional policy instruments..

Harmony or Conflict? A Focus Group Study on Traditional Use and Tourism Development in and around Rondane and Jotunheimen National Parks in Norway

Haukeland, J.V.D., K.; Vistad, O. I. 2011, Scandinavian Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Vol 11 side 13-37.

Rural industries in Norway are increasingly being marginalized, and rural populations are decreasing. Rural areas and the mountain landscapes which often characterize them are, however, highly valued for their biodiversity, and for amenity values, which in many cases are associated with national parks and other protected areas. In this context, the present study seeks to explore local stakeholders' views on issues associated with tourism development in Norwegian national parks - in particular, their personal interests, rural discourses and management planning processes. Four focus group meetings were undertaken in two prominent national parks in Norway, Rondane National Park and Jotunheimen National Park, and with two main user groups: traditional rural user interests and local tourism interests. Findings revealed strong support across all groups for the existence of the two national parks. Both groups in both parks were in favour of some level, and certain types, of tourism within the parks. The local tourism interests, however, felt more strongly than their counterparts that a more extensive tourism strategy was needed to support the local communities. A general frustration with the present management regime was noted among several stakeholders. A key conclusion is that local stakeholders should be significantly involved in future park management processes..

Current Tourism Patterns in the Swedish Mountain Region

Heberlein, T.A.F., P.; Vuorio, T. 2002, Mountain Research and Development Vol 22 side 142-149.

Tourism has been part of the mountain economy in Sweden for the past century. With the current decline of the extractive industries in this rural area, tourism is taking on new significance for many communities. This article gives an overview of tourism in the extensive Swedish mountain region, with a focus on types of recreational activities and their regionality. The data presented are based on a national sample of participation in mountain tourism. Findings show that 43% of the Swedish adult population (2.66 million individuals) visited the mountains at least once during a 5-year period (1995-1999). Winter activities-skiing and snowmobiling-were the dominant forms of mountain recreation. Tourism activity patterns differ distinctively across the 4 mountain counties: whereas winter tourism dominates in the southern parts of the region, the north receives visitors mostly in the summer. Only 5% of visitors to the Swedish mountains are from outside Scandinavia. In a single year, 9 times as many people visited the Swedish mountains as live there, but despite these numbers the population in the region is continually decreasing..

The culture of horsemanship and horse-based tourism in Iceland

Helgadóttir, G. 2006, Current Issues in Tourism Vol 9 side 535-548.

The nature of attractions in tourism is complex. Attractions can be places, events or experiences. In this paper the attraction of experience in horse-based tourism as promoted by horse-based tourism businesses, and in documentation from riders, is discussed. The argument is made that attractions must be considered as philosophical topics. Horsemanship is a cultural phenomenon, hence horse-based tourism is essentially cultural tourism. Classical perspectives of defining culture are used to interpret the findings, which suggest that the ideal of horse-based tourism is rather a romantic notion of horsemanship that incidentally fits very well with the elements of nostalgia and romance inherent in tourism as experience. © 2006 G. Helgadóttir..

Horse-based tourism: Community, quality and disinterest in economic value

Helgadóttir, G.S., I. 2008, Scandinavian Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Vol 8 side 105-121.

Although horse-based tourism is an important and growing sector of the tourism industry, it has not been extensively researched. The findings from the current research project, which involved interviews with owners/ operators of horse-based tourism businesses and a survey of their business practices, suggest that they belong to a culture of horsemanship rather than a culture of tourism as business operations in a service industry. The background, interests and outlook of the participants is that of horsemen: that is people involved with the breeding, training and riding of horses. This is also what they expect their guests to be interested in, and a passion they believe to be shared between hosts and guests. The business operation, including finances, insurance and business plans, were topics that the participants seemed less knowledgeable about and less interested in..

Slaughtering the Goose that Lays the Golden Egg: Are Whaling and Whale-Watching Mutually Exclusive?

Higham, J.E.S.L., David 2008, Current Issues in Tourism Vol side 63-63.

The compatibility of whaling and whale-watching, and likely tourist reactions to continuing debate surrounding the killing of whales were tested. Tourism potentially sewed the seeds of its own destruction. It was recognised that tourism and nature-based tourism specifically existed in an often complex and delicate co-existence with other social, cultural, economic and political interests. It was estimated that the introduction of seal culls in Scotland had cost the country more than $150 million in tourism revenues. It was found that whale-watchers reacted negatively to commercial whaling. Whale-watching rapidly became a major financial contributor to the tourism sector of many countries. Significant divergence from the western paradigm existed in cultural values associated with whales..

Community-based tourism: A pathway to sustainability for Japan's protected areas

Hiwasaki, L. 2006, Society and Natural Resources Vol 19 side 675-692.

The recent diversification of domestic tourism needs in Japan, seen particularly in increasing demand for ecotourism and green tourism, shows that there is much potential for further development of nature tourism, much of which takes place in protected areas. However, numerous challenges exist. Based on case-study research on tourism taking place in three national parks, four common success factors of these sites were identified, namely, institutional arrangements; self-regulations related to conservation; high environmental awareness; and the existence of partnerships. This article demonstrates how, under the current system of Japanese national park management, community-based tourism can be facilitated by building upon these success factors. This would address the existing challenges to tourism in protected areas, and in turn would significantly contribute to the sustainable management of protected areas. Finally, this article points to the need for future research that focuses on the wider applicability of the lessons learned from the Japanese experience..

Developing the nature-based tourism sector in Southwestern North Dakota

Hodur, N.M.L., F. L.; Wolfe, K. L. 2008, Great Plains Research Vol 18 side 81-92.

Rural communities increasingly are looking to the tourism sector as a source of economic growth. Southwestern North Dakota has experienced substantial out-migration and population loss, resulting in designation of the eight-county area as a Rural Economic Area Partnership (REAP) zone in 1995. The purpose of this study was to (1) identify opportunities for expanding the region's tourism sector, (2) identify challenges and obstacles facing tourism businesses, and (3) frame key issues and outline potential options for area decision makers. Information was gathered from (1) a survey of the region's tourism businesses, (2) focus-group interviews with tourism business operators, and (3) personal interviews with community and business leaders. The findings provide insight into the basic characteristics of the tourism businesses, identify some of the key constraints to expansion and development, and identify sector participants' perceptions of opportunities for growth, thus providing direction for future research and policy initiatives. © 2008 Copyright by the Center for Great Plains Studies, University of Nebraska-Lincoln..

Spatial patterns and economic contributions of mining and tourism in biodiversity hotspots: A case study in China

Huang, G.Z., W.; Ali, S. 2011, Ecological Economics Vol 70 side 1492-1498.

Mining activities and tourism are both growing fast in biodiversity intense areas globally. However, the dynamic and interactions between mining and tourism when they both occur in biodiversity hotspots, and how they together may impact the economy and environment in these biodiversity rich areas, remain unclear. This paper examined how the two industries interact in terms of their economic contributions and spatial patterns in a biodiversity hotspot, Yunnan, China. We used correlation analyses to measure the relationships between mining activities, tourism visits and local gross domestic productions. We also employed a distance-based technique to investigate the nature of any dependency between mining and tourism sites. Results showed that mining activities tend to be in relatively fluent areas while tourism tends to occur in less developed areas. Our results showed that the location of tourism and mining sites are likely to be close to one another but the two industries usually perform better economically when they are apart from each other. These findings can provide insights on how mining and tourism together may impact the economy and environment in biodiversity rich areas, and provide important information for managers and planners on balancing mining and tourism development in these areas. © 2011 Elsevier B.V..

Biodiversity and Tourism: A valuable relationship

Hudson, K.L., Diane 2010, Social Alternatives Vol 29 side 39-43.

In 2008, international visitor arrivals reached 880 million with associated expenditure of US$946 billion. In terms of the value to tourism from biodiversity, there have been a number of studies that have attempted to demonstrate the value of the natural environment in areas where successful iconic wildlife tours operate. In Iceland the whale watching industry is growing rapidly with an estimated annual value of $US4.5m - $US6m which is considered to be worth more than commercial whaling was at its peak, in Queensland, Australia, whale watching in Hervey Bay has been estimated as contributing between $AUS6.4m and $AUS11.4m to the regional economy. Further, nature-based tourism across southern Africa reportedly now generates roughly the same revenue as farming, forestry, and fisheries combined. In terms of the value of tourism for biodiversity the argument is generally positioned in two key ways: first, as a generator of economic means to address conservation issues, and second, as a vehicle to educate visitors about human impacts on biodiversity and wildlife habitat leading to an increased awareness and behaviour change. A discussion of values aims to highlight the notion that value is accrued in a number of forms to a variety of stakeholders and the article argues that a mutual understanding by managers of both biodiversity and tourism will result in adding value to both in a shared and symbiotic manner. [PUBLICATION ABSTRACT].

Developing wellness in Iceland. Theming wellness destinations the Nordic way

Huijbens, E.H. 2011, Scandinavian Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Vol 11 side 20-41.

This paper deals with the development of Iceland as a wellness destination with specific focus on a development project in the north-east (NE) of the country. Iceland is known as a destination for nature-based tourism with the vast majority of people visiting the country for the wilderness or natural elements. Complementing the nature-based tourism on offer, especially in the uninhabited highland interior, has been the occasional dip into a natural geo-thermal pool, often to be found in unique settings and of a great variety when it comes to water qualities. Since the 1970s, Icelanders have been very actively using these geo-thermal waters for the build up of heating utilities in the country, in swimming pools and for producing electricity. The most famed tourism consequence of these developments is undoubtedly the Blue Lagoon. In the NE of Iceland a similar service facility has been built but under wholly different terms. This paper demonstrates a lack of a vision in the development of Iceland as a wellness destination on the entrepreneurial level. Moreover, in terms of the case outlined, these entrepreneurs find little commonalities with a specific Nordic wellbeing concept and have a much more internationally-oriented comparative outlook. © 2011 Taylor & Francis..

Collaboration theory and tourism practice in protected areas: Stakeholders, structuring and sustainability

Jamal, T.S., A. 2009, Journal of Sustainable Tourism Vol 17 side 169-189.

A growing body of research is emerging on tourism and partnerships in protected areas, but conceptual development remains fragmented. This paper tackles this challenge by focusing on three aspects important for sustainability: (1) complexity (nested systems of biophysical environments, tourism and park management structures, community-resident systems, local-global systems and use-conservation gap; (2) scale, structure and scope of collaborations (including community involvement and control) and (3) challenges of implementation and long term structuring (for sustainability and success). Some related questions are: How does the tourism system fit with the protected area system? Who represents "Nature" in negotiations over conservation and use? How can plans and programmes be effectively enacted at the local level for long term success? A theoretical discussion plus an example of community-based collaboration for conservation and economic development in Bolivia (Chalalan Ecolodge) are provided to explore these questions. Chalalan shows an evolving partnership between local and international stakeholders toward local control, and also a complex relationship between local-traditional and scientific knowledge, and cultural change..

Estimating the Regional Economic Impact of Tourism to National Parks: Two Case Studies from Germany

Job, H. 2008, Gaia Vol side 134-142.

National parks are seen as major nature-based tourism attractions. This coincides with an international trend in environmental politics to increasingly highlight the regional economic effects of national parks. The often-lacking acceptance of reserves by the locals, who see them as hindering economic development, is the reason. Also in Germany, national parks have recently been integrated into tourism planning strategy. The economic benefits for local communities thus need to be assessed. Studies in this field, however, face major difficulties: Firstly, Germany's free access policy for its protected areas results in a lack of visitor data. Secondly, data on tourism expenditures are very rare and only provide general information that cannot be considered representative of national parks. This study presents the financial benefits derived from nature-based tourism in and around two German national parks on the basis of the value-added technique. The results clearly indicate that tourism can generate considerable benefits for the regional development in the structurally weak rural periphery. This information should increase the acceptance of national parks by both local communities and politicians. Consequently, German national parks need to further incorporate the concept of socio-economic monitoring..

The Multiple Assessment of Interpretation Effectiveness: Promoting Visitors' Environmental Attitudes and Behavior

Kim, A.K.-J.A., David; Szivas, Edith 2011, Journal of Travel Research Vol 50 side 321.

Interpretation has been recognized as a useful tool in managing visitor behavior in nature-based tourism areas. This study explores a multiple assessment approach to identify the strengths and weaknesses of site-based interpretation in influencing multidimensional aspects of attitudes and behavioral intentions toward local environmental issues. Visitors to the Lulworth coastal area in England were studied using on-site questionnaire survey data. The results of the research highlight that the effectiveness of interpretation varied in relation to a number of different aspects of responsible environmental behavior and local conservation issues. The findings also reveal that it fostered visitors' awareness of and their support for management policies but its impacts were limited to site-specific responsible behavior related in this case to geological and environmental conservation. [PUBLICATION ABSTRACT].

The purchase of equipment in consumer production of outdoor experiences

Larsen, E.R. 2003, Journal of Consumer Policy Vol 26 side 351-371.

Consumers use combinations of goods to produce experiences. In order to produce outdoor experiences, consumers include environmental amenities as production factors in addition to purchasable instruments such as equipment. While amenities are not marketed, equipment is. Inspecting consumer purchases of the latter may uncover attitudes towards the former. Purchases of equipment are realized money outlays in a market and constitute lower bounds for the willingness to pay for one factor in outdoor experience production. This study investigates income and demographic effects in the demand for outdoor equipment over time in Norway, and examines the proportion of purchasing households for each year. Results show that equipment is a luxury item, and that it becomes more popular over time. The findings are relevant to policymakers in two ways since use of equipment may entail environmental degradation, but purchases of equipment may reflect a willingness to pay for environmental standards. [PUBLICATION ABSTRACT].

Voyages to Kitchi Gami: The Lake Superior National Marine Conservation Area and regional tourism opportunities in Canada's first National Marine Conservation Area

Lemelin, R.H.K., R.; Woznicka, I.; Metansinine, K.; Pelletier, H. 2010, Tourism in Marine Environments Vol 6 side 101-118.

With a substantial amount of natural (e.g., islands, estuaries, shoals) and cultural (e.g., pictographs, lighthouses, shipwrecks) heritage, the Lake Superior National Marine Conservation Area (LSNMCA), located in Northwestern Ontario, is a protected area steeped in history. Apart from a few exceptions, this region of Ontario has lacked the opportunity to capitalize on potential tourism and recreational opportunities. An historic overview of the region highlights past tourism achievements, such as brook trout fishing in the Nipigon River, and the Rossport Fish Derby, and indicates new tourism opportunities in Northwestern Ontario (e.g., sailing regattas and kayak symposia). The significance of tourism in a region largely dependent upon mining and forestry is also highlighted. The article then reviews the potential role of the LSNMCA in regional tourism development by utilizing Kelleher's levels of stakeholder engagement framework. Although stakeholder involvement in the LSNMCA, according to Kelleher's model, requires further work, the establishment of this protected area (the very first of its kind in Canada) appears to be engaging stakeholders in regional tourism development. © 2010 Cognizant Comm. Corp..

The supply of nature-based tourism activities in Sweden

Lundmark, L.M., D. K. 2010, Tourism: An International Interdisciplinary Journal Vol 58 side 379-393.

After a long period of urbanisation and globalisation, the demand for nature and nature-based recreation and tourism in large part comes from metropolitan areas and from abroad. The development of nature-based tourism is encouraged by regional policy and development schemes. However the positive potential of nature-based tourism for regional development and rural entrepreneurship is contested. This encourages the identification of factors that may explain the success or failure of destinations and businesses focusing on nature based tourism products and how the supply of nature-based tourism activities coincide with domestic demand in Sweden with the aim to discuss the potential of nature-based tourism for socio-economic development. The question addressed is: what supply is there in terms of nature-based activities in Sweden? The paper is based on a survey of nature-based tourism supply on regional web pages in Sweden. The material indicates that supply and demand have difficulties to meet. From a supply-side perspective variations in accessibility and a lack of suitable products limit the possibility to actually make a living out of nature-based tourism. Hence, it is concluded that nature-based tourism is a viable development option only for few destinations..

Environmental protection: An instrument for regional development? National ambitions versus local realities in the case of tourism

Lundmark, L.S.m., O. 2009, Scandinavian Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Vol 9 side 387-405.

This paper deals with the relation between protection of land and local and regional development through a power and democracy perspective on planning. A Swedish case is used to illustrate the connection between planning, local power and local development, with reference to tourism in a Nordic context. When areas are protected, planning automatically becomes centralized, taking the planning process out of the hands of the local authorities. Within these state territories of set rules, regulations and institutionalized systems - eco-protectorates - the local population becomes powerless when it comes to making decisions about land-use and is unable to engage in economically viable tourism enterprises because of centralized decision-making. Even in nature-based tourism where the quality of nature is important, it could therefore be more advantageous to have access to non-protected land for nature tourism. This is even more so because the idea of regional and local development often appears to have been "attached" as an afterthought or pious wish to the central planning documents. With genuine intention to stimulate local and regional development, protection should itself be based on geographical awareness and sensitivity to the diverse conditions in which such development is visualized. Local initiatives regarding land-use and protection do not have to be in conflict with national and international ambitions and regulations but they easily can be. © 2009 Taylor & Francis..

The New Environmental Paradigm and Nature-Based Tourism Motivation

Luo, Y.D., Jinyang 2008, Journal of Travel Research Vol 46 side 392-402.

This study examines the relationship between environmental attitudes as measured by the new environmental paradigm (NEP) and nature-based tourism (NBT) motivations based on data gathered from a national forest park in China. The results indicate that tourists' environmental attitudes are heterogeneous across all four tourism motivations. Specifically, those who are more supportive of limits to growth and who are more concerned about ecocrisis tend to have a higher desire to be close to nature, to learn about nature, and to escape from routine and issues associated with cities. In addition, those whose motivations are oriented to develop skills and abilities or seek to experience new things, environments, and social contact tend to be more supportive of the notion of human over nature. Thus, it can be concluded that environmental attitudes and NBT motivations are closely and positively related. Research limits, theoretical and practical implications, and future research needs of the study are discussed..

Northern exposure: opportunities and challenges for tourism development in Torngat Mountains National Park, Labrador, Canada

Maher, P.T.L., R. Harvey 2011, The Polar Record Vol 47 side 40-45.

ABSTRACT Torngat Mountains National Park (TMNP) is Canada's newest national park, and was established in 2005. The development of the park has mirrored a change in mandate for the agency that manages it, Parks Canada. Since 2005 Parks Canada has sought to focus on 'proactively facilitate[ing] opportunities for meaningful and memorable visitor experiences', complimentary to maintaining the protection of ecological integrity and providing education (Parks Canada 2005, no page numbers). Under the auspices of this new multi-faceted mandate, this research note will examine the current state of tourism in TMNP, and will also evaluate some of the opportunities and challenges for the future. Within Parks Canada's Visitor experience vision 2015 statement, understanding tourism delivery in the present and future are important components of its mission, as is engagement with external partners to assist in this process. The analysis of tourism development in TMNP for this note comes from the authors' two week research trips to the park in August 2008 and July 2009, undertaken to assist Parks Canada to evaluate their current visitor experience activities and future options. [PUBLICATION ABSTRACT].

Birdwatchers' specialisation characteristics and national park tourism planning

Maple, L.C.E., P. F. J.; Rolfe, H. 2010, Journal of Ecotourism Vol 9 side 219-238.

Decline in birding visitation to Point Pelee National Park stimulated investigation of recreation specialisation to better prepare programmes for birdwatchers. This research identified characteristics of birdwatchers' at three specialisation levels and advised park managers in the design and management of birding programmes. Research found that the intermediate and expert birders were similar to each other, and were different from the beginners. The beginners were a distinct group, from the more experienced groups, as they were more likely to be in their first year of bird watching, stayed the least number of nights in the local area, had the lowest expenditures, participated more in activities outside the national park, used more sources of information, and participated more in non-birding activities during their trip to the national park. The research found that this beginner group required programmes aimed at an introduction to the park, the regional area, birding, and a wide range of activities and sites. The more experienced birders required specialised programmes on bird identification, bird biology, and bird watching. The research concluded that bird watching management should be an integrated, regional activity, involving many public and private organisations, many of which occur outside the national park. © 2010 Taylor & Francis..

Tourism's role in rural development of Finnish Lapland: Interpreting national and regional strategy documents

Maria, H.T., S. 2008, Fennia Vol 186 side .

Rural communities in sparsely populated areas are facing considerable social changes as a result of depopulation and the introduction of new forms of livelihood and working practices. The communities also have to deal with environmental changes caused by the increase in the use of natural resources and by global issues, such as climate change. Anticipation and adaptation, as well as active participation, are important strategies for local communities. Strategic development work is part of the planning system at many geographical levels. This article asks how strategy documents take into account future prospects for tourism development. The objective is to examine how changes in operating environments, land-use patterns, and in the nature-based industries of local rural communities, are taken into account in the "development speech" of tourism strategies. The relationship between tourism strategies and other rural strategies is also briefly addressed. The grass-root level of local communities is introduced by analysing the group discussions held at the village of Lokka in Finnish Lapland. Textual analysis is carried out by using content analysis and rhetorical analysis. The results show that an increase in tourism is regarded as inevitable and that tourism development is often discussed separately from other realms of rural life, even though different rural livelihoods are in many ways strongly interconnected..

Profiling the segments of visitors to Portuguese protected areas

Marques, C.R., Elizabeth; Menezes, João 2010, Journal of Sustainable Tourism Vol 18 side 971.

This study identifies the diversity of domestic visitors to Portuguese protected areas (PPA) based on benefit segmentation. The segments of PPA visitors are also compared with other nature-based tourist segments using some empirical benefit segmentation literature. Data were collected by means of a self-administered questionnaire and multivariate statistics techniques (principal components, hierarchical and K-means cluster analyses) were applied. Five distinct segments of visitors were identified based on the motivation for their visit and further characterized by the perceived importance of activities, facilities and services, frequency of visit and socio-demographics. Three segments are nature-focused and two are focused on activities or events. Only one segment shows specific interests and motivations associated with ecotourism and similar characteristics to international ecotourists; moreover, the reasons for the visit in one segment are unrelated to any of the motivations of nature-based tourism. Some implications for management are also described. [PUBLICATION ABSTRACT].

THE ECOTOURISM'S DEVELOPMENT IN THE ROMANIAN CARPATHIANS' PROTECTED AREAS: FACTS, FIGURES AND NEEDS

Matei, E. 2011, Human Geographies Vol 5 side 31-39.

Landscape heritage of the Romanian Carpathians is emphasized through protection activities, but in the same time it represents an important pool of resources suitable to the numerous forms of tourism. Conservation is in line with sustainable tourism and its alternatives, ecotourism. The present study aimed on analyzes several features of the Carpathian protected heritage and how activities function through environmentally friendly tourism. Results showed a great diversity of understanding and implementation of ecotourism in the Carpathian Mountains, with numerous actions of organization, but also with a series of measures that are absolutely necessary for the proper functioning of this tourism alternative. The study provides several models to estimate some characteristics of ecotourism resources, which provide returns for consumer satisfaction as well as improve the management of protected areas. [PUBLICATION ABSTRACT].

Conservation and community-based development through ecotourism in the temperate rainforest of southern Chile

McAlpin, M. 2008, Policy Sciences Vol 41 side 51-69.

General assessments of ecotourism and community-led development offer conflicting views of these strategies' potential. Appraisals of successful projects add to the available knowledge that policy makers can use to improve decision-making. The Mapu Lahual Network of Indigenous Parks (RML), an ecotourism development and conservation project in the 10th Region of southern Chile, covers 45,000 ha within the territories of eight indigenous communities, in a part of southern Chile that national and international conservation organizations consider a high priority for ecological conservation. Elected leaders of the indigenous communities established the RML in 2000 with technical assistance from public agencies and financial assistance from national and environmental organizations. The RML's primary purpose is to increase and diversify per-capita incomes in a way that preserves the area's environment and culture by establishing tourism based on a system of parks, trails, campgrounds, and local services. This paper appraises the RML with respect to the common interest of the relevant local, national, and international communities. The policy sciences provide a contextual basis for practical recommendations that will help participants build on the project's strengths and correct its weaknesses. The RML initiative provides a model of a development process that has been constructively supported by members of public agencies and conservation organizations. The strategies employed in the RML could be diffused and adapted in other contexts. © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC. 2007..

Typologising nature-based tourists by activity - Theoretical and practical implications

Mehmetoglu, M. 2007, Tourism Management Vol 28 side 651-660.

The purpose of the current inquiry was to develop a typology of nature tourists based on trip activities. Data were collected by means of a questionnaire at two nature-based attractions located in Northern Norway. The results indicated that the trip activity segmentation criterion enabled the classification of nature-based tourists into three clusters: "culture and pleasure activity oriented", "nature activity oriented", and "low activity oriented". The main finding was that while other trip motivations distinguished the "nature activity oriented" segment from the other two in the current study, "nature" as a trip motivation, surprisingly, did not. Additionally, there were only minor significant differences between the clusters in terms of demographic and trip features. Theoretical and practical implications of the study are also discussed. © 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved..

Segmenting the nature-based tourists based on travel mode choice

Mehmetoglu, M. 2006, Journal of Hospitality and Leisure Marketing Vol 14 side 47-67.

This paper examines the diverse nature tourism market in terms of two broad segments: package and independent types. Based on a number of theoretical assumptions obtained from the general tourism literature, four research models (main hypotheses) were developed to assess the relationship between the travel mode choice of nature tourists and a series of socio-demographic characteristics, trip features, travel activities and travel motives. The necessary data for the study were subsequently collected from 162 visitors at two separate nature-based attractions (wilderness centres) located in Northern Norway that played host to independent and package tour visitors. To test the proposed hypotheses, four separate logistic regression analyses were carried out. Results indicated that independent and package nature tourists differed significantly in terms of gender, age, annual household income, trip expenditure and trip length as well as for most of the travel activities and some of the travel motivations. © 2006 by The Haworth Press, Inc. All rights reserved..

Nature-Based Tourism: A Contrast to Everyday Life

Mehmetoglu, M. 2007, Journal of Ecotourism Vol 6 side 111-111.

The relationship between trip motives and the importance placed on nature when choosing a destination was examined. It was suggested that the nature-based tourism had emerged as a form of tourism that represented an alternative to mass tourism in terms of its greater individuality, activity and flexibility. It was suggested that environmentalism, changes in consumption and negative effects of mass tourism were the main macro reasons for the increasing demand for nature-based tourism. It was indicated that another considerable reason for the increasing demand could be the fact that nature-based tourism simply represented a contrast to everyday life. The results obtained supported this proposition in that those who indicated that they were motivated by their mundane everyday lives to travel were more likely to travel mainly for nature..

Nature-based Tourists: The Relationship Between their Trip Expenditures and Activities

Mehmetoglu, M. 2007, Journal of Sustainable Tourism Vol 15 side 200-200.

This paper investigates the relationship between four groups of trip activities and the daily expenditures of a sample of visitors at two nature-based attractions in Northern Norway. The paper also examines some other potential factors by adopting a widely utilised twofold segmentation approach: light versus heavy spenders. The results of the logistic regression analysis indicate that there is a significant relationship between the importance attached to travel activities by nature-based tourists and their daily expenditure on a current trip. More specifically, the more individuals consider visiting historic/cultural sites as an important activity on their journey, the more likely they are to be light spenders, whereas the more they consider 'challenging nature-based activities' as important, the more likely that they will be classified as heavy spenders. The investigation additionally finds that travel motives, though to a lesser degree, when taken in tandem with variables such as trip length, trip purpose, age and household income, influence nature tourists' daily expenditure. [PUBLICATION ABSTRACT].

Accurately identifying and comparing sustainable tourists, nature-based tourists, and ecotourists on the basis of their environmental concerns

Mehmetoglu, M. 2010, International Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Administration Vol 11 side 171-199.

The current study, using a confirmatory factor analysis, developed a multi-item scale consisting of 3 dimensions that exhibited necessary reliability and validity. Based on this Nature-Based, Eco- and Sustainable Tourists (NES)-scale, and by utilizing a cluster analysis, the study identifies 4 distinct segments among a sample of the Norwegian population: nature-based tourists, ecotourists, sustainable tourists, and mass tourists. The analysis shows that while the ecotourists make up the largest segment, the mass tourists represent the smallest segment. Using Analysis of Variance (ANOVA), the resulting 4 segments are later compared on the basis of their environmental concerns. The findings suggest that the ecotourists are the most environmentally concerned whereas the mass tourists are the least environmentally concerned. Finally, based upon the overall findings of the study, a new inductive model is developed. This model highlights the interaction between different types of alternative tourists and mass tourists, by showing, inter alia, that nature-based tourism has over the years become a form of mass tourism. Theoretical and practical implications of the study are also discussed. © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC..

Effects of gender differences on perceptions of destination attributes, motivations, and travel values: An examination of a nature-based resort destination

Meng, F.U., M. 2008, Journal of Sustainable Tourism Vol 16 side 445-466.

This study examines the perceptions of the potential tourist market to a nature-based resort destination from the gendered perspective. The research reveals that significant gender differences exist about the perceived importance of destination attributes and travel values when potential nature tourists consider destination choices. After controlling for demographic and travel behaviour variables, such as age, marital status, education, household income, preference of price quote and length of stay, most gender differences remain significant. In addition, more significant distinctions between men and women are demonstrated after controlling for age and income level. The study provides insights into gendered perceptions of nature-based tourism settings. Specific marketing implications are discussed in an attempt to successfully attract nature tourists and provide a high-quality nature destination experience. © 2008 Taylor & Francis..

Land use in the Swedish mountain region: Trends and conflicting goals

Moen, J. 2006, International Journal of Biodiversity Science and Management Vol 2 side 305-314.

This paper describes historical and current trends in the use of natural resources in the Swedish mountain region, with the aim of providing a background for understanding the complexity of managing natural resources in the area. The mountain region is a sparsely populated area with low productivity and large conservation values. Traditionally, hunting, fishing and reindeer husbandry were important and still are important. Mining, hydroelectric energy production and forestry have also employed many people, although less in recent times. Tourism is sometimes seen as a potential saviour in terms of employment, but has not yet reached high enough levels to compensate for other losses. The intensity and types of land use have thus varied over time, with some rapid changes. The contribution of different forms of land use to the well-being of local societies has also varied. This highly dynamic pattern is likely to continue in the future, and the question is how to meet these changes in order to achieve a sustainable use of natural resources. The current management of different natural resources is a complex issue, not least because of conflicting goals and many hierarchical levels in the decision processes. Underlying many of these conflicts are also unclear legal rights which will have to be clarified..

Economic impacts of national park tourism on gateway communities: The case of Kosciuszko National Park

Mules, T. 2005, Tourism Economics Vol 11 side 247-259.

Kosciuszko National Park (KNP) is a major tourist attraction for Australians, featuring the highest mountain on the Australian mainland (Mount Kosciuszko) and including popular ski resorts and wilderness. The region adjoining KNP includes townships with a total population of some 25,000 people, whose economic welfare is increasingly affected by tourism to KNP. This paper reports research that surveyed expenditure by visitors to KNP, which injects new activity into the adjoining regional economy. The paper uses the first round of an input-output process to model the impacts of such expenditure on the region, and also develops a spreadsheet model for allocating visitor expenditure between businesses within the park and businesses within the adjoining regional economy..

Celebration of extreme playfulness: Ekstremsportveko at voss

Mykletun, R.J. 2009, Scandinavian Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Vol 9 side 146-176.

This study aims to explore the central success factors behind the growth and prosperity of festivals. In line with resource dependency theory and the model of competitive strategies, it was assumed that successful festivals both adapt to, and influence, their contexts to their own advantage while also providing benefits for their environment. A capital framework was employed to examine the relationships between a successful festival and its context, employing a case study design and multiple methods. The case chosen was Extreme Sports Week, an annual extreme sports festival at Voss, Norway, which has become the largest extreme sports event worldwide during its 10 years of existence. It brings together sports and forms of cultural expression concentrating mainly on new trends in advanced sports activities and street culture music, combined with local food traditions. Factors in its success are the six "capitals" of the region: Natural, human, social, cultural, physical, and financial. The festival balances the exploitation of these capitals, although indirectly with respect to natural capital, hence constituting an example of sustainability in festival management. Interestingly, the festival was successful in spite of very limited access to local financial capital. The analysis also revealed that a seventh capital construct - administrative capital - is relevant to the understanding of festival development. However, this form of capital was the only one where investments were perceived as problematic, and the festival repaid far more than the authorities had invested in the event..

The Importance of Stakeholders and Policy Influence Enhancing the Innovation in Nature Based Tourism Services Greece, Austria, Finland and Romania Case Studies

Nastase, C.C., Carmen; Popescu, Mihai; Scutariu, Adrian Liviu 2010, European Research Studies Vol 13 side 137-148.

This paper aims to illustrate in the context of the challenges of the Europeanization process what kind of co-operation models there exist between nature-based tourism companies and the critical stakeholder groups effecting the business activities and social sustainability of the companies. The following topics are part of our current research: which are the cooperation strategy; which are the management models applied in countries with competitive market and strong innovation policy; which are the costs of implementing innovation policies for co-operation strategies enhancing the innovation in nature based tourism services; which barriers avoid the entrepreneurship development and how innovative can be the firm management. We intend to analyze the importance of stakeholders and policy influence enhancing the innovation in nature based tourism service, in Greece, Austria, Finland and Romania case studies. The research will continue with a comparison between these cases, including the perspective of supporting entrepreneurship and regional competitiveness in Romania. [PUBLICATION ABSTRACT].

Visits to national parks: Effects of park characteristics and spatial demand

Neuvonen, M.P., E.; Puustinen, J.; Sievänen, T. 2010, Journal for Nature Conservation Vol 18 side 224-229.

Understanding the relationship between the number of visits to national parks and their characteristics is crucial for park planning and management. Visitation has a key role in existing national parks, but also in assessing the social and economic impacts of new parks. This study examined how the natural characteristics of a park, the recreation facilities and services inside a park and tourist services in surrounding communities, as well as the park's location in relation to the population, are associated with the number of visits. Regression modelling was used to analyse the visitation to thirty-five national parks in Finland. The results demonstrated that recreation opportunities, the number of biotopes, the provision of trails and the park's age increase the number of visits, while the park location in relation to the population only has a significant effect in southern Finland. The results imply the dual role of national parks as resource-based destinations if the natural characteristics are outstanding, but also as more user-oriented areas fulfilling recreation needs in the most populated parts of the country. © 2009 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved..

Exploring the predisposition of travellers to qualify as ecotourists: The ecotourist predisposition scale

Nowaczek, A.S., B. 2010, Journal of Ecotourism Vol 9 side 45-61.

In spite of various attempts at defining and identifying ecotourists - both in comparison with general tourism and within the ecotourism sector itself - most research studies examining ecotourists lack a generalisable approach and raise issues of reliability and validity. Most troublesome research in this area lack a theoretical foundation for what it means to be an ecotourist and, instead, relies on geographical location or behavioural markers to identify ecotourists. In this study, a multi-dimensional scale is proposed for identifying travellers' predispositions to qualify as ecotourists. Following a comprehensive review of literature on definitions, conceptual frameworks, and typologies associated with ecotourism, six foundational dimensions were identified - ethics, education, culture, nature, specialisation, and contribution - that provided the conceptual basis for the development of the Ecotourist Predisposition Scale. The scale was pre-tested and has undergone reliability and construct validity testing for each dimension and overall. The scale could serve to extend our understanding of ecotourists on a deeper conceptual level and, in application, serve to identify various types of travellers based on their predisposition for basic aspects of ecotourism with the advantage of a temporal, geographical, and behavioural generalisability. © 2010 Taylor & Francis..

Entrepreneurial attitude, innovation and performance among Norwegian nature-based tourism enterprises

Nybakk, E.H., E. 2008, Forest Policy and Economics Vol 10 side 473-479.

Entrepreneurship and innovativeness have seen considerable attention in the literature. However, little research has focused on micro-scaled enterprises, especially in the context of nature-based tourism. This work investigates how entrepreneurial attitude influences innovativeness and performance in Norwegian nature-based tourism enterprises. Data collection consisted of an e-mail survey and resulted in 178 usable responses. Respondents that exhibit a stronger entrepreneurial attitude appear more likely to change the way they organize their enterprise and tend to have higher income growth. Results point to potential policy actions that could positively impact rural development as well as individual firm actions that may enhance performance..

Opportunity or threat? Finnish hunters' attitudes to hunting tourism

Nygaard, M.U., Lorenz 2011, Journal of Sustainable Tourism Vol 19 side 383-401.

This article examines elements of the social sustainability of hunting tourism development by scrutinising Finnish hunters' opinions on three possible scenarios related to hunting tourism: the threat of an exclusion of local hunters, the threat of rising rents of hunting land and the threat to Finnish hunting customs and practice due to increasing numbers of foreign hunting tourists. Hunters' positions on these three issues are mapped and the determinants of their attitudes are analysed using unique national survey data on Finnish hunters and their attitudes (N= 1193). The results show a clear ambivalence to hunting tourism among hunters. While a majority of hunters tend to view hunting tourism as a threat, a large minority relate to it more positively. These attitudinal patterns can be explained only partly by socioeconomic factors, whereas factors pertaining to hunting experience and hunting profile play a somewhat more prominent role in understanding the legitimacy that hunting tourism enjoys in the eyes of hunters in Finland. Age, rural residence and participation in wildlife management are also found important for some issues. The ambiguities revealed could pose major problems for social sustainability and hunting tourism management and development..

Defining visitor satisfaction in the context of camping oriented nature-based tourism - the driving force of quality!

O'Neill, M.A.R.-K., K. A.; van Hyfte, M. 2010, Journal of Vacation Marketing Vol 16 side 141-156.

Whether out of economic circumstance or a genuine desire to reconnect with nature, recent years have witnessed increased demand for nature-based forms of tourism activity. Alongside this interest in the outdoors has come a demand for quality servicing infrastructure to meet the very wide variety of needs, wants and expectations expressed and sought by today's traveling public. This has presented a range of challenges to those in the nature-based tourism supply sector, not least those at the front line, whose role is now shifting from environmental stewardship and education to one of customer service agent. Against this background this paper seeks to address the issue of quality product/service provision in satisfying nature based tourists in the state of Alabama. A study of visitor perceptions in 23 state parks sought to evaluate visitor satisfaction with state park camping service provision and its role in driving visitors future behavior with respect to potential re-visitation and recommendation intention. Results attest to the psychometric performance of the research instrument, as well as pointing to the key drivers of both dependent variables. An exploratory factor analysis identifies four factors that are critical to the sample population in terms of explaining and predicting both satisfaction and behavioral intention. © The Author(s) 2010..

Scoping the nature and extent of adventure tourism operations in Scotland: How safe are they?

Page, S.J.B., T. A.; Walker, L. 2005, Tourism Management Vol 26 side 381-397.

This paper reports the findings of the first interdisciplinary study of Scotland's adventure tourism sector which is now promoted as one of the new drawcards for domestic and overseas visitors by the National Tourism Organisation - VisitScotland. An analysis of a national survey of adventure activity operators highlights the development of this sector, the characteristics of operators, the way their businesses have been developed and the significance of independently owned and managed small firms in this sector. The survey also examined the characteristics of visitors and markets using adventure tourism products provided by these businesses and the safety issues which these operators faced in managing these types of activities. Based on data collected and application of research techniques from safety management, the injury rates among participants in these activities are reviewed. The growth potential and possible obstacles to this nascent industry sector in Scotland are also examined. © 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved..

To protect and attract: Firms cooperating in nature-based tourism destinations

Pesämaa, O.H.J., J.; Eriksson, P. E. 2008, Tourism, Culture and Communication Vol 8 side 159-167.

This article explores solutions to potential communication problems that arise from cooperation in nature-based tourism (NBT) destinations. The questions posed in this article are: "When is a local firm in an NBT destination likely to cooperate with other films?" and "How can cooperation be facilitated among NBT firms?" The primary focus of our research, therefore, is how to facilitate cooperation in NBT destinations. To do so, we first review different risk elements by describing a simulated scenario in which two participants (NBT firms) confront a prisoner's dilemma with different options - cooperation and competition. The outcome of that scenario demonstrates that cooperation is only rational when the benefits of cooperation are greater than those for competition. Such situations do not occur in single games involving the prisoner's dilemma, but only in infinitely repeated games. Because cooperation may not be rational from a game theoretic perspective, policy makers and the firms involved should work actively to increase the benefits of cooperation. We conclude that cooperation is best achieved by having activities coordinated either by a strong, aggressive company or a strategic hierarchical network. Our logic is that coordinating activities from one point will increase the likelihood that partners have the same information and thus minimize conflicts. Copyright © 2008 Cognizant Comm. Corp..

The resource-based and the market-based approaches to cultural tourism in alpine destinations

Peters, M.S., L.; Matzler, K. 2011, Journal of Sustainable Tourism Vol 19 side 877-893.

This study focuses on the relevance of cultural resources in tourism, including cultural heritage sites, cultural landscapes, events or festivals. It seeks to reveal the differences between two management strategy perspectives, the market-based view or approach (MBV) and the resource-based view or approach (RBV), of involved destination stakeholders and the impacts of those differing approaches on their perception of cultural tourism development. The literature on the strategy orientation of organizations/ destinations is reviewed and serves as the theoretical background. Data were gathered from 38 semi-structured interviews with experts and key stakeholders in alpine destinations of cultural tourism in Northern Italy, using GABEK, a tool for analyzing complex qualitative data. The results indicate differences between destinations with diverse strategy-perspectives in terms of authenticity perception, standardization, leadership and sustainability orientation. The MBV requires larger financial resources to create an effective brand image. Authenticity was found to be very important and the VRIO framework (valuable, rare, inimitable and organized) a valuable tool. The RBV is best related to niche market products. The RBV also leads to more sustainable strategies for resource use but requires strong vision and network management skills. © 2011 Taylor & Francis..

Sami tourism in northern Sweden: Measuring tourists' opinions using stated preference methodology

Pettersson, R. 2002, Tourism and Hospitality Research Vol 3 side 357-369.

A declining and restructured reindeer herd is forcing some Sami into other permanent or temporary occupations. In the Swedish parts of Sami land, Sapmi, an increasing number of Sami are involved in small companies dealing with tourism that focuses on their culture. The purpose of this paper is to analyse which factors matter when tourists make their decisions. Using the stated preference method, respondents were requested to evaluate a number of hypothetical alternatives. The tourists' opinions and considerations were measured in respect of three attributes: the companies' offers, the prices for these products and access. The study shows that there seems to be a considerable potential in these kinds of activity and that there is, in some respects, a gap between supply and demand..

The role of nature in the place meanings and practices of cottage owners in northern environments

Pitkänen, K.P., R.; Sawatzky, M. 2011, Norsk Geografisk Tidsskrift Vol 65 side 175-187.

The concept of place attachment has been found to be useful in exploring cottagers' evaluations and management preferences of cottage areas. The point of departure for the article is the conclusion of many previous studies that the natural environment is important to cottagers' place attachment. To understand this attachment and the role of nature in more detail, the article explores the meanings given to nature as well as the ways nature is used and encountered in the context of cottages. Based on interviews conducted in three parks in Finland and Canada, the results show that nature is important as both an abstraction and a concrete platform for different activities. The meanings given to nature affect the ways it is perceived and used and vice versa, but at times what people say does not align with their actions. The results suggest that cottagers' management preferences cannot be fully understood merely by studying their environmental preferences and attitudes or the strength of their place attachment. © 2011 Norwegian Geographical Society..

How are we Working Together? A Framework to Assess Collaborative Arrangements in Nature-based Tourism

Plummer, R.K., C.; Stacey, C. 2006, Current Issues in Tourism Vol 9 side 499-506.

'Working together' is increasingly advanced as a logical strategy to pursue nature-based tourism because it embraces multiple benefit claims to the natural environment. This paper examines terminology within the collaborative rubric (partnerships, collaboration and co-management) and develops an assessment framework consisting of five elements. Together the elements enhance conceptual precision and direct attention to aspects requiring careful consideration by those pursuing such innovative approaches. The proposed assessment framework is subsequently applied to a tourism initiative in the lower portion of the St John River in New Brunswick to illustrate the potential utility of the framework. Systematic application of the framework confirms that considerable specificity is possible when addressing nature-based tourism initiatives. Closing reflections highlight benefits of this discernment, the functionality of the framework and potential implications for nature-based tourism programmes and policies..

Determinants of Nature Trip Expenditures in Southern Finland - Implications for Nature Tourism Development

Pouta, E.N., M.; Sievaenen, T. 2006, Scandinavian Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Vol 16 side 118-135.

As in many industrialized countries, Finnish policy makers see nature tourism as a source of rural economic development. This study explores the factors that influence traveller expenditures on nature trips. While focusing primarily on nature tourism in southern Finland, it also draws comparisons with northern Finland, where nature tourism is well established. On the basis of accommodation and activity expense data, nature trips were segmented in order to identify those destination attributes that promote high expenditures. In addition, an analysis was made of the role of different landownership categories in providing recreation services that support nature tourism. Basic data was provided by a population survey designed to inventory national outdoor recreation demand and supply. Trip-related expenditures were found to be especially low on trips to a family-owned summer cottage, such trips being typical in nature tourism in southern Finland. For trips to destinations other than a vacation home, higher expenditures tended to be associated with travellers' higher income and with middle age. Some destination area characteristics, such as availability of downhill skiing slopes and camping sites increased the probability that the trip would be a high-expenditure trip. Other trip characteristics that increased tourists' expenditures and thus economic impacts of nature tourism were related to first-time visit, longer distance from residence to destination and longer stay at the destination. The implications of these findings on nature tourism development in Finland are discussed..

Antarctic tourists: ambassadors or consumers?

Powell, R.B.K., Stephen R.; Ham, Sam H. 2008, The Polar Record Vol 44 side 233-241.

ABSTRACT Two complementary studies were conducted to investigate both the immediate and longer-term influence of Antarctic cruise tourism experiences on participants' knowledge of Antarctica, attitudes toward management issues facing the Antarctic region, and environmental behaviours and future intentions. In addition, the study investigated tourists' attitudes toward visitor guidelines. The results suggest that Antarctica nature-based tourism operators have the potential to provide experiences that educate the public to the importance of Antarctica. [PUBLICATION ABSTRACT].

Increasing role of tourism in finnish national parks

Puhakka, R. 2008, Fennia Vol 186 side 47-58.

While the role of traditional livelihoods has decreased, tourism has become an important tool for regional development in northern peripheral areas, and the economic and political expectations have increased. National parks have become attractive tourist destinations also in Finland. This article analyses how the central stakeholders - park authorities, tourists and tourism entrepreneurs - perceive the role of tourism in Finnish national parks. Parks are understood as spaces constructed by historical and social practices; the role of tourism is thus neither historically nor culturally unchanging or indisputable. By analysing planning documents and interviews, the study identifies four discourses that define the interaction between nature conservation and tourism in Finnish parks: 1) national parks as conservation areas, 2) national parks as tourist destinations, 3) national parks as destinations of sustainable nature-based tourism, and 4) national parks as resources for local people. The study indicates that the role of tourism has increased in national parks in Finland. Nowadays the aim is to integrate the ecological goals of nature conservation and the economic goals of nature-based tourism by implementing the principles of sustainability. The possible effects of the recent discursive shift on the future development of protected areas are also discussed in the article..

The nature of national parks - The changing discourses about nature conservation and tourism

Puhakka, R. 2008, Kansallispuistojen luonto - Luonnonsuojelun ja matkailun vuorovaikutusta määrittävät diskurssit ja niiden muutos Vol 120 side 215-227.

As a result of the growth of nature-based tourism, national parks have become important tourist attractions in Finland. This article identifies various discourses that define the interaction between nature conservation and tourism in national parks. The study analyses how the stakeholders - park authorities, tourists and tourism entrepreneurs - understand the role of tourism in parks, and on what kind of concepts of nature the meanings given to parks are based. National parks are understood as spaces constructed by historical and social practices. Thus, the role of tourism in parks is neither historically nor culturally unchanging or indisputable. By analysing planning documents and interviews, the study identifies four discourses: (1) national parks as conservation areas; (2) national parks as tourist destinations: (3) national parks as destinations of sustainable nature-based tourism; and (4) national parks as resources for local people. The study finds that in the 2000s, the above-mentioned Discourse 3 has become dominant in directing the management and land use of the Finnish parks. The present emphasis is on combining the ecological goals of conservation and the economic goals of tourism by implementing the principles of sustainability. Local interests are taken into account more widely than previously..

Environmental concern and responsibility among nature tourists in oulanka PAN Park, Finland

Puhakka, R. 2011, Scandinavian Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Vol 11 side 76-96.

Following the growth of nature-based tourism, "pristine" and remote areas, such as national parks, attract tourists in Scandinavia. Various international initiatives and certification programs, such as PAN Parks in Europe, have been introduced to promote sustainable nature-based tourism. Often tourists are also given responsibility to prevent negative environmental impacts of their travel. This paper examines the role of nature tourists in developing sustainable tourism: what expectations do tourists have on nature and sustainability in national parks, how do they consider environmental aspects when travelling, and how do they respond to ecolabels and certifications? Thirty interviews of mainly Finnish tourists were conducted in Oulanka National Park, one of PAN Parks certified parks in Finland. The results show that these nature tourists do not form a homogenous group, yet they have various views on environmental issues, which differentiate them from other nature tourists and have an influence on their travelling behavior. Thus, four types of tourists were identified on the basis of their environmental concern and responsibility. The results emphasize the role of regulation, incentives and guidance in developing sustainability in tourist destinations and companies; tourists do not necessarily set high demands as long as negative impacts do not ruin their perception of pristine nature. ©2011 Taylor & Francis..

Local discourses and international initiatives: Sociocultural sustainability of tourism in Oulanka National Park, Finland

Puhakka, R.S., S.; Cottrell, S. P.; Siikamäki, P. 2009, Journal of Sustainable Tourism Vol 17 side 529-549.

National parks have become important tourist attractions and tools for regional development. New international initiatives, such as PAN (Protected Area Network) Parks in Europe, now promote sustainable tourism in protected areas. This paper examines the sociocultural sustainability of tourism perceived by local stakeholders of Oulanka National Park in northeastern Finland. The central question concerns the role of PAN Parks certification in community and tourism development. Four discourses were identified, based on 40 semi-structured interviews exploring different views on sociocultural development pertaining to tourism in the national park: (1) integrating nature-based tourism and conservation, (2) defending the rights of local people, (3) stressing the economic utilization of nature and (4) accepting tourism development and the national park. Although local stakeholders mostly have a positive perception of tourism in the park, it cannot be concluded whether the park facilitates development in a sustainable manner or not. Key problems identified are lack of participation opportunities and contradictions with traditional subsistence economies. The various positions of stakeholders in these discourses tend to influence their views on sustainability. Findings imply the necessity to monitor the distribution of benefits and burdens of park development holistically to multiple stakeholders. © 2009 Taylor & Francis..

Visits to national parks and the provision of natural and man-made recreation and tourism resources

Puustinen, J.P., E.; Neuvonen, M.; Sievaenen, T. 2009, Journal of Ecotourism Vol 8 side 18-31.

Understanding the relationship between national park characteristics and the number of visits is crucial for the planning and management of parks. Visitation, the number of visits to the park, has a key role to play in assessing the social and economic impacts of new and existing parks. This study examines how the natural characteristics of a national park, the recreation services inside it and tourism services in the surrounding communities are related to the number of visits. Parks are classified according to these three dimensions and the numbers of visitors are compared within the three types. 35 national parks in Finland form the data of the study. The results indicate that the number of visits is associated with the main nature type, implying a continuum from the highest numbers visiting mountainous (i.e. fell) parks to the lowest visiting mire parks. A high number of visits is associated with a good provision of both recreational facilities inside and tourism services outside it. In water-based parks, in particular, the effect of services on park visits is considerable..

Visitor perceptions of the role of tour guides in natural areas

Randall, C.R., R. B. 2009, Journal of Sustainable Tourism Vol 17 side 357-374.

This paper explores the potential of tour guides to contribute to the protection of natural areas by educating their customers through interpretation and modeling environmentally appropriate behaviors. Applying Cohen's (1985) model of the guides' role, modified by Weiler and Davis (1993), as a framework, it examines the potential role that kayak tour guides can play in shaping the experience of visitors to one marine area, the Pacific Rim National Park. It uses two approaches to explore the perceptions of clients about the role of kayak guides using: (1) a pre- and post-trip questionnaire and (2) participant observation. Results indicate that five of the six roles were rated high in importance, but one role, the communication role, was not as important. Comparing performance with importance attached to each role revealed congruence with five roles, but lower levels of performance in relation to importance with the role of "motivator of responsible behavior". Variability within all of the importance and performance measures suggest that for some individuals, performance did not match importance, highlighting the need to consider market segmentation in future studies. These findings are discussed within the ecotourism paradigm, and their implications for protected area management and for visitor behavior modification are considered.© 2009 Taylor & Francis..

An ethnographic approach to naturebased tourism

Rantala, O. 2011, Scandinavian Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Vol 11 side 150-165.

This article discusses the application of the ethnographic approach in the study of nature-based tourism. The need to unfold the ethnographic research process is important in order to develop the method further in tourism studies. The use of ethnographic methodology allows us to understand touristic ways of using forest from new angles and the discussion is illustrated by a case study conducted among wilderness guides working with international tourist groups. New insights can be reached by participating in the activities studied, by analysing the context of the activities, and by adhering to reflexivity during the research process. The reflexive ethnographic research process highlights the importance of gaining knowledge on how tourist practices evolve during the training of guides, in interaction taking place within tourist groups, and when using the infrastructure of forests in a creative manner. © 2011 Taylor & Francis..

The complexity of safety in wilderness guiding in Finnish Lapland

Rantala, O.V., J. 2011, Current Issues in Tourism Vol 14 side 581-893.

This article examines how safety is understood and practised by wilderness guides leading nature excursions with international customers in Finnish Lapland. Commercial nature tourism services in Lapland are not considered adventure-oriented since risk-taking is not an integral part of the guided services. The study shows that even though perceived as low-risk activities, risks are present in a significant part of the everyday actions in commercial nature tourism services. Thus, commercial nature tourism forms a rich context to study the sustainability of contemporary safety practices since it forms a specific, guide-dependent sector of the tourism industry. The discussion further underlines the complexity of safety issues within the industry and the importance of holistic approaches. © 2011 Taylor & Francis..

Environmental, cultural, economic and socio-community sustainability: a framework for sustainable tourism in resort destinations

Richins, H. 2009, Environment, Development and Sustainability Vol 11 side 785-800.

This paper utilizes an inclusive community based sustainability framework with a focus on a resort destination in providing a potential model for more inclusive long-range destination planning and implementation. Four diverse, but interrelated areas of sustainable tourism were specified in this framework for a more comprehensive process including ecological, cultural, economic and socio-community sustainability. In addition a strategic community driven structure, which provides direction, information and practices, serves the purpose of integrating and implementing the framework. The unique tourism destination, Noosa in Australia is used as an example of embracing sustainable tourism as a community and as part of a larger focus on the four key components of sustainability. By viewing sustainable community attributes as assets, all of which are important to manage, enhance and/or conserve, it is expected that the resort community will continue to attract visitors to feel connected and committed to experiencing its lifestyle, sense-of-community and natural features while also contributing to community sustainable stewardship and a strong tourism economy. [PUBLICATION ABSTRACT].

Local Economic Role of Nature-based Tourism in Kuhmo Municipality, Eastern Finland

Rinne, P.S., O. 2005, Scandinavian Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Vol 5 side 89-101.

The study was carried out to examine and quantify the economic role of nature-based tourism on a local, municipality level. In contrast to mass tourism, nature-based tourism is characterized by individualism, small tourist groups and geographically scattered supply of services, which makes economic and regional development evaluation difficult. Kuhmo municipality in the Eastern Finland wilderness has a long tradition in small-scale nature-based tourism. A so-called Nordic model was applied to quantify direct, indirect and induced income and employment impacts. The model was developed further in order to track income leakage. The data consisted of 385 tourist groups, i.e. people travelling together, and 100 tourism companies interviewed in Kuhmo. The gross income impact amounted to 3.45 million Euros a year, equalling exactly half of the total tourism income. The share of income leakage was 48%, leaving 1.98 million Euros as a net income impact. Nature-based tourism employed 53 man-year-units in Kuhmo, which was 48% of tourism jobs and 1.6% of total employment. Compared to general tourism, there was no major difference in the amount of daily expenditure. Yet, the pattern of expenditure was different and generated less direct and more indirect effects. The results show that nature-based tourism already plays a role in maintaining the population in peripheral, rural locations and in bringing precious additional jobs to regions suffering from heavy structural unemployment..

Innovative processes in a nature-based tourism case: The role of a tour-operator as the driver of innovation

RØnningen, M. 2010, Scandinavian Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Vol 10 side 190-206.

This paper develops four propositions for the role of a tour-operator as the driver of innovations in a nature-based tourism case. This system features small-scale tourism firms that cooperate with a tour-operator who holds the position as the driving force. The propositions are analysed in a comparison with the empirical data from a case-study, which includes a tour-operator and 12 firms that offer nature-based products and services. The empirical findings indicate that the system works well for entrepreneurs still in the founding stage. Additionally, small-and medium-sized firms are quite satisfied with the tour-operator both as a transfer channel of competence and as a distributor of the supplier's services. The most professional firms are more critical of the outcome of the system. The system has, however, contributed to innovations and innovative capacity in general. To meet the skilled firms' demands for support for complex developmental processes, the system requires refinement. © 2010 Taylor & Francis..

Perceptions and adaptation strategies of the tourism industry to climate change: the case of Finnish nature-based tourism entrepreneurs

Saarinen, T. 2007, International Journal of Innovation and Sustainable Development Vol 1 side 214-228.

Climate change-related processes have emerged as major issues in tourism development and management, particularly with respect to nature-based tourism, which is seen as especially vulnerable and is the sector of the industry that is the main focus of this study. The aim of the paper is to identify the perceptions and adaptation strategies of Finnish nature-based tourism entrepreneurs on climate change. The case study was conducted by interviewing nature-based tourism entrepreneurs in northern Finland and the Finnish Lake District, south east Finland. In general, the entrepreneurs were aware of the issue of global climate change. However, half of the interviewees did not believe that the phenomenon actually exists and will influence the region's tourism industry in the future. The scepticism towards the climate change may explain the fact that there were almost no adaptation strategies. However, other adaptation mechanisms were used to cope with the 'normal' weather variation and market changes..

Experience with a hard and soft participatory modeling framework for social-ecological system management in Mount Everest (Nepal) and K2 (Pakistan) protected areas

Salerno, F.C., E.; Caroli, P.; Bajracharya, B.; Manfredi, E. C.; Viviano, G.; Thakuri, S.; Flury, B.; Basani, M.; Giannino, F.; Panzeri, D. 2010, Mountain Research and Development Vol 30 side 80-93.

High mountains have sensitive social-ecological systems (SESs) characterized by fragility, complexity, and marginality. The local economies of these environments mainly rely on primary production, tourism, and leisure activities; thus humanecosystem interactions are intricately linked. Many authors stress that this strict relationship must be assisted with a participatory approach involving interested stakeholders in the conceptualization, specification, and synthesis of knowledge and experience into useable information for the express purpose of addressing a problem complex. This paper presents experience garnered with a participatory modeling framework combining hard and soft methodology in 2 case studies: the Sagarmatha National Park and Buffer Zone (Nepal) and the Central Karakoram National Park (Pakistan). The modeling framework was developed based on local stakeholders' demands and needs; it consists of 5 modules, briefly presented here along with their conceptual background. In developing the framework, particular emphasis was given to considering the needs of decision-makers at the local level, rather than simply providing technical solutions to abstract problems. From the development of this modeling process, a need emerged to structure a management-oriented research module in order to generate management knowledge that is both stakeholder-relevant and evidence-based. The application of the framework in the 2 cases studies showed that the modeling can trigger valuable discussion among stakeholders as well as guidance for management-oriented research and feedback loops ensuring validation of knowledge. In addition, the resulting scenarios can help decision-makers in defining pathways for sustainable development in mountain areas, where people's livelihoods are closely dependent on ecosystems. The framework was developed in such a way that it can be replicated in other mountain areas with similar challenges. © 2010 International Mountain Society..

Access, Tourism and Democracy: A Conceptual Framework and the Non-establishment of a Proposed National Park in Sweden

Sandell, K. 2005, Scandinavian Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Vol 5 side 63-75.

Tourism, conservation, national parks and the interrelationship with regional development are important aspects of the high mountain region in the North of Sweden. Here, during the latter part of the 1980s there was a debate concerning the possibility of establishing a large national park in the area around Lake Tornetraesk. Even though various interested parties were represented in the working group, there was such a clash of interests that the plan was shelved for an indefinite period. The main obstacle was the resistance from local groups, principally in the township of Kiruna close by, who were afraid that their use of the area would be curtailed due to restrictions on such outdoor activities as fishing, hunting and the use of snowmobiles. This case is analysed in a conceptual framework of different "ecostrategies" for attitudes and behaviour with regard to landscape and the man-nature interrelationship. The framework is constituted as a four-field figure with the help of one axis illustrating the tension between "functional specialization" vs. "territorial adaptation" as point of departure for landscape perspectives. The other axis illustrates the tension between the strategies of "active" use vs. "passive" contemplation of the landscape..

Sustainable tourism: Sustaining biodiversity?

Schloegel, C. 2006, Public Library Quarterly Vol 25 side 247-264.

New markets for ecosystem services have emerged in response to the failure of traditional biodiversity conservation mechanisms to effectively protect and conserve the processes that support ecosystem function and process (Landell-Mills and Porras, 2002; Pagiola et al., 2002). Sustainable tourism-one market tool that potentially supports biodiversity services-aims to balance the environmental, economic, and socio-cultural features of tourism development by maintaining environmental resources, the socio-cultural livelihoods of host communities, and providing stakeholder benefits (WTO, 2004). Proponents claim that sustainable tourism contributes toward maintaining biodiversity, while critics fear that marketing various components of biodiversity as distinct services (e.g., only protecting unique places for sustainable tourism, and only protecting extremely biodiverse places for bioprospecting), fails to protect the integrity of the functioning, and dynamic ecosystem (Landell-Mills and Porras, 2002). This chapter serves as one section of a four-part analysis of existing and emerging markets for biodiversity services using Panama as a case study. Based on projections of future sustainable tourism markets, this analysis presents policy options that could positively augment future sustainable tourism ventures. Copyright © by The Haworth Press, Inc. All rights reserved..

The realisation of tourism business opportunities adjacent to three national parks in southern Finland: entrepreneurs and local decision-makers matter

Selby, A.P., Leena; Huhtala, Maija 2011, Forest Policy and Economics Vol 13 side 446-455.

The tourists and recreationists who are attracted to national parks create a basis for the development of nature-based tourism. The paper examines the attitudes of entrepreneurs and local decision-makers towards the development of tourism- and recreational service enterprises adjacent to three small, different-aged national parks in southern Finland: Linnansaari, Seitseminen and Repovesi. Four distinct groups of entrepreneurs could be formed on the basis of their attitudes to business. The most "advanced" group (adapters) were aware of both the demand for tourism services and their enterprises' business resources. The second group (adopters) were resource aware but had ideas for new business ventures rather than knowledge of demand. An "informed satisficer" group exhibited satisficing attitudes (where lifestyle aspirations are placed before business growth and development) but who were well informed and could be related to the adopters. The final group of entrepreneurs were simply satisficers. There was a greater proportion of adapter entrepreneurs adjacent to the oldest park, while entrepreneurs adjacent to the youngest park were predominantly satisficers or informed satisficers. The adopter class of entrepreneurs was most common in the two older national park areas. The majority of local decision-makers in the municipalities adjacent to the national parks preferred to develop tourism together with other sectors of the economy, although industrial alternatives were preferred. The decision-makers fell into three groups with respect to their preferred ways and means of developing tourism-based local enterprise: supporting existing enterprises, lowering the threshold for (new) enterprise, and developing the business infrastructure and funding arrangements. The greatest support for new enterprises was found in the Repovesi area, the district with the greatest proportion of satisficing entrepreneurs. Decision-makers preferred to support existing businesses adjacent to the oldest park, Linnansaari, with its greater proportion of adapter and adopter entrepreneurs and fewer satisficers. Opportunities for business will not be realised if local enterprises fail to perceive or respond to them, or if decision-makers fail to play an active role in encouraging tourism enterprises by means of support schemes or by developing the tourism infrastructure. Regional differences in the development of tourism-related services therefore depend on the attitudes of the key actors and their ability to encompass new economic activities and their associated institutions and discourses..

Forging nature-based tourism policy issues: A case study in Pennsylvania

Shafer, E.L.C., Y. 2006, Tourism Management Vol 27 side 615-628.

Because of the growing participation rates of nature-based tourism (NBT) and the variety of organizations affected by the growth, this study set out to identify NBT policy initiative recommendations designed to promote sustainable NBT activities in rural Pennsylvania. A mail survey of key decision makers in NBT programs in the state resulted in 22 major policy initiative recommendations that address: Resource allocation and management, state agency planning and coordination, partnership with stakeholders, communication between state agencies and the public, knowledge base and the role of science, and information and data management. The survey also identified 65 policy initiative recommendations for 14 specific types of NBT activities. Study results help define the choices NBT programs face over what the "fit" with the state's NBT environments will or should be. © 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved..

National Park Visitor Segments and their Interest in Rural Tourism Services and Intention to Revisit

Sievanen, T.N., M.; Pouta, E. 2011, Scandinavian Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Vol 11 side 54-73.

The study aims to understand national park visitors' interests to use tourism services provided in the vicinity of Linnansaari, Seitseminen and Repovesi national parks in Southern Finland. Separate visitor groups were identified based on their use of tourism services and their intention to revisit the area. Data were generated from a questionnaire survey of 736 visitors to the national parks. The analyses revealed five dimensions of interest in tourism services from which five visitor groups were identified: Countryside and outdoor friends, who were interested in recreation services; safari riders, interested in renting snowmobiles and similar services; guided visitors, who were interested in guided tours; room and rental seekers, whose main interest was accommodation and rental services, and uninterested, who had no interest in services. The strongest intentions to revisit the parks and the regions were recorded among "countryside and outdoor friends" and "safari riders". The results of this study may help tourism enterprises, municipality decision makers and park managers in rural communities surrounding national parks to understand and recognize visitors' overall needs of tourism services..

Requirements of an international legal framework on nature based tourism

Soleimanpour, H. 2005, International Journal of Environmental Science and Technology : (IJEST) Vol 1 side 335-344.

Nature based tourism (NBT) as an effective instrument for sustainable use of biodiversity is an interesting issue to be studied in order to evaluate response the of international community to the interaction between developmental and environmental pillars of sustainable development. Various international endeavours have been carried out with considerable outcomes to address NBT in different forms and manifestations. As a result, the international community has attained many successful achievements and valuable experiences. There is an urgent need for an internationally accepted instrument to address the existing gaps and overlaps appropriately. Such an instrument should respond to lake of adequate environmental and developmental rules and regulations at international scale. Careful study of major international environmental and developmental achievements related to NBT could provide the international community with an appropriate legal framework to address such an environmentally fragile, economically viable, and a culturally sensitive issue. [PUBLICATION ABSTRACT].

Recreation and tourism in areas of outstanding natural beauty: Key influences on the policymaking process

St. Clair Baker, A. 2005, Current Issues in Tourism Vol 8 side 93-113.

This paper reports on a study completed in 2000 into the policymaking process for recreation and tourism in AONBs across England and Wales, with particular focus on the key influencing role of communication within this process. A number of practical measures, which might aid AONB communication and collaboration for policy development and implementation in the future, are derived from the research. In addition, the findings of the study lend weight to calls (current at the time of the research) for enhanced powers and funding for AONBs, particularly in respect of recreation and tourism provision. © 2005 A. St. Clair Baker..

Fishing rights and supply of salmon angling tourism in Mid-Norway

Stensland, S. 2010, Scandinavian Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Vol 10 side 207-230.

A limited number of studies have focused on angling from a tourism perspective. The objective of this study was to investigate the objectives of landowners regarding their rights for salmon fishing, including landowners' supply of fishing services to the tourism market. The data originate from a questionnaire survey of 712 landowners in four rivers in the Trondheim Fjord region of Norway. The heterogeneity of the landowner group with differences in fishing right and property characteristics, as well as landowner characteristics seemed to explain some of the large variation in objective scores about use of the fishing right as indicated by the standard regression models. This study also indicated that how landowners use their fishing rights affected yield per kg of salmon caught, with landowners selling angling as packages with a restricted number of rods and with additional services on average having the highest mean net income per kg of salmon with 991 NOK. The results tell policy makers that successful cooperation in salmon fishing management and conservation of salmon stocks must be based on an understanding of the multiple objectives of the heterogeneous landowner group. © 2010 Taylor & Francis..

Sturgeon viewing as nature tourism: To what extent do participants value their viewing experiences and the resources upon which they depend?

Stoll, J.R.D., R. B.; Stokes, M. E. 2009, Journal of Ecotourism Vol 8 side 254-268.

Fish viewing, a relatively new leisure activity, has nature tourism potential. We focused on sturgeon viewing in northeast Wisconsin to understand personal and experience characteristics, economic impacts, and sturgeon population values. The need for economic approaches, as used in this paper, was addressed for creating and supporting fish-viewing opportunities. In the spring of 2002, we intercepted viewers of a sturgeon spawning event, finding that they were similar to other nature tourism participants in terms of personal and experience characteristics. Most resided within 35 miles (56.33 km) of the viewing site and incurred expenditures only for auto fuel and restaurant meals. Viewers demonstrated a strong affinity for protecting the sturgeon population by supporting various management proposals for dealing with overharvest. Willingness-to-pay results help us to understand the use value of sturgeon viewing to participants as well as the underlying value of environmental resources that support viewing. This reduces the likelihood these resources will be converted to uses other than nature tourism. The estimated value to viewers of increasing regional sturgeon population levels by 10% exceeds $2 million over the resource asset lifetime. Overall, there is potential for other areas with watchable fish populations to attract additional economic impacts from both residents and non-residents. © 2009 Tavlor & Francis..

Tourism distribution channels in peripheral regions: The case of southland, New Zealand

Stuart, P.P., D.; Weaver, A. 2005, Tourism Geographies Vol 7 side 235-256.

This study examines the structure and functioning of tourism distribution channels in Southland, a temperate, peripheral region of the South Island of New Zealand, with a high degree of independent travel based mainly on natural features. It takes a regional perspective, adopts a supply-side approach and is based largely on the collection and analysis of information from in-depth interviews. Consideration of the distribution strategies aimed at each of five major segments - tour groups, special interest visitors, semi-independent travellers, independent travellers and business travellers - provides a focal point for synthesizing the analysis and discussion of channel structures. Businesses serving the group, special interest and semi-independent segments make greater use of inbound operators, wholesalers and retail travel agents and have their products pre-purchased in the market, generally either as part of a group or personalized package. Businesses catering to independent travellers tend to rely on a mix of 'en route' and 'at destination' strategies, involving information dissemination and sales through other intermediaries, especially information centres and formal or informal networks of other providers. The channel mix is influenced by regional supply and demand characteristics as well as by the prominence of circuit tourism in New Zealand. © 2005 Taylor & Francis Group Ltd..

Planning nature tourism in Iceland based on tourist attitudes

Sæthórsdóttir, A.D. , Tourism Geographies Vol 12 side 25-52.

This paper gives an overview of the various kinds of nature tourism practised at five different nature destinations in Iceland: Mývatn, the national parks Skaftafell and Jökulsárgljúfur, and the Highland destinations Landmannalaugar and Lónsöræfi. The study analyses visitors' experiences, types of tourists visiting the different areas, their travel patterns, wishes for infrastructure, and their satisfaction with available services. The results are put into the context of Carrying Capacity, the Recreation Opportunity Spectrum (ROS), and the Purist Scale, and suggestions are made about how to plan and manage nature tourism in Iceland. The results show, for example, that in those parts of the Icelandic Highlands, where few changes have been made to the natural environment, purists should be the target group. Their satisfaction does not increase with more infrastructure and services; on the contrary, they prefer to travel in as natural an environment as possible. Travel destinations in the lowland areas should, on the other hand, invest further in infrastructure and services, thereby catering better for the needs of those that visit them. © 2010 Taylor & Francis..

Planning nature tourism in Iceland based on tourist attitudes

Sæthórsdóttir, A.D. 2010, Tourism Geographies Vol 12 side 25-52.

This paper gives an overview of the various kinds of nature tourism practised at five different nature destinations in Iceland: Mývatn, the national parks Skaftafell and Jökulsárgljúfur, and the Highland destinations Landmannalaugar and Lónsöræfi. The study analyses visitors' experiences, types of tourists visiting the different areas, their travel patterns, wishes for infrastructure, and their satisfaction with available services. The results are put into the context of Carrying Capacity, the Recreation Opportunity Spectrum (ROS), and the Purist Scale, and suggestions are made about how to plan and manage nature tourism in Iceland. The results show, for example, that in those parts of the Icelandic Highlands, where few changes have been made to the natural environment, purists should be the target group. Their satisfaction does not increase with more infrastructure and services; on the contrary, they prefer to travel in as natural an environment as possible. Travel destinations in the lowland areas should, on the other hand, invest further in infrastructure and services, thereby catering better for the needs of those that visit them. © 2010 Taylor & Francis..

Why Do People Purchase Nature-Based Tourism Activity Products? A Norwegian Case Study of Outdoor Recreation

Tangeland, T. 2011, Scandinavian Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Vol 11 side 435-456.

This paper addresses the need for a better understanding of why people purchase nature-based tourism activity products as a basis for management decisions. In order to satisfy the tourist's needs, wants and goals, businesses must first understand the tourist's motivations for purchasing such products. A factor-cluster segmentation approach was employed for a survey among members from two of Norway's largest nongovernmental outdoor recreation organisations. Four motivation factors: quality improvement, skill development, new activity and social, and five segments: Want-it-all, Try new activity, Social, Performer and Unexplained were identified. These segments differed in terms of their purchase motivation, socio-demographic characteristics and travelling behaviour. Understanding the differences in these segments will help managers of nature-based tourism businesses to target more profitable segments, develop products that better satisfy the needs in targeted segments, and to develop better market communication..

The operational and regional vulnerability of winter tourism to climate variability and change: The case of the finnish nature-based tourism entrepreneurs

Tervo, K. 2008, Scandinavian Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Vol 8 side 317-332.

The climatic vulnerability of winter tourism activities other than downhill skiing or snowmobiling has remained unstudied even though winter tourism has lately received plenty of attention in relation to climate change. As winter tourism entrepreneurs operate in diverse environments and have diverse customer groups, the sector cannot be considered as one homogenous group. Special attention should be directed to individual activities, especially in the context of the Nordic countries where importance of downhill skiing is relatively low. In this article, the sensitivity of winter tourism activities to climatic events is assessed in a Finnish context using questionnaire data gathered from winter tourism entrepreneurs operating in Finland. According to results, the vulnerability of winter tourism to climate depends both on the activity and on the region where activities are produced. About three-quarters of winter tourism enterprises are affected by weather events such as high or extremely low temperatures or high wind that cause cancellations. Climate change in Finland is not predicted to shorten the length of the snow season below the critical length as expressed by the entrepreneurs. Considering this, the future of winter tourism in Finland and similar areas may be more sensitive to the changes in the frequency and severity of weather extremes than to the changes in the season lengths..

Hiking in the Alps: Exploring substitution patterns of hiking destinations

Thiene, M.S., R. 2008, Tourism Economics Vol 14 side 263-282.

Tourism in the Alps used to rely on a network of facilities maintained in part by the military Alpine Corps. Hiking has been growing in popularity, while the national draft is no longer compulsory. This situation calls for a renewed approach to management of the maintenance of alpine facilities. The authors explore the use of destination choice models which allow for various substitution hypotheses and highlight how single mountain sites can be substitutes for others, although located in a different geographical area. The results supply helpful information for local policy decision makers as they provide insights about the redistribution of visits following the implementation of different policy scenarios. The authors investigate such redistributions following the variation of availability to hikers in terms of alpine shelters, length of trails, site access and the application of access fees. They also estimate changes in welfare for selected variations of alpine facilities and availability of destinations. The findings highlight the sensitivity of results to the use of different specifications of demand models to guide local policy strategies..

Traditional livelihoods, conservation and recreation: Reflections on managing visitation in New Zealand conservation parks

Thompson, A.L., B.; Reis, A.; Jellum, C.; Sides, G.; Wright, R.; Kjelsberg, M. 2009, Tourismos Vol 4 side 163-179.

This article discusses the findings of research conducted in protected natural areas in the South Island of New Zealand over three consecutive summers between December 2005 and May 2008. The primary purpose of the research was to gather perspectives and data about local community members' and visitors' recreational experiences and aspirations for future management of the conservation parks. Since 2005, 'high country' conservation parks have been designated by the country's protected natural area manager, the Department of Conservation (DOC). The three South Island parks involved in this study - the Ahuriri, Ruataniwha and Hakatere Conservation Parks - were, prior to designation, leased and managed since the nineteenth century by multiple generations of farming families for agricultural purposes, primarily farming merino sheep and beef cattle. Thus the landscape has undergone transition from a farmed environment coexisting with natural features that have high conservation values to one where tourism and recreation activities dominate. © University of the Aegean..

Local People, Nature Conservation, and Tourism In Northeastern Finland

Toern, A.S., P.; Tolvanen, A.; Kauppila, P.; Raemet, J. 2008, Ecology and Society Vol 13 side .

The opinions and perceptions of local communities are central issues in the sustainable management of conservation areas. During 2002 and 2003, we studied the opinions of local people about nature conservation and the development of tourism to investigate whether these opinions were influenced by socioeconomic and demographic factors. Data were collected via a survey of local residents in six areas with different histories of land use, land ownership, conservation, and tourism development. We classified respondents by cluster analysis into three different groups according to their opinions about nature conservation and tourism development: (1) sympathetic to nature conservation, but quite neutral to tourism development (57.7%); (2) critical of nature conservation, but quite neutral to tourism development (30.5%); and (3) quite neutral to nature conservation, but critical of tourism development (11.8%). The most important factors for classification were residential area, age, level of education, primary occupation, indigenousness, frequency of contact with tourists through work, and effects of nature conservation on household economy. On the other hand, gender, level of income, land ownership, land donation for conservation, and income from tourism did not affect opinions concerning nature conservation and tourism development. Almost equal proportions of residents living in close proximity to conservation areas in Kuusamo had positive and negative opinions about nature conservation. Residents living in close proximity to conservation areas regarded conservation as something that might reduce employment and incomes. On the other hand, a greater proportion of residents living near tourist resorts and farther from conservation areas had positive opinions about and perceptions of nature conservation and tourism development. Based on the proportional division of all respondents into the three groups, there may be a coexistent relationship between nature conservation and tourism in our study area. When local stakeholders had a chance to commit to the planning process, they had positive perceptions of and opinions about nature conservation and tourism development in their residential areas. As a result, we concluded that negative opinions and a lack of commitment to the planning process may hinder local development..

Development update ecotourism

Townsend, J. 2009, Geography Review Vol 22 side 34-35.

Ecotourism aims to promote the freedom of native local people, preserve ecosystems and build economies, having a sociocultural and nature based benefits along with endurable developments, and is another form of unwelcomed development for the natives. It is categorized basically into three forms: there's a conservation of wilderness, emphasizing to keep things savage controlled under valuable environments. The second type is charmed by cultural landscapes with natural beauty to create a product that fits the ecotourist market, and the third include 'disappearing Edens' of traditional societies, in cooperation of native communities and tour companies. Ecotourism provides exciting cross-cultural encounters featuring ordinary tourism with various developmental advantages as well as disadvantages. It also claims low impacts and positive for people and the environment, by changing the values of ecotourists and the market for ecotourism..

Local people, nature conservation, and tourism in northeastern Finland

Törn, A.S., P.; Tolvanen, A.; Kauppila, P.; Rämet, J. 2008, Ecology and Society Vol 13 side .

The opinions and perceptions of local communities are central issues in the sustainable management of conservation areas. During 2002 and 2003, we studied the opinions of local people about nature conservation and the development of tourism to investigate whether these opinions were influenced by socioeconomic and demographic factors. Data were collected via a survey of local residents in six areas with different histories of land use, land ownership, conservation, and tourism development. We classified respondents by cluster analysis into three different groups according to their opinions about nature conservation and tourism development: (1) sympathetic to nature conservation, but quite neutral to tourism development (57.7%); (2) critical of nature conservation, but quite neutral to tourism development (30.5%); and(3) quite neutral to nature conservation, but critical of tourism development (11.8%). The most important factors for classification were residential area, age, level of education, primary occupation, indigenousness, frequency of contact with tourists through work, and effects of nature conservation on household economy. On the other hand, gender, level of income, land ownership, land donation for conservation, and income from tourism did not affect opinions concerning nature conservation and tourism development. Almost equal proportions of residents living in close proximity to conservation areas in Kuusamo had positive and negative opinions about nature conservation. Residents living in close proximity to conservation areas regarded conservation as something that might reduce employment and incomes. On the other hand, a greater proportion of residents living near tourist resorts and farther from conservation areas had positive opinions about and perceptions of nature conservation and tourism development. Based on the proportional division of all respondents into the three groups, there may be a coexistent relationship between nature conservation and tourism in our study area. When local stakeholders had a chance to commit to the planning process, they had positive perceptions of and opinions about nature conservation and tourism development in their residential areas. As a result, we concluded that negative opinions and a lack of commitment to the planning process may hinder local development. Copyright © 2008 by the author(s)..

Differences in tourists' and local residents' perceptions of tourism landscapes: A case study from Ylläs, Finnish Lapland

Uusitalo, M. 2010, Scandinavian Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Vol 10 side 310-333.

The landscape is one of the main pull factors of nature-based tourism. Tourism landscapes are multifunctional since landscape characteristics, functions and human values interact with economic activity. People's experiences and perceptions of the environment are emphasized in the experience economy. The objective of this case study was to demonstrate cognitive cartography in revealing differences in the spatial perception of the tourism landscape among three social groups: domestic and foreign tourists and local residents. Altogether 35 mental maps were sketched during focus group interviews and workshops which took place in the Ylläs tourism destination of Lapland (Finland). The composition of visual elements and spatial structure of the maps were studied by using Lynch's, Appleyard's and Hart & Moore's models. The mental maps differed in composition and structure and were influenced by the drawers' personal factors. Consequently, the users of large-scale nature-tourism destinations are either road or survey mappers. The observations were consistent with previous studies on spatial cognition of nature-based tourism destinations. The users were classified into four subgroups for further discussions on landscape management applications. Although the sketch-mapping technique is disputed, it has obvious strengths, such as the ability to indicate missing elements and linkages relevant to users in the spatial structure of an area. © 2010 Taylor & Francis..

Promoting norway abroad: A content analysis of photographic messages of nature-based tourism experiences

Vespestad, M.K. 2010, Tourism, Culture and Communication Vol 10 side 159-174.

Growing interest in tourism experiences is evident in the tourism industry. The concern with creating memorable experiences is an area of increasing importance for both the industry and researchers alike. The focus within the experience economy to date has been on culturally derived experiences, whereas the ones based on natural resources have been more scarcely debated. To maintain a position in the international tourism market, there is clearly a need to develop promotion strategies that will attract the attention of the increasing market of nature-based tourists. The intent of this study is to compare how Norwegian nature-based tourism experiences are visually communicated towards two international markets. The visual aspect of promotion is addressed by analyzing and comparing photographs used in brochures and on websites, directed at the Russian and the British market. As a result of the literature review a matrix is introduced as a framework for further research on photographic messages. The content analysis of the photographs shows minor differences in the way the Russian and British market is addressed, demonstrating that the analyzed material is nearly standardized. Tangible attributes are emphasized as well as natural features of landscape. The article adds to existing literature as it provides a framework, within which to study promotion and perceptions of photographic messages. Furthermore, the article contributes to increased knowledge on how nature-based tourism is advertised. © 2010 Cognizant Comm. Corp..

Tour operators' insight into the Russian nature-based experience market

Vespestad, M.K. 2010, European Journal of Tourism Research Vol 3 side 38-53.

The understanding of nature and nature-based tourism products might differ according to tourists nationality. Existing knowledge is often based on Western tourists view and relation to nature-based tourism. Eastern European tourists, however, might not share the same understanding. The Eastern European tourist market is increasing and destinations compete to attain their share, while it is evident that further knowledge is needed to apprehend what this market expects from nature-based experiences. Tour operators play a crucial role in imparting knowledge of destinations and tourism products to potential consumers. This article attends to the issue through interviews of six tour operators in Russia, to inform on how Russian tourists relate to nature-based experiences. The article also addresses intermediaries' influence upon tourists meaning formation through their communication of nature-based tourism experiences. The content analysis reveals four main content areas that relate to the overall objective of the study: 1) Russians' relation to nature, 2) what Russian tourists emphasize as important for nature-based tourism products, 3) the meaning of nature-based experiences to Russians, 4) promoting nature-based experiences to Russians. The analysis demonstrates there is discrepancy in the conception of what nature-based experiences are; hence an understanding of national differences is encouraged. © 2010 International University College. All rights reserved..

Understanding nature-based tourist experiences: An ontological analysis

Vespestad, M.K.L., F. , Current Issues in Tourism Vol 14 side 563-580.

The purpose of this article is to discuss and elaborate on contemporary research on nature-based tourism experiences. Recent studies on nature-based tourism and experiences are analysed within an ontological framework, with a focus on the view of tourists and their experiences, the nature phenomena, role of the presenter, and consequences of tourist presentations. We argue that four main perspectives can be derived based on the interpretation of recent tourism literature. In these texts, nature based tourist experiences can be described in terms of the following categories: (1) the genuine, (2) entertainment, (3) state of being, and (4) socio-cultural community. We discuss the features of each view and possible implications for understanding and managing nature-based tourism products and presentations. © 2011 Taylor & Francis..

Understanding nature-based tourist experiences: An ontological analysis

Vespestad, M.K.L., F. 2011, Current Issues in Tourism Vol 14 side 563-580.

The purpose of this article is to discuss and elaborate on contemporary research on nature-based tourism experiences. Recent studies on nature-based tourism and experiences are analysed within an ontological framework, with a focus on the view of tourists and their experiences, the nature phenomena, role of the presenter, and consequences of tourist presentations. We argue that four main perspectives can be derived based on the interpretation of recent tourism literature. In these texts, nature based tourist experiences can be described in terms of the following categories: (1) the genuine, (2) entertainment, (3) state of being, and (4) socio-cultural community. We discuss the features of each view and possible implications for understanding and managing nature-based tourism products and presentations. © 2011 Taylor & Francis..

The relationship between tourist nationality, cultural orientation and nature-based tourism experiences

Vespestad, M.K.M., M. 2010, European Journal of Tourism Research Vol 3 side 87-104.

This study sets out to explore how tourist nationalities with dissimilar cultural orientation differ in their evaluation of nature-based tourism experiences. For this purpose 679 tourists in Norway responded to a questionnaire on nature-based tourism experiences. Furthermore, 20 nationalities are segmented along a collectivism-individualism continuum (C-I-C). The resulting segments are then compared based on their perception of an overall nature-based tourism experience, which in this study is operationalized in terms of three dimensions; experience, motive and activity. The results show segments that can be divided into high individualism and high collectivism (and a midsegment). The segments diverge significantly on the evaluation of the overall nature-based tourism experience. For instance, the collectivistic tourist nationalities place more importance on entertainment, whereas individualistic tourist nationalities emphasize nature, and more frequently participate in hiking. Additionally, theoretical and practical implications are discussed. © 2010 International University College. All rights reserved..

From lessees to partners: Exploring tourism public-private partnerships within the New South Wales national parks and wildlife service

Wilson, E.N., N.; Buultjens, J. 2009, Journal of Sustainable Tourism Vol 17 side 269-285.

In a "new" protected-area management paradigm which requires close working relationships with a range of stakeholders, it is important that national parks managers recognise the individual interests of each group with whom they are expected to collaborate. A substantial body of research has investigated non-commercial collaborative activities among natural resource managers, tourism organisations and community groups. However, little academic attention has been paid to commercial tourism collaborations, particularly public-private partnerships (PPPs) with tourism operators. PPPs are often more contentious and require careful management to ensure sustainability and political acceptance. This paper reports on qualitative research, exploring the quality and nature of commercial lease arrangements between the New South Wales National Parks and Wildlife Service (NPWS) and a number of their private on-site tourism providers. In-depth interviews were conducted with fourteen key stakeholders involved in these partnerships. Based on an emergent approach to analysis, five main themes emerged which define the nature and quality of relationships between NPWS and tourism operators. Ultimately, it is argued that in commercial PPPs, protected-area managers need to move beyond viewing tourism operators as mere "lessees", seeing them instead as valued and long-lasting "partners"..

Self-Serving Bias in Visitors' Perceptions of the Impacts of Tourism

Winkle, C.M.V.M., Kelly J. 2008, Journal of Leisure Research Vol 40 side 69-89.

This study explores tourism destination impacts through the unique lens of visitors' perceptions of their contributions to impacts. Self-serving bias of attributions was used as the theoretical framework to examine how campers in the Canadian Rocky Mountain National Parks perceived the impacts of their own behavior on the destination. In total 241 campers completed self-administered questionnaires that assessed common tourism impacts, camping experience, and socio-demographic characteristics. Results of factor analysis indicated three dimensions of impacts: immediate; gradual; and economic. Findings suggested that while visitors recognized their immediate and economic impacts on the destination, their contribution to gradual impacts depended upon an interaction between camping experiences and destination experience. The temporal nature of impacts, coupled with the interaction effect support self-serving bias as a useful framework to explain how visitors perceive their own impacts at a vacation destination. Implications for persuasive communication are discussed. [PUBLICATION ABSTRACT].

Environmentalism and tourism preferences: A study of outdoor recreationists in Sweden

Wolf-Watz, D.S., K.; Fredman, P. 2011, Scandinavian Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Vol 11 side 190-204.

This article explores the linkages between nature-based recreation and preferences of individuals classified as "environmentalists". Following an overview of the literature, this paper reports on an empirical investigation of the nature-based recreation vs. environmentalism nexus using data from a national Swedish survey. Study findings show that environmentalists (environmentally-oriented individuals) behave differently in terms of their recreation-related preferences when compared to non-environmentalists. Environmentalists prefer outdoor activities with little or no impact on the environment as demonstrated, for example, by their avoidance of extractive (e.g. hunting) and motorized activities (e.g. snowmobiling). Despite these differences, the findings were inconsistent in that while environmentalists avoid some extractive and motorized activities, other similar activities were not avoided. Thus, the results question the use of simplistic recreational classification systems for the understanding of activity preferences and the authors call for more in-depth, qualitative research to further understand the nature-based recreation choices of environmentalists. Study findings also show that environmentally-oriented individuals do not hesitate to travel away from residential areas for participation in nature-based recreation. Therefore, this paper helps us to understand which nature-based activities environmentalists demand and can provide a more informed basis for tourism planning and management. © 2011 Taylor & Francis..

Cultural clash: Interpreting established use and new tourism activities in protected natural areas

Wray, K.E., S.; Perkins, H. C. , Scandinavian Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Vol 10 side 272-290.

Protected natural areas are a significant tourism resource in many countries, including Norway, Sweden, Canada, Australia and New Zealand. The provision of tourism facilities in such areas is increasing but this is not without controversy. Tensions have arisen in some areas where international tourist visitation is believed to be affecting traditional cultural and recreational practices. Despite this, little research attention has been given to exploring local users' attitudes towards tourism activities in areas where they have traditionally not existed. Using Fiordland National Park as a case study, this paper reports research on recreational wilderness use in New Zealand by locals and visiting international tourists. Its focus is on local recreationists' attitudes towards international wilderness tourism. The discussion draws on data gathered using in-depth interviews and research diaries. Findings revealed that international tourists were often viewed as a threat to New Zealanders' recreation opportunities and cultural identity. These attitudes appear to be influenced by widely held values and beliefs about the purpose of public conservation lands. A consideration of the links between the natural environment and national identity is seen as crucial when planning for tourism in protected natural areas in the future. © 2010 Taylor & Francis..

Education and Conservation Benefits of Marine Wildlife Tours: Developing Free-Choice Learning Experiences

Zeppel, H. 2008, The Journal of Environmental Education Vol 39 side .

Marine wildlife tours can provide a range of education and conservation benefits for visitors, including emotional (i.e., affective) responses and learning (i.e., cognition). Interpretive programs cover the biology, ecology, and behavior of marine species; best practice guidelines; and human threats to marine areas. The author reviews the education and conservation benefits of 18 marine wildlife experiences with dolphins, whales, and marine turtles by using (a) M. Orams's (1999) framework of indicators such as behavior or lifestyle changes in visitors and (b) 3 environmental indicators of conservation. Results of this meta-analysis showed that visitor learning and emotional empathy during mediated encounters with marine wildlife contributed to on-site behavior changes and some longer term intentions to engage in marine conservation actions. The author presents an experience-learning-action model to guide research and develop free-choice visitor learning. [PUBLICATION ABSTRACT].

SIGNIFICANCE OF PROTECTING NATURAL SITES FOR ECOTOURISM DEVELOPMENT

Zhenjia, Z. 2008, Management Science and Engineering Vol 2 side 101-106.

Objectives of this paper are to review and advance the statements of knowledge about the significance of protection of natural sites within the development of ecotourism and explain why the protection of nature sites is an important and significant issue for ecotourism development. Literature review and case quotation are mainly used research methods.Finally, based on many study aspects, such as sustainable development of ecotourism, educational roles for eco-tourists, pollution of environment,etc,this paper concludes that the protection of natural sites within the tourism destinations shows great significance for ecotourism development. [PUBLICATION ABSTRACT].

Communicating old-growth forest through an educational trail

Ziaco, E.A., Alfredo; Blasi, Silvia; Di Filippo, Alfredo; Dennis, Steve; Piovesan, Gianluca 2012, Biodiversity & Conservation Vol 21 side 131-144.

This paper describes the experience of developing an educational trail inside an old-growth beech forest in central Italy. In the last 150 years local people exploited this stand almost exclusively for recreational purposes and now the beechwood has acquired new ecological value after having reached old-growth status. Despite the cultural-historical importance of the site, there is a substantial lack of knowledge about this magnificent stand among members of the public, who have no tools to understand its dynamics nor to accept those structural changes related to its natural evolution. Tourist facilities were restored at the site, according to non-restricting criteria, and an educational program was developed in order to promote a shared comprehension of old-growth forests, their ecological processes and value, the services they provide, and to increase tourist awareness toward this fragile ecosystem. We discuss the educational role ecotourism might potentially hold in western developed countries to link the public with the scientific world, educating people about nature, while preventing negative impacts on natural environments. Even if the importance of local communities in conservation of natural resources has been widely recognized by a number of conservationists, public involvement, particularly in forest conservation and management, still represents a difficult challenge, since it requires the implementation of a common understanding about forest ecosystems, forest goods and forest services. The educational trail inside the beech forest of Monte Cimino may represent a low impact strategy for preserving forest aesthetic functionality, limiting potential damages to the forest while increasing its importance for nature conservation.[PUBLICATION ABSTRACT].

The sustaining tourist - Results and conclusions from questioning tourists in German and Austrian National Parks and Biosphere Reserve regions

Ziener, K. 2006, Der nachhaltige tourist - Ergebnisse und Schlussfolgerungen einer Touristen-befragung in deutschen und österreichischen Nationalpark- und Biosphärenreservatsregionen Vol side 253-267.

Sustainable tourism is an important part of sustained regional development. In tourist regions especially there are varying possibilities and approaches to achieve sustainability. On the other hand, doubts have been raised again and again as to whether tourism is capable of sustainability at all. During the past decade numerous models, catalogues of criteria and strategies for sustainable tourism development have been elaborated but their transfer into reality has so far only partially taken place. This paper does not look at tourism supply but its demand. Based on results of questioning a total of some 3000 tourists in five German and Austrian National Parks or biosphere reserve regions respectively some questions of sustaining recreational and leisure utilisation have been more closely looked at, among them general holiday interests and environmentally friendly traffic. To characterise holiday makers on the one hand and day trippers on the other, varied methods of classification and arranging into types were used and comparisons between the regions were carried out. As regards sustainability it can be demonstrated that nature oriented recreation and use of leisure time is still greatly favoured, especially in landscapes still close to natural ones and in protected areas. Unfortunately only relatively few of those questioned showed an interest in nature and its protection and the use of public transport which is frequently cumbersome. The regional differences allow the drawing of interesting conclusions..

Not 'ecotourism'?: Wilderness tourism in Canada's Yukon Territory

de la Barre, S. 2005, Journal of Ecotourism Vol 4 side 92-107.

Wilderness-based tourism experiences are increasingly popular given both the growing demand for special interest travel products and tourists' desire to engage with nature. Canada's Yukon Territory is a vast land defined by a seemingly unlimited amount of pristine wilderness. Tourism stakeholders in the Yukon have given considerable thought to what it means to use the wilderness for the business of tourism. Few Yukon wilderness tourism products have been labelled 'ecotourism'. This study proposes that not categorising wilderness tourism products as 'ecotourism' might provide 'discursive space' for non-scientific valuation perspectives. This space might allow Yukon host cultures, both native and non-native, to take part in defining sustainability in the context of tourism. I explore this by using ecotourism and its use in the Yukon as an 'experiment'. The experiment asks that we consider two discourses on sustainability that guide human/nature understandings. These discourses inform tourism's use of nature. The experiment also invites us to consider the possibility that paradigm shifts are required for how we frame human/nature relationships and how we define 'sustainable' for tourism purposes. © 2005 S. de la Barre..

A GIS approach to evaluating ecological sensitivity for tourism development in fragile environments. A case study from SE Iceland

Ólafsdóttir, R.R., M. C. 2009, Scandinavian Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Vol 9 side 22-38.

Expansion of tourism in the northern periphery regions provides innovative resources for an economic boost to many of the peripheral communities. The northern ecosystems are however extremely vulnerable. It is therefore of vital importance for such communities to plan the growth of tourism along sustainable lines in order to secure long-term economic benefit from tourism. Geographical Information Systems (GIS) can handle multiple spatial criteria and provide a tool for the allocation of resources between conflicting demands and aid decision-makers in planning. Despite increased use of GIS in environmental planning and management, the application of GIS to tourism planning is still limited. This study aims to develop a methodology to generate a Tourism Decision Support System (TDSS) to aid planning of sustainable tourism. A GIS model was developed based on classification of identified impact factors and variables, as well as selected classification algorithms that were used to assess categories of ecological sensitivity that may aid decision makers in planning and managing sustainable tourism in sensitive areas that are facing the risk of being subjected to ecological degradation..

How wild is iceland? wilderness quality with respect to nature-based tourism

Ólafsdóttir, R.R., M. C. 2011, Tourism Geographies Vol 13 side 280-298.

The Icelandic highlands are one of the few places left in Europe where tourists can experience pristine wilderness. During the past decades the highlands have, however, witnessed a rapid expansion in natural resource exploitation. This study attempts to evaluate the pristine condition of Icelandic wilderness by testing different methods of identifying and analysing wilderness with respect to nature-based tourism. The wilderness areas were mapped with respect to proximity to anthropogenic structures (proximity analysis) as well as what is actually visible in the landscape in relation to topography (viewshed analysis). When analysed with respect to proximity, resultmaps indicate that wilderness covers a little less than 34 percent of Iceland. When assessed at a national scale, results from the viewshed analysis show similar results. However, evaluation of the two methods tested indicates that the viewshed analysis gives a more dynamic image of the Icelandic wilderness areas, whereas the proximity analysis simply highlights static buffer zones relative to the network of anthropogenic features. It is concluded that a viewshed analysis provides a more qualitative result regarding the Icelandic wilderness resource at a local scale with respect to nature-based tourism. © 2011 Taylor & Francis..