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The national tourism organisations of Poland, the Czech Republic, Slovakia and Hungary - The organisation and activities

Adamczyk, B. 2005, Tourism Vol 53 side 247-258.

With tourism being one of the biggest industries in the world, most countries recognized the role of tourism in their economies and set up their national tourism organizations. Generally, these organizations are responsible for destination marketing and promotion, improving the image of the country as a tourism destination, and maximising tourist revenues. After communism collapsed, the Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland and Slovakia also recognized the need for establishing institutions in charge of coordinated development and promotion of tourism, thus setting up the national tourism organisation. Although these four countries are all situated in Eastern Europe, they each have a slightly different economy, history, culture and tradition. These factors have, likewise, influenced tourism development and ways in which they have established structure and management of their respective national tourism organisations. Despite that, there are many similarities in the functioning of these organizations. It is, therefore, the aim of this paper to analyse and compare the national tourism organisations in these four East European countries and to contribute to the relatively small body of literature dealing with the national tourism organisations in general and, in Easter Europe, in particular..

Electronic community factories: the model and its application in the tourism sector

Akoumianakis, D. , Electronic Commerce Research Vol 10 side 43-81.

The electronic community factory (ECF) is proposed as an archetype for value creating cross-organization virtual communities of practice in which members engage actively and through domain-specific tools in the practice the community is about. In an ECF the reason for building the community is to appropriate the benefits of virtual networking for developing new products of added-value and collective ownership. In terms of engineering an ECF, the normative perspective adopted is that community management is distinctively different from engaging in the practice the community is about. Respectively, the tools needed for each function should embody this philosophy and be designed accordingly. The paper elaborates on the concept of the ECF and demonstrates its value through a pilot in regional tourism. Virtual ethnographic studies provide insights to operational aspects of the ECF and how it fosters community and practice management. Collectively, the results reported in the paper constitute an alternative model for community-based electronic commerce suitable for value-creating cross organization virtual communities of practice engaging in high quality product assembly in information based industries. [PUBLICATION ABSTRACT].

Challenges in tourism strategy implementation in peripheral destinations-the case of stewart Island, New Zealand

Albrecht, J.N. , Tourism and Hospitality, Planning and Development Vol 7 side 91-110.

Peripheral tourism destinations face a variety of characteristic management challenges that differ from those experienced in more central destinations. While there is much literature addressing tourism strategy and management approaches in general, strategy implementation in peripheral destinations has not been investigated in great depth. This paper addresses this literature gap and examines tourism strategy implementation on Stewart Island, New Zealand. It is based on a qualitative investigation of implementation processes using content analysis, semi-structured and in-depth stakeholder interviews. First, challenges in tourism strategy and management in peripheral areas are presented and discussed with a specific focus of the roles and significance of various stakeholders. Implementation challenges identified include issues related to control over the implementation environments, the involvement of volunteers and low levels of government support. The serendipitous nature of planning at the community level adds to the lack of control over potential outcomes of tourism management in peripheral destinations. © 2010 Taylor & Francis..

Towards a framework for tourism strategy Implementation

Albrecht, J.N. , International Journal of Tourism Policy Vol 3 side 181-200.

Tourism strategy development is a common practice for tourism destinations but in many cases the resulting objectives and recommendations are not put into practice. The research project presented here investigates implementation processes of two tourism strategies in order to illuminate potential reasons for what is often perceived as 'policy failure'. Tourism strategy implementation is found to be dynamic and dependent on actors at the grassroots level. Additional factors are the stability of stakeholder relationships and their levels of information, particularly where there is little support from agencies. The findings are consolidated in a framework for tourism strategy implementation. Copyright © 2010 Inderscience Enterprises Ltd..

Destination Loyalty. Consumers' Economic Behavior

Alegre, J.J., C. 2006, Annals of Tourism Research Vol 33 side 684-706.

This paper analyzes the phenomenon of repeat visits to a holiday destination from an economic perspective. The analysis is based on three types of economic theory models: reputation, market with limited information, and consumer behavior. Several hypotheses on tourist expenditure patterns are tested with data from one of the Mediterranean's leading sun and sand destinations. The results show the explanatory power of repeat visitation, knowledge, and quality of a place as a motivation for tourist expenditure. In accordance with their better knowledge, repeaters spend less than first-timers. On the other hand, preference for quality and sense of place attachment imply a higher expenditure. © 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved..

Small tourism firms and management practices in New Zealand: The Centre Stage Macro Region

Ateljevic, J. 2007, Tourism Management Vol 28 side 307-316.

This paper examines critical issues related to the management of small tourism firms (STFs). It is based on a postal survey of 317 STFs, supplemented by 57 in-depth interviews with owner-managers. The findings suggest that the development and management of small tourism firms are shaped by a number of different factors related to the business owner-manager, nature of the tourism activity, its locality and other aspects of the sector specific business environment. A central part of New Zealand, encompassing four localities integrated in a single marketing entity, the Centre Stage [tourism] Macro Region (CSMR), provides the geographical scope of this study. The area exhibits a blend of urban and rural contexts offering a unique opportunity to examine managerial problems in the growing small tourism sector. © 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved..

TOURIST DESTINATON MANAGEMENT AND PUBLIC-PRIVATE PARTNERSHIP1

Bagaric, L. , Faculty of Tourism and Hospitality Management in Opatija. Biennial International Congress. Tourism & Hospitality Industry Vol side 237-253.

The success of a tourist destination depends on its ability to adapt to intense economic, political, technological, sociological and cultural changes. So, as to avoid 'strategic drift', the inclusion of all partners (the public and private sector, associations and residents) is necessary for creating the clear direction. Successful development of destination management implies close co-operation of the public and private sector which includes creating joint projects through public-private partnership (PPP). Past practice has shown that the PPP can play an important role in raising the quality of service level, more effective management as well as accelerating economic growth. At the same time, the basic advantages of the PPP are ensuring new sources of fresh private capital, which leads to releasing a part of the budget funds which could be directed towards new developmental projects. A model of destination management through public-private partnership (PPP) is suggested, whose council would consist of the following: the local self-government (Department of Tourism), competitive and marketing clubs, a destination-based marketing organization in the aspect of a tourist office, public local communal, that is, infrastructured companies and destination management companies (DMC). [PUBLICATION ABSTRACT].

Understanding traditionalist opposition to modernization: Narrative production in a Norwegian mountain conflict

Benjaminsen, T.A.S., H. 2008, Geografiska Annaler, Series B: Human Geography Vol 90 side 49-62.

In Gausdal, a mountainous community in southern Norway, a conflict involving dogsledding has dominated local politics during the past two decades. In order to understand local protests against this activity, in this article we apply discourse analysis within the evolving approach of political ecology. In this way, we also aim at contributing to the emerging trend of bringing political ecology "home". To many people, dogsledding appears as an environmentally friendly outdoor recreation activity as well as a type of adventure tourism that may provide new income opportunities to marginal agricultural communities. Hence, at a first glance, the protests against this activity may be puzzling. Looking for explanations for these protests, this empirical study demonstrates how the opposition to dogsledding may be understood as grounded in four elements of a narrative: (1) environmental values are threatened; (2) traditional economic activities are threatened; (3) outsiders take over the mountain; and (4) local people are powerless. Furthermore, we argue that the narrative is part of what we see as a broader Norwegian "rural traditionalist discourse". This discourse is related to a continued marginalization of rural communities caused by increasing pressure on agriculture to improve its efficiency as well as an "environmentalization"of rural affairs. Thus, the empirical study shows how opposition to dogsledding in a local community is articulated as a narrative that fits into a more general pattern of opposition to rural modernization in Norway as well as internationally. © 2008 Swedish Society for Anthropology and Geography..

Place marketing in a logistics context: A Swedish case study and discourse

Bergqvist, R. 2009, Place Branding and Public Diplomacy Vol 5 side 54-66.

Distance challenged regions, geographically or demographically, need to engage in the development of unique and strategic logistics capabilities in order to support existing business and to attract new business. However, the development of logistics capabilities is not sufficient; place marketing is essential for attracting new business. Today, many regions use place marketing. There is, however, great homogeneity in the way regions market themselves using logistics arguments. The level of differentiation concerning logistical arguments is very low. Approaching the same audience with similar arguments has little chance of attracting investments, as no unique capabilities or features are emphasised in the marketing mix of arguments. The lack of differentiation deters decision-makers, as they have difficulty evaluating location alternatives. This absence of strategic marketing planning constitutes a window of opportunity that, when opened, creates a possibility for the local to have the global ear. This paper provides an insight into the story of a small region in Sweden that has been surprisingly successful in attracting business through its efforts in developing strategic logistics capabilities and using logistics arguments in its place marketing. [PUBLICATION ABSTRACT].

Cooperation among prominent actors in a tourist destination

Beritelli, P. 2011, Annals of Tourism Research Vol 38 side 607-629.

Cooperative behavior in tourism destination communities is a condition for sustainable planning and development. However, evidence is lacking on how actors choose to cooperate. Previous research in institutions, organizations, and communities show that formal, contract-based as well as informal, relation-based cooperation occur jointly or in substitution, depending on the context and the subject of research. However, neither the approaches nor their underlying dimensions have been tested for the reality of tourist destination communities. For a European Alpine tourism destination the results show that only relation-based items, in combination with communication variables, strongly positively influence cooperative behavior. The paper suggests a series of implications for tourism destination planning and concludes with indications for further research. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd..

Power dimensions and influence reputation in tourist destinations: Empirical evidence from a network of actors and stakeholders

Beritelli, P.L., C. 2011, Tourism Management Vol 32 side 1299-1309.

There is consensus among scholars and practitioners that planning and marketing of community-structured destinations requires a cooperative approach among numerous different actors. It is alleged that power plays a central role, in building the influence reputation of actors in such a cooperative network and thus is important in planning and decision-making. However, there is little empirical evidence with regard to the dimensions of power in a destination community context. This paper contributes to the understanding of how power is perceived by different individuals and stakeholder groups in an actor's network of an Alpine tourist destination.To this end we identified a relevant network of actors and their individual influence reputations (independent variable) as well as relevant power dimensions (dependent). Multiple and simple regression models of in-degree and out-degree centralities, for the whole network as well as network partitions based on stakeholder affiliation of the actors, provide a differentiated insight into the issue of power in actors' networks. The results indicate that in almost all of the models, knowledge and process power as a second important variable play a central role in people's perception of an actor's influence (out-degree) as well as for one's reputation as influential (in-degree). The results of the partitioned models show that depending on the stakeholder group the actors belong to, their out-degree as well as their in-degree models differ significantly. Hence, the interpretation of influence and power varies across stakeholder groups and must be regarded as a perceptual and not only a structural concept. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd..

Challenges in mobile business solutions for tourist destinations - The trial case of St. Moritz

Beritelli, P.S., M. 2006, Journal of Quality Assurance in Hospitality and Tourism Vol 6 side 147-162.

Mobile business applications in tourism have been developed in the last years for various platforms and services. However, most of the applications have been tested in lab-like conditions. The article describes the trial case of St. Moritz, Switzerland. With the help of the Destination-Pilot acceptability, usability, and market potential for mobile information services have been tested in a real environment situation. The trial involves numerous visitors and tourist enterprises. The paper presents opportunities and limitations to so called mobile travel recommender systems. Strong emphasis is put on the methodical and technical challenges in the set up trial phase as well as on potential business models for exploitation. Copyright © 2005 by The Haworth Press, Inc. All rights reserved..

Convention industry and destination clusters: Evidence from Italy

Bernini, C. 2009, Tourism Management Vol 30 side 878-889.

The study investigates aspects of the convention industry not well explored in the literature. Using a framework of cluster theory, a quantitative method is used to assess the Italian convention industry and its relationships with local infrastructure and tourism product supply. The development of the different phases of the life cycle of convention destinations in Italy is outlined and locational factors which influence them are investigated. Managerial and political strategies which would enhance the competitiveness of the Italian convention industry in the global market are proposed. Furthermore, the study evaluates the use of the cluster theory in investigating the hospitality industry, contributing to the debate on local tourism development. © 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved..

Recreating heritage in the Southwest of Scotland

Bhandari, K. , Current Issues in Tourism Vol 14 side 669-683.

This paper studies the role of heritage tourism in the creation of uniform identity. The recently developed heritage tourism products in the southwest of Scotland are encouraging the promotion of the dominant heritage of Scotland, largely marginalizing the regional one. This paper examines the cases of the heritage of Robert the Bruce that stresses Scotland's militaristic tradition, the eventful organisation of the Border Gathering which showcases Highland culture and the marginalisation of the Covenanting heritage of the region. The data are gathered through a questionnaire survey, in-depth interview, non-participant observation, archival records and other secondary sources. It shows how tourism is gearing towards recreating and establishing heritage which is largely new to the region. The paper argues that the promotion of dominant heritage is meaningfully directed towards forming a uniform and homogenous identity. The introduction of the dominant heritage in the region is important because it encourages commonality within Scotland, which plays an enormous part in advancing Scottish nationalism. This study helps us understand how tourism can be a medium to advance a nationalistic message. © 2011 Taylor & Francis..

The practical application of sustainable tourism development principles: A case study of creating innovative place-making tourism strategies

Billington, R.D.C., Natalie; Kayamba, Lilly 2008, Tourism and Hospitality Research Vol 8 side 37-43.

The Blackstone Valley is working to create a sustainable, resilient, visitor destination using whole place-making techniques. The Blackstone Valley Tourism Council applies leadership and commitment to innovative sustainable geotourism principles. The Tourism Council fulfills the vision of sustainable tourism through its Sustainable Tourism Planning and Development Laboratory (STPDL). The Laboratory's purpose is to share the Tourism Council's experience in developing planned sustainable tourism with tourism leaders and community stakeholders seeking to develop viable destinations. The STPDL presents a learning initiative that prepares decision makers and shapers to thoughtfully develop and regenerate their communities using sustainable tourism principles. In the formation of the Laboratory mission, certain sustainable tourism development issues stood out as significant and needing prompt attention by practitioners. In response, the Laboratory has developed and continues to develop a series of robust symposiums, conferences, and programmes to link the Laboratory's work to the thirst for sound tourism development knowledge. [PUBLICATION ABSTRACT].

Tourism destination marketing - A tool for destination management? A case study from Nelson/Tasman Region, New Zealand

Blumberg, K. 2005, Asia Pacific Journal of Tourism Research Vol 10 side 45-57.

Tourism destination marketing is now widely recognized as an essential component in the management of destinations. In harmony with the general marketing literature, which understands marketing as a management tool, some researchers understand destination marketing as a form of 'market-oriented strategic planning' and hence as a strategic approach to place development rather than a promotional tool. Based on the results of a case study of tourism destination marketing in the Nelson/ Tasman Region, New Zealand, this article examines the suitability of tourism destination marketing as a tool and of Destination Marketing Organizations (DMO) as a vehicle for tourism destination management and development. A discussion of several difficulties in the implementation of tourism destination marketing in Nelsonl/Tasman Region leads to the conclusion that DMOs are unlikely to be able to claim too much responsibility for destination management but that they can play an important part in the management of the destination product. © 2005 Asia Pacific Tourism Association..

Sustainable tourism infrastructure planning: A GIS-supported approach

Boers, B.C., S. 2007, Tourism Geographies Vol 9 side .

This paper presents a conceptual geographical information systems (GIS)-supported sustainable tourism infrastructure planning (STIP) framework including attraction, service and transportation facilities. This framework focuses on tourism planning as an integrated approach based on sustainability criteria. STIP aims to integrate a set of sustainability criteria (i.e. development objectives, visitor experience preferences, carrying capacity standards and resource impacts) into infrastructure planning via GIS. Based on these criteria, STIP provides protected area management insights in the most sustainable locations and layout of future infrastructure. STIP involves three phases: A visitor segmentation (not GIS supported) phase, a zoning phase (GIS supported) and a transportation network planning phase (GIS supported). To demonstrate the integration of these phases, STIP was applied as a trail planning demonstration on data (i.e. social and physical) from the Sinharaja Forest Reserve, a tropical rainforest in Sri Lanka's southwestern wet zone. The area experiences increasing visitor use and requires additional trail development to mitigate resource stress. Nature and cultural tourist opportunity trail networks were mapped based on the sustainability criteria which provide directives for sustainable trail development within the reserve..

Determinants of tourism success for DMOs & destinations: An empirical examination of stakeholders' perspectives

Bornhorst, T.B.R., J. R.; Sheehan, L. , Tourism Management Vol 31 side 572-589.

What is tourism success? Specifically, what does tourism success mean for a destination as opposed to a destination management organization (DMO)? The main objectives of this study were to examine the concept of tourism success as it relates to both destinations and to DMOs, and to determine if a relationship or distinction exists between the two. Eighty-four (84) knowledgeable tourism managers and stakeholders from twenty-five (25) Canadian destinations were interviewed. Responses were used to identify variables and build a model that supports the existence of a relationship between the success of tourism destinations and DMOs with respect to community relations, marketing, and economic indicators. Unique to DMO success were supplier relations, effective management, strategic planning, organizational focus and drive, proper funding, and quality personnel. Unique to destination success were location and accessibility, attractive product and service offerings, quality visitor experiences, and community support.To conclude, achieving success in tourism is challenging and ill understood. We hope that this study will prove to be a small step towards enhancing our understanding of the variables associated with both DMO and destination success. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd..

PLANNING AND ORGANISING TOURIST DESTINATIONS - THE EXAMPLE OF THE RURAL ISTRIA CLUSTER

Boskovic, D.S., Darko; Trost, Klara , Faculty of Tourism and Hospitality Management in Opatija. Biennial International Congress. Tourism & Hospitality Industry Vol side 794-807.

Every tourist destination represents as an integral tourism product. Yet, at the same time, it is also a complex social system, sometimes called a destination system. Its complexity derives from the multitude of elements that participate to make it work. These elements can be grouped into three basic subsystems: consumers (tourists), producers (tourism supply providers) and state and other organizations and institutions. A destination system is confined by the scope of a specific spatial unit, whose boundaries are determined by tourism demand, regardless of administrative borders. The Master Plan of tourism development of the Istria County provides for the formation and operation of the rural areas of inland Istria as a special cluster relative to the other six coastal tourism clusters. This paper explores the level of implementation of the function of planning and organizing in the rural Istria cluster, which can be seen as a specific tourism mezzo-destination, to avoid repeating the earlier mistakes of mass tourism development in coastal areas..

Tourism destination competitiveness: The French regions case

Botti, L.P., N.; Robinot, E.; Solonadrasana, B. 2009, European Journal of Tourism Research Vol 2 side .

In this paper we assess and compare tourism destinations in terms of their performance. The proposed efficiency assessment procedure is based on Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) and precisely on the Directional Distance Function. This methodology is here explained as easiest as possible and it is applied to the evaluation of the twenty-two French regions. The motivation for the analysis lies in the fact that these destinations have to (or will have to) face a decrease in their competitiveness. Then, the aim of the paper is to start a reflection on the performance of the 22 French regions; for that, its only objective is to measure the efficiency of these destinations. Indeed, knowing what the best practices are is good news for Destination Management Organizations and tourism institutions in the perspective of a benchmarking procedure. The paper still tries to explain the scores..

Visual Rhetoric and Ethics in Marketing of Destinations

Campelo, A.A., R.; Gnoth, J. 2011, Journal of Travel Research Vol 50 side .

The purpose of this article is to discuss the visual rhetoric of advertising in the marketing of destinations and place branding. In particular, it considers the ways in which advertisements create and reinforce meanings. Attention is also given to the ethics of representing people and places. The article provides an interdisciplinary conceptual review and uses a mixed methods approach to analyze the 100% Pure New Zealand advertising campaign. The contribution of this article is to enhance the discussion about ethics in representing places, communities, people, and their culture in destination marketing and in place brand communications..

Embracing user generated content within destination management organizations to gain a competitive insight into visitors' profiles

Carvão, S. , Worldwide Hospitality and Tourism Themes Vol 2 side 376-382.

Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to highlight the importance of incorporating user generated content (UGC) in the e-marketing strategies and activities of destination management organizations (DMOs) and debate the possibilities that UGC offers in terms of market research and aiming at improved consumer profile and segmentation to increase destinations' competitive advantages. Design/methodology/approach - The paper analyzes good practice examples of the integration UGC in the e-marketing strategies of destination DMOs at national and local level and highlights the limited number of DMOs which develop market research using UGC. Findings - An increasing number of DMOs have incorporated UGC in their e-marketing strategies. Most DMOs now actively display in their web sites spaces dedicated to text and video UGC. Nonetheless, very few are using content analysis to better understand and profile the visitors' to their destinations and the enormous value of such information in terms of profiling and segmenting visitors' has not yet been integrated in the market research activities of DMOs. Originality/value - The paper highlights the potential that UGC has to better understand the profile and satisfaction of the various segments of visitors to a destination.[PUBLICATION ABSTRACT].

Trying to be attractive: Image building and identity formation in small industrial municipalities in Sweden

Cassel, S.H. 2008, Place Branding and Public Diplomacy Vol 4 side 102-114.

Efforts of creating and communicating positive images constitute a considerable part of contemporary regional development strategies. The use of different marketing practices has become a popular way to promote attractiveness for tourists, business and in-migrants in growth regions as well as in peripheral and economically vulnerable regions across Europe. In this paper, I explore the employment of different place marketing strategies as a development tool in specific local contexts. The study aims at understanding the role of place marketing in the process of image building in municipalities with experiences of negative economic development and unfavourable images. The empirical material used consists of a case study with six small industrial municipalities in the Swedish Bergslagen region. Strategies of image building are described and analysed by using a conceptual model of different cultural economy approaches to development. The case study indicates that place marketing in a broader sense should not only be looked upon as a matter of selling the municipality to outsiders such as tourists and potential in-migrants. In some types of municipalities, place marketing efforts are rather a matter of adding new aspects to, or entirely changing the place brand. An important target group is in this case the inhabitants of the region. By selling itself to 'insiders', the municipalities are trying to create a discourse of attractiveness. [PUBLICATION ABSTRACT].

Press media coverage effects on destinations - A Monetary Public Value (MPV) analysis

Castelltort, M.M.d., G. , Tourism Management Vol 31 side 724-738.

The present study examines the extent, source and nature of reporting about Spain as a tourist destination among Swiss German language newspapers. By testing a method based on the Monetary Publicity Value (MPV) the media coverage is quantified in order to arrive at a positive image of Spain among German Swiss print press. Results confirm that: a) familiarization-trips account for an important volume of positive news; b) culture and travel news are predominantly positive, a trend not pointed out by journalist researchers because generally they focus mainly on political or disaster reporting; c) effectiveness of destination image management among print media can be measured and therefore targeted. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd..

Best Practice Marketing for Regional Tourism Destinations

Cox, C.W., Meredith , Journal of Travel & Tourism Marketing Vol 28 side 524.

This article reports on destination marketing best practices from 21 regional destinations around Australia. The results advocate an integrative approach to destination marketing that aligns with destination management and development objectives. From this, a framework is developed, within which nine best practice principles are identified as essential to successful and sustainable marketing of regional destinations. The key initiatives used to achieve success are discussed in detail, highlighting the need for destination stakeholders to foster a cooperative and strategic approach and ensure consistent design and delivery of a destination brand and image which is supported by tactical advertising and promotional strategies, effective visitor information services, and events to support the destination brand and image to target appropriate visitor markets. [PUBLICATION ABSTRACT].

Assessment of tourism competitiveness by analysing destination efficiency

Cracolici, M.F.N., P.; Rietveld, P. 2008, Tourism Economics Vol 14 side 325-342.

The notion and measurement of destination competitiveness have received increasing attention in the economics literature on tourism. The reason for this emerges from both the growing economic importance of the tourist sector and the increasing competition in the tourist market resulting from the transition from mass tourism to a new age of tourism that calls for a tailor-made approach to the specific attitudes and needs of tourists. The central subject of this paper - inspired by the conceptual competitiveness model developed by Crouch and Ritchie - concerns the efficiency of tourist site destinations. Using a data set of 103 Italian regions for 2001, an economic efficiency analysis is carried out, based on a production frontier approach. The study deploys a measure of tourist site competitiveness in terms of its technical efficiency using parametric and non-parametric methods, a stochastic production function and data envelopment analysis, respectively..

Measuring and explaining competitiveness in the context of small island destinations

Croes, R. , Journal of Travel Research Vol 50 side 431-442.

This study measures and explains competitiveness among small island destinations. Current measures of competitiveness do not respond to the special needs of small island destinations. An alternative measurement suggests a more suitable Tourism Competitiveness Index (TCI), and through the application of panel regression analysis, tracks the most important factors affecting competitiveness among island destinations. The findings imply likelihood that more expensive destinations obtain a larger share of regional tourism revenues. The study concludes that providing a high-quality product may allow destinations to become and remain competitive. © 2011 SAGE Publications..

Destination competitiveness: An analysis of determinant attributes

Crouch, G.I. 2011, Journal of Travel Research Vol 50 side 27-45.

The aim of this study was to develop an insight into the importance and impact of attributes which affect the competitiveness of tourism destinations. Using a general conceptual model of destination competitiveness, 36 competitiveness attributes were evaluated by "expert" judgment in the form of an online survey of destination managers and tourism researchers. These judgments were integrated and analyzed using the analytic hierarchy process (AHP). In addition to estimating the importance of the attributes of competitiveness, the results of the AHP were further analyzed to produce measures of attribute determinance. These measures were then tested statistically to identify which attributes were judged to exert the greatest determinant impact on destination competitiveness. Ten of the 36 attributes were found to have determinance measures statistically significantly greater than average. © 2011 SAGE Publications..

Film tourism: sustained economic contributions to destinations

Croy, W.G. , Worldwide Hospitality and Tourism Themes Vol 3 side 159-164.

Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to highlight the potential of film-induced tourism to provide sustained economic contribution to destinations. Design/methodology/approach - The paper takes the form of a literature review and identifies the economic contribution made by film-induced tourism. Findings - It is observed that film-induced tourism only provides a sustained economic contribution to destinations in exceptional circumstances. Practical implications - Destinations need to incorporate film as a functional component of their management. Managers need to focus on the subtle roles film plays in destination awareness, motivation, and image and expectation formation. This focus is best deployed in connecting film audiences with the destination, and tourist experiences available. Originality/value - The paper questions the emphasis placed on film as a tourism-inducing agent and at same time, illustrates that film has a subtle influence and this requires further emphasis by destination managers.[PUBLICATION ABSTRACT].

Resource-based local development and networked core-competencies for tourism excellence

Denicolai, S.C., G.; Zucchella, A. , Tourism Management Vol 31 side 260-266.

The purpose of this article is to propose a complementary approach to the analysis of tourism systems which is grounded on theoretical frameworks deriving from the fields of dynamic capabilities and destination management. In particular, the paper explores the relationship between the networking approach of tourism firms and the development of tourism core-competencies. This perspective aims at providing a development path for policy maker actions based on the appraisal of local resources and tourism competencies. The empirical section studies an Italian area characterized by a high potential in terms of tourism resources but also, especially in the past, a medium-low relevance regarding the tourism economy. However, recently this area has shown a very interesting entrepreneurial dynamicity in tourism and cultural sectors. It is an appropriate field of research for the analysis regarding the determinants of tourism core-competence development. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved..

Local transport and social representations: Challenging the assumptions for sustainable tourism

Dickinson, J.E.D., J. A. 2006, Journal of Sustainable Tourism Vol 14 side 192-208.

The dilemma of how to manage tourism related traffic at rural destinations in the UK is examined using a social representation perspective. In transport initiatives, alternatives to the car typically gain low use levels and their perceived success is poor, while measures to limit car access and use are negatively perceived by the public. Traditional transport planning is based on analysis of objective data, such as road capacity, and measures of individual attitudes that predict how people will respond to a transport initiative. However, studies show that people do not behave in predictable patterns related to their attitudes. Travel is a social and cultural phenomenon and the social and cultural assumptions that underlie reported attitudes to transport have not been investigated. This paper poses a challenge to the assumptions of current research and proposes an approach that explores the multiplicity of social realities that underpin our attitudes towards transport, tourism and subsequent behaviour. A review of initiatives and transport research in this field examines how representations of transport and tourism are created, evolved and accepted into people's thinking about transport. Directions and approaches for future research are proposed together with directions for sustainable transport at destinations. © 2006 J.E. Dickinson & J.A. Dickinson..

Representations of tourism transport problems in a rural destination

Dickinson, J.E.R., D. 2008, Tourism Management Vol 29 side 1110-1121.

Within the tourism impacts literature, car travel is regularly cited as a main contributor in destination areas. This study questions the nature of the problem by analysing key stakeholders' representations of the tourism transport problem and tourists' travel behaviour at a rural tourism destination in the UK. Exploratory research involving in-depth interviews with residents identified a typical emphasis on local travel problems and identified tourist arrivals by car as a major contributor. Data compiled using travel diaries and a survey, however, revealed car-based visitors had fewer concerns. Problems were seen to be minor with little or no need to modify behaviour to cope in any way. Analysis suggests perceptions of problems are to a large extent context contingent and are socially constructed and reproduced with consequent implications for destination management. © 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved..

Destination Competitiveness: Determinants and Indicators

Dwyer, L.K., Chulwon 2003, Current Issues in Tourism Vol 6 side 369-414.

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Antarctic cruise tourism: The paradoxes of ambassadorship, "last chance tourism" and greenhouse gas emissions

Eijgelaar, E.T., C.; Peeters, P. , Journal of Sustainable Tourism Vol 18 side 337-354.

This paper examines a paradoxical issue in tourism's adaptation to climate change and emissions reduction demands. Operators increasingly take tourists to destinations threatened by climate change, with Antarctica and other polar regions as favourites and cruise ship and aircraft as main transport modes. The selling point is to see a destination before it disappears, a form of last chance tourism. This has been claimed to increase the environmental awareness of tourists and make them "ambassadors" for conservation and the visited destination. Antarctic cruise ship passengers tripled from 2000 to 2007. The paper finds that high levels of greenhouse gas emissions are created by cruise ship tourists in general, and especially high levels for those visiting the Antarctic, up to approximately eight times higher per capita and per day than average international tourism trips. A survey found no evidence for the hypothesis that the trips develop greater environmental awareness, change attitudes or encourage more sustainable future travel choices. Of the Antarctic cruise passengers surveyed, 59% felt that their travel did not impact on climate change; fewer than 7% had or might offset their emissions. Alternative opportunities for visitation to glacial/polar destinations that comply with the desire to reduce future emissions are discussed. © 2010 Taylor & Francis..

The destination-management organisation and the integrative destination-marketing process

Elbe, J.r.H.n., Lars; Axelsson, Björn 2009, The International Journal of Tourism Research Vol 11 side 283.

A main function of destination-management organisations (DMOs) is that of being responsible for marketing their destinations. Many destinations involve stakeholders of different kinds. DMOs often have modest resources, and this creates a challenge: how should the DMO manage their marketing activities and achieve an outcome that benefits both the individual stakeholder and the destination? This study describes how DMOs can mobilise resources among the stakeholders and identifies the processes leading to integrated destination marketing. Basing our conclusions on a case study, we find that DMOs need to develop both pragmatic and moral legitimacy in order to develop integrated destination marketing. [PUBLICATION ABSTRACT].

Modelling determinants of tourism demand as a five-stage process: A discrete choice methodological approach

Eugenio-Martin, J.L. 2003, Tourism and Hospitality Research Vol 4 side 341-354.

In the tourists' destination choice there are multiple factors involved in their decision. Individuals or families with exactly the same socioeconomic and demographic characteristics may choose very different destinations. The paper deals with this heterogeneity problem, recognising that there are taste differences among tourists and that final destination choice is not an independent decision, but the last decision of a set of choices that are determining it. In this sense, it is argued that tourists face a five-stage decision process. First of all, people have to decide whether or not to travel within a period of time. Secondly, those who expect to travel need to estimate a budget for tourism expenses. Thirdly, given the budget, they need to determine the frequency and length of stay of their trip. Fourthly, once a date and the length of stay are proposed, tourists need to choose which kind of tourist destination to visit. Finally, from among all the available destinations that satisfy a tourist's conditions, final destination and mode of transportation are chosen. It is the purpose of this paper to propose a methodological framework for modelling each of these stages and their relationship..

Interpersonal influence and destination brand equity perceptions

Evangelista, F. , International Journal of Culture, Tourism and Hospitality Research Vol 5 side 316-328.

Purpose - This study seeks to examine the effect of two types of social influence, normative and informational, on travelers' perceptions of a destination's brand equity. Design/methodology/approach - A brand equity measurement model, previously developed for a tangible product brand, is applied and validated in the context of a destination brand. The structural model is then estimated to test the effects of normative and informational influence on brand equity. Findings - Normative but not informational influence has a significant effect on brand equity perceptions. Originality/value - The empirical results help to strengthen the claim that branding principles can be readily generalized to tourism destinations. [PUBLICATION ABSTRACT].

Strategic destination planning: Analyzing the future of tourism

Formica, S.K., T. H. 2008, Journal of Travel Research Vol 46 side 355-367.

Events and trends affecting the tourism industry are becoming more complex and fast-paced. In response to these radical changes in the external environment, destination managers are striving for new approaches to predict future forces driving change. With this goal in mind, the current study was conducted to determine future forces that are likely to affect the future of tourism in the tristate area of Pennsylvania, New Jersey, and Delaware from 2006 to 2010. The data for the study were gathered using the nominal group technique for scenario thinking, with informants from a variety of tourism businesses in the region. The findings of the study confirm that the tourism industry will be facing major challenges and experiencing swift changes. The global economy, changing market demographics, and emerging technology are forcing destination managers to adopt and implement proactive strategies to survive the competitive tourism environment. © 2008 Sage Publications..

Managing visitor impacts at visitor attractions: An international assessment

Garrod, B.F., A.; Leask, A. 2006, Current Issues in Tourism Vol 9 side 125-151.

This paper presents the findings of a study designed to extend and develop a previous study conducted by the authors on the management of visitor impacts at visitor attractions in Scotland. This follow-up study sets out to discover the extent to which attractions in other countries experience similar impacts, with comparable management challenges to those already identified in the Scottish visitor attraction sector. In order to provide a direct comparison to the Scottish study, a replication of the research methodology employed in that study was considered necessary. A self-completion survey was thus mailed to managers of paid-admission attractions in Canada, Australia and New Zealand: three 'leading-edge' destinations selected for comparison. Findings suggest that although many impacts are perceived to be similar across the four countries, a number of important differences are evident. Given that the reasons for such differences vary, the paper concludes that the development of a generic strategy for the management of visitor impacts internationally remains something for the future. In the meantime, the sector should rely on the identification and adoption of best practice on a case-by-case basis. The sector's diversity and fragmentation suggest that qualitative research holds the key to identifying appropriate techniques for managing visitor impacts. © 2006 B. Garrod et al..

The importance of destination image analysis to UK rural tourism

Greaves, N.S., Heather , Marketing Intelligence & Planning Vol 28 side 486-507.

Purpose - The Forest of Dean attracts relatively low numbers of staying visitors and low visitor spend. The paper aims to explore the image of this destination and identify the potential to visit along with any underlying factors that may deter visitors. Design/methodology/approach - A mix of qualitative and quantitative methods were used to gather and analyse responses to an online survey. Respondents offered a range of words and pictures from which they were asked to select those they felt best represented the destination, and also then asked to explain their selection. Quantitative data were also analysed for frequency of occurrence. A content analysis of qualitative data was conducted to generate destination image clusters of the Forest of Dean. Findings - The findings show there is a very positive and unique image associated with the Forest of Dean among previous visitors, with many expressing an intention to visiting the area again. Research limitations/implications - Although response rates are relatively low, and results are heavily concentrated on actual visitors, the research provides very broad ranging and meaningful data that have offered a deeper and richer insight into the image of the Forest of Dean. Practical implications - The paper has provided important data from which new competitive brand image strategies can be developed for the destination. The paper also provides a first step towards a comprehensive image analysis for the Forest of Dean, from which future promotional strategies can be developed. Originality/value - Many visitor guides promote UK rural destinations on their superb scenery, relaxation, outdoor leisure activities, quality accommodation, locally-sourced food, a range of attractions and a full calendar of events and festivals. To date there has been very little research carried out on UK rural destination brands and no academic research carried out on the image or branding of the Forest of Dean as a unique rural destination..

Examining the dimensions of a lifestyle tourism destination

Gross, M.J.B., Chris; Brown, Graham 2008, International Journal of Culture, Tourism and Hospitality Research Vol 2 side 44-66.

This paper develops and tests a measurement model for the combined study of involvement and place attachment in a tourism context. The study was conducted in South Australia, a state that has positioned itself as a lifestyle tourism destination. Tourism involvement was conceptualised as a multidimensional construct consisting of centrality to lifestyle, attraction, self-expression, and food and wine. Place attachment was also conceptualised as a multidimensional construct consisting of place identity and place dependence. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were used to develop and test a measurement model using survey data from tourists in South Australia. A six factor measurement model was developed and found to have a reasonable fit with the data. The present study findings suggest that a viable theoretical, practical, and methodological basis can be established to measure the relationships among the involvement and place attachment constructs in a tourism context. This establishes a sound foundation for further examination of the predictive nature of the relationships between the constructs. A better understanding of involvement dimensions and the extent to which tourism experiences are rooted in place may be of invaluable assistance in the marketing of tourism destinations. Involvement and place attachment have received considerable study as individual constructs in tourism contexts, however their study in combination has been undertaken only recently, and almost exclusively in leisure and recreation contexts. This study extended the scope of the combined examination of involvement and place attachment into a tourism context..

The Helsingborg statement on sustainable tourism

Gössling, S.H., M.; Lane, B.; Weaver, D. 2008, Journal of Sustainable Tourism Vol 16 side 122-124.

In September 2007 an international group of 35 experts on sustainable tourism met in Helsingborg, Sweden. They reviewed past progress in the subject and ways forward in the 21st century circumstances of climate change and rapidly increasing travel demand. They sought to develop an international research agenda on sustainable tourism as well as highlighting positive actions that could be adopted by government and industry. This statement summarises key points from the meeting. © 2008 S. Gössling et al..

Development of destinations: The case of Tyrol

Haimayer, P. 2006, Destinationsentwicklung am Beispiel Tirol Vol side 141-155.

In the 1990 an intensive discussion started in Tyrol concerning the efficiency of the local tourism associations since, because of their small size, they could no longer meet the challenges of modern tourism. The Tyrol tourism policy, by then starting to restructure, created an important precondition for a professional management of destinations. Instead of 247 tourism associations in the year 1997, there are now (in 2006) a mere 39 with an average of 1.1 million overnight stays and an ordinary budget of € 2.6 million. In the near future there should only be about a dozen destination regions present on the international markets, in close cooperation with 'Tirol Werbung'. The structural change had three phases: from 1997 till 1999 and also from 2000 to 2002 mergers were voluntary; from 2003 onwards mergers were induced by the provincial government giving spatial and temporal orders. For this restructuring of tourism organisations the Tyrol government had provided, until the beginning of 2006, € 15 million in direct subsidies. The comparison with other Alpine countries shows that regarding the development of tourist destinations Tyrol is following a consequent and promising course, and proves that without political regulations the formation of touristic units suitable for the market is either difficult or does not start at all. In the future the destination areas have to be regularly evaluated in order to gain bases for necessary corrections and further improvements of the destinations structure..

Development of tourism destinations An Integrated Multilevel Perspective

Haugland, S.A.N., H.; Grønseth, B. O.; Aarstad, J. 2011, Annals of Tourism Research Vol 38 side 268-290.

Research on destination development is fragmented. Some studies focus primarily on one or a few selected areas of destination development, paying limited attention to multilevel issues and theoretical integration, while others take a more holistic, phenomena-driven view, making theoretical delimitation difficult. We lack theoretical approaches to guide us in the question of how destinations can be developed from an integrated multilevel perspective. We mitigate this challenge by developing a theoretical framework highlighting three specific areas impacting destination development. These are: destination capabilities, coordination at the destination level, and inter-destination bridge ties. The three areas will each have a direct impact on destination development, and furthermore, the areas are interrelated and thereby impact destination development indirectly. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd..

Turning national parks into tourist attractions: Nature orientation and quest for facilities

Haukeland, J.V.G., B.; Veisten, K. , Scandinavian Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Vol 10 side 248-271.

This paper presents an exploratory analysis of foreign tourists' quests for facilities in Norwegian national parks, related to their expressed nature orientation. The analysis was based on a survey among German, Dutch and Danish tourists during the summer season of 2008. Exploratory factor analysis was applied to identify underlying dimensions from indicator questions related to nature orientations and to quest for facilities inside and outside the national parks. The indicator questions were primarily inspired by Nils Uddenberg's classification of modern Swedes' nature orientations. We found a significant, although fairly weak, relationship between nature orientation and quest for facilities, applying multivariate regression modelling. The strongest relationship was found for the quest for larger management measures - "Infrastructure & services" - supported by nature orientations labelled Challenge or Sightseeing, while these were disapproved of by the traditional outdoor Recreation orientation. The wish for "Tracks and signposts" was also upheld by nature orientations Challenge and Sightseeing. A segment of the tourists, based on cluster analysis, indicated that one third requested development of "Infrastructure & services", but this segment demanded all kinds of facility developments. The results indicate national park development potentials, clarifying which developments are contended, and diversifying the demand from three major nationalities visiting Norway. © 2010 Taylor & Francis..

From local promotion towards regional tourism policies: Knowledge processes and actor networks in North Jutland, Denmark

Henriksen, P.F.H., H. 2009, European Planning Studies Vol 17 side 1445-1462.

Public policies promoting the development of tourist destinations, not least in North-western Europe, have traditionally focused on attracting more tourists through local promotional activities, but in many localities these have now been supplemented by strategies that attempt to change the tourist product on offer, often operating at the regional level, and thus, tourism policies have changed with regard to scale, aims and instruments. Research on the tourism policy has mainly centred on the difficulties inherent in destination development with regard to orchestrating changes in the wide raft of services, typically provided by small local firms, that make up the tourist experience, while less attention has been given to an important prerequisite for these new, product-development strategies, namely the process of policy change from local promotion towards regional tourism policies, despite the potential difficulties involved in shifting geographical scales of governance and adopting a more risky focus on new types of visitors. The aim of this article is to investigate the factors that drive or hamper the tourism policy change from localized marketing towards regional innovation strategies, focusing especially on the role of stakeholder networks and knowledge processes in overcoming spatial fragmentation and product conservatism. Adopting an institutionalist perspective, an in-depth case study of a destination management organization, "Top of Denmark", situated at the tip of one of northern Europe's prime locations for seaside tourism, is undertaken in order to identify factors that drive or hamper the policy change from localized marketing towards regional, product-development initiatives. This article concludes that the issue of localism has been effectively addressed by establishing and operating as a network-based body where individual stakeholders are mutually dependant on the specific capacities of their partners, a consensual style of decision-making is prevailing, and a division of labour has been established that engages local actors in destination-wide tasks while at the same time enabling them to maintain close links with small tourism businesses in their area. Both in the emergence and in the redevelopment of the organization, the internal wish for change has clearly been stimulated by extra-destinational incentives, but the perceived success of the early, joint-marketing activities has clearly made the current focus on product-development activities easier.© 2009 Taylor & Francis..

Tourist images of Greenland and the Arctic: a perception analysis

Hübner, A. 2009, The Polar Record Vol 45 side 153-166.

ABSTRACT Within the scope of climate change and the worldwide shift in travel patterns, the Arctic has become a highly favoured tourist destination. However, the literature on studying destination images of the northern polar regions lacks analysis of prevailing perceptions and of corresponding images held by tourists without previous travel experience. Therefore, this research, recently carried out in Germany, attempts to delineate tourists' perceptions of Greenland on the one hand and the Arctic as a whole on the other as destinations. Similarities, positive and negative differences of the cognitive and affective stages are generated and an overview of perceived dimensions and factors influencing the images are given. Although the results strongly coincide with each other, there are minor differences found in favour of Greenland. With the findings it is hoped to provide a better insight into the images held by potential visitors to the Arctic and to help those engaged in marketing Greenland as a tourist destination to identify an efficient strategy. [PUBLICATION ABSTRACT].

Conceptualization and anatomy of green destination brands

Insch, A. 2011, International Journal of Culture, Tourism and Hospitality Research Vol 5 side 282-290.

Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to extend the concept of green brands to destinations and to examine the application and limitations of green destination brands for nations adopting this positioning strategy. Design/methodology/approach - The paper identifies characteristics of green destination brands, drawing on established concepts in corporate branding, destination branding and green marketing. The paper demonstrates the application and limitations of the concept through an in-depth case study analysis of New Zealand's destination brand to explain the possibilities and problems of building green destination brands at a national level. Findings - The findings suggest that a holistic, strategic approach to building a green destination brand which emphasizes and qualifies the green essence of a nation's brand is required to avoid the pitfalls, cynicism and criticisms of greenwashing. Research limitations/implications - The research findings are embedded in the context studied - New Zealand's destination brand. Additional case studies at multiple levels - nations, regions, cities - would offer a rich database to gain a better understanding of the concept and the implications of green destination branding. Practical implications - Barriers to executing a credible green destination brand position are identified and the implications for destination marketing organizations and their stakeholders are discussed. Originality/value - A conceptualization of green destination brands is provided and the application and limitations of the concept are demonstrated through an in-depth case study of a nation that has adopted this positioning strategy. Rather than taking a snapshot research approach, a historical perspective enabled the development of the destination's brand positioning strategy to be captured. [PUBLICATION ABSTRACT].

Transboundary collaboration in tourism: The case of the Bothnian Arc

Ioannides, D.N., P. Ã…; Billing, P. 2006, Tourism Geographies Vol 8 side 122-142.

Tourism's relationship to political boundaries has caught the attention of researchers only recently, even though on a more general level the academic study of borders attracts considerable interest. A topic that has been explored only superficially concerns the obstacles inhibiting tourism's development in a cross-border setting and, particularly, the tensions arising when the respective national interests of the two neighbouring countries do not coincide with the mutual benefits to be derived through close transfrontier collaboration at the regional level. An emerging key question is what forces dominate within the region straddling the border between two countries - those dictated by the respective national interests of each country, or those benefiting the transboundary region itself? These issues are explored through an examination of the Bothnian Arc Project, a cross-border collaborative effort between Sweden and Finland. A detailed investigation of the planning process that has been put into effect for developing and marketing this coastal region's tourist product is provided. Among the issues discussed are the attempts on the part of all stakeholders to establish a unifying identity for the region, which will set it aside from other destinations in northern Scandinavia (e.g. Lapland). The focus is on some of the most important challenges lying ahead in terms of developing and marketing this cross-border region as a single destination. Additionally, the investigation shows that even if the border in this region has effectively disappeared, obstacles remain to achieving mutual regional benefits. © 2006 Taylor & Francis..

Tourist Destination Integral Product Eco-Efficiency

Jankovic, S.V., Vanja; Vlasic, Dubravka , The International Business & Economics Research Journal Vol 10 side 63-72.

The main objective of this article is to illustrate the accounting methodology for eco-efficiency measurement, which allows for inclusion of the economically-orientated component in the processes of environmental reporting on tourist destination integral product, while examining the interrelation of eco-costs and values found in the classic LCC and particular tourist destination SBU (Strategic Business Unit). The process of tourist destination integral product eco-efficiency measurement calls for development of environmental accounting methods suitable for presentation of economically-orientated sustainability information. In the complex process of integral product eco-efficiency measurement, LCA (Life Cycle Assessment) and LCC (Life Cycle Costing) take important roles. Interpretation and presentation of the data includes detailed cradle-to-grave environmental impact assessment of direct and indirect tourist activity and different products of tourist destination SBU's. Eco-costs represent the monetary component in the processes of environmental accounting and reporting on environmental impact of tourist destination integral product. [PUBLICATION ABSTRACT].

Discriminating perceptions of a peripheral 'nordic destination' among European tourists

Jensen, O.K., Tor 2002, Tourism and Hospitality Research Vol 3 side 319-330.

This paper discusses tourists' abilities to discriminate between different features and images of a peripheral tourist destination based on their geographical origin. The data consist of personal interviews with 424 tourists of various nationalities visiting northern Norway. The starting point of the exploratory analysis presented is based on a section of the original data and focuses on images and features of northern Norway compared with wider Nordic/Norwegian destination levels. One of the main suggestions of this paper is that geographical and cultural distance relative to the tourists' country of origin has a negative effect on their ability to discriminate between distinct features and images of the destination to which they are traveling. This hypothesis is only partly confirmed..

Destination development through entrepreneurship: A comparison of two cases

Johns, N.M., J. 2005, Tourism Management Vol 26 side 605-616.

The rise of Hay-on-Wye as a "town of books" and of Stavanger as a cultural centre are identified as two cases in which a single individual's entrepreneurial effort has profoundly influenced a destination's potential for development. These two cases are examined in detail through qualitative data gathered from interviews, and their features and the cultures that underlie them are compared and contrasted. At face value, Hay seems a more "successful" development than Stavanger, because its commercial impact was recognised and exploited from the start. However, Hay has had much longer to develop than Stavanger, which may ultimately achieve a similar destination culture. In addition, it is necessary to consider important differences in the value systems underlying different styles of entrepreneurship, since the driving force for Hay was always commercial, but that behind Stavanger (at least during the period discussed here) was social/cultural. The article further identifies the main points that can be gleaned from such comparisons and presents some lessons for development that may be applied to the management and analysis of growth in other destinations. © 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved..

Indicator-based Strategies for Sustainable Tourism Development: Insights from a Swiss Research Project

Johnsen, J.B., Thomas; Scherer, Roland 2008, Mountain Research and Development Vol 28 side 116-121.

As globalization advances, Alpine regions, among others, are increasingly seen as competitive entities in Switzerland. Still, tourism development is often criticized as not being sustainable. The questions arise: How can the sustainability of tourism development be monitored? What indicators can be used to identify sustainable development? How can a strategy be developed to integrate the outcomes of sustainability monitoring so that development is more sustainable? The goal of the research project described below was to develop indicators that can help those responsible in the various regions to shape tourism strategies in a more sustainable way. The indicators must be targeted to support regional management processes. [PUBLICATION ABSTRACT].

Icelandic tourism: Past directions - future challenges

Jóhannesson, G.T.H., E. H.; Sharpley, R. , Tourism Geographies Vol 12 side 278-301.

Although island tourism in general has long been considered within the tourism literature, attention has been focused primarily on warm-water islands; conversely, limited attention has been paid to cold-water islands as destinations for tourists. This paper assesses the development of tourism in one such destination, Iceland, and discusses its history and the challenges confronting it. Tourism is one of the fastest growing sectors in the Icelandic economy. Tourism arrivals have multiplied in recent years, doubling, for instance, in the ten-year c has prompted rapid expansion in the tourism sector, invoking questions with regards to both the opportunities tourism presents and the challenges that will need to be addressed in the near future. In order to underpin a critical appraisal of future challenges, this paper reviews the history of modern tourism in Iceland with a focus on policy and entrepreneurship in tourism. It describes the characteristics of tourism in Iceland and its development, and critically illustrates some of the main challenges the tourism industry in Iceland is facing. In so doing, the paper seeks to add to the understanding of the opportunities and challenges facing cold-water island destinations that are experiencing significant growth in tourism. © 2010 Taylor & Francis..

Local governance of national parks: The perception of tourism operators in Dovre-Sunndalsfjella National Park, Norway

Kaltenborn, B.P.Q., Marte; Nellemann, Christian 2011, Norwegian Journal of Geography Vol 65 side 83-92.

Protected area management in Norway is undergoing institutional changes with the implementation of management models aimed at increased public participation. At the same time tourism enterprises are increasing in number within the protected areas. Greater levels of interaction with stakeholders place new demands on lead institutions in terms of communication, transparency, involvement, and power sharing. A governance perspective was used to examine some facets of the interaction between a local council managing a national park in Norway and tourism companies using the park for their operations. The main objective was to assess how the tourism sector perceives the cooperation and interface with the management institution. Semi-structured interviews were used, together with a framework of United Nations Development Programme principles of good governance: legitimacy and voice, direction, performance, accountability, and fairness. The results showed rather negative evaluations by the tourism sector, and operators expressed views, implying that the current management model fails to achieve most of the principles of good governance. Although based on a one-sided view by one group of stakeholders, the study suggests that lack of access to important processes and decisions, perceived bias towards traditional conservation, neglect of cultural heritage, and undue restrictions on access could have serious implications for developing an effective management model..

Toward a destination visitor attendance estimation model: Whistler, British Columbia, Canada

Kelly, J.W., P. W.; Schieven, A.; Dunn, I. 2006, Journal of Travel Research Vol 44 side 449-456.

The nongated and multiple entry point character of many destinations makes it difficult to accurately estimate visitor attendance. This research describes a modeling procedure for credibly estimating tourist attendance in such destinations. It demonstrates the application of the approach in the mountain tourism destination of Whistler, British Columbia, Canada. This article suggests that while the model is capable of providing timely and relevant attendance estimates for destination managers, its credibility is dependent on access to a substantive base of both audited attendance data concerning anchored visitors and specific behavioral information collected on a systematic basis from footloose visitors in the destination. The findings are offered as a contribution to the growing literature on tourism destination and special event visitor attendance estimation and performance assessment. © 2006 Sage Publications..

TOURISM DESTINATION IMAGE FORMATION - THE CASE OF DUBROVNIK, CROATIA/FORMIRANJE IMIDZA TURISTICKE DESTINACIJE - PRIMJER DUBROVNIKA, HRVATSKA

Kesic, T.P., Ivana , Trziste = Market Vol 23 side .

Competitiveness in the tourism industry has become increasingly demanding, implying competition not only among the countries in close geographic proximity but also among regions and even competition at the global level. A large number of existing and new destinations are competing for tourists in order to enhance their results, with destination image being one of the key sources of competitive advantage. When planning destination development, an emphasis must be placed on the formation of a positive image of the destination in the markets it targets in order to achieve a competitive edge over competing destinations. This paper analyzes the elements that influence destination image. Research context is that of the city of Dubrovnik as a tourism destination. The objective of this research is to test a model of antecedents and consequences of a tourist destination's image. Empirical research was conducted, using a survey on a sample of 355 randomly chosen tourists visiting Dubrovnik. Its results indicate scarce importance of image as a deciding factor in the creation of tourism policies for Dubrovnik as a particulartourism destination, which might have negative implications on the competitiveness of this destination in the long run. For this reason, the paper also shows the need for further and continuous research of the determining factors that could have an impact on the formation of a positive image of Dubrovnik as a tourism destination. [PUBLICATION ABSTRACT].

Locals' and Tourists' Sense of Place: A Case Study of a Swiss Alpine Village

Kianicka, S.B., Matthias; Hunziker, Marcel; Müller-Böker, Ulrike 2006, Mountain Research and Development Vol 26 side 55-63.

The development of Swiss Alpine landscapes must comply with the needs of different interest groups. We assume that the way people relate to places, and particularly the sense of place they have, is a basis for their needs and aims regarding future landscape development. Conflicts among aims can be better understood if the underlying place relations are known. Therefore, we inductively examined differences between locals' and tourists' sense of place by means of a qualitative interview study in Alvaneu, a Swiss Alpine village. In social science theory, "sense of place" is used as an umbrella concept for manifold people-place relations. The findings reveal that the place characteristics relevant to sense of place are approximately the same for both groups. However, locals and tourists attribute different meanings and significance to these characteristics, and thus have distinct needs regarding landscape development. Consequently, a balance between appropriate economic development desired by locals and the preservation of the cultural characteristics and authenticity sought by tourists must be found when pursuing sustainable landscape development. [PUBLICATION ABSTRACT].

The Influence of Image on Destination Attractiveness

Kim, D.P., Richard R. , Journal of Travel & Tourism Marketing Vol 28 side 225.

This study examined the effects of cognitive and affective images on destination attractiveness. While several destination image studies have included cognitive and affective measures, further research is needed to identify the relative effects of these domains on destination attractiveness. In the context of ski destinations, both affective image (fun and comfortable atmosphere) and cognitive image (quality of skiing) were significantly related to destination attractiveness. This study also examined the moderating role of experience on the relative effects of affective and cognitive images. Consistent with theoretical expectations, the affective "fun and comfortable atmosphere" measure had a stronger effect on resort attractiveness for recreational and sport skiers. However, for expert skiers, the cognitive "quality of skiing" image had a greater effect. The marketing implications of these findings are discussed. [PUBLICATION ABSTRACT].

Tourism destination brand identity: The case of Slovenia

Konecnik, M.G., Frank 2008, Journal of Brand Management Vol 15 side 177-177.

This paper explores the concept of tourism destination brand identity from the supply-side perspective, in contrast to those studies that have focused on the demand-driven, tourists' perceived tourism destination brand image. Both researchers and practitioners have concluded that an analysis of the branding concept from both the identity and perceived-image perspective is essential and should be intertwined, where appropriate. This study, however, argues that investigations of tourism destination branding have primarily been conducted from a perceived-image perspective. Therefore, the dearth of studies offering an insight into the supply-side perspective may lead to an unbalanced view, misunderstandings and oversights concerning the possibilities and limitations of tourism destination branding. It introduces a theoretical framework designed to analyse tourism destination identity, particularly for the case study of Slovenia. [PUBLICATION ABSTRACT].

Using ski destination choice criteria to segment Finnish ski resort customers

Konu, H.L., T.; Komppula, R. , Tourism Management Vol 32 side 1096-1105.

The purpose of the paper is to segment Finnish ski resort visitors according to ski destination choice attributes using data-driven segmentation. In addition, segments are compared in order to ascertain possible differences in personal (gender and age) and situation-specific (type of visitor and traveling companion) characteristics between customer segments. The data were collected from visitors to five different ski resorts in Lapland Finland during the years 2006 and 2007 by self-administered questionnaire. Altogether 1827 responses were collected of which 1529 were acceptable for use in this study. Six different customer segments were identified using the factor-cluster method: passive tourists, cross-country skiers, want-it-all, all-but-downhill skiing, sports seekers, and relaxation seekers. At the end of the paper conclusions are drawn and managerial implications discussed. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd..

Unintentional coopetition in the service industries: The case of Pyhä-Luosto tourism destination in the Finnish Lapland

Kylänen, M.R., R. , European Management Journal Vol 29 side 193-205.

The rise of the service industries has changed operational business environments and mixed the roles and blurred the boundaries of private and public sectors. While cooperation has become more evident and more diverse, also simultaneous cooperation and competition between different firms and the firm and the public sector, namely coopetition, is gaining an increasing importance. We consider intentional and unintentional coopetition between firms and the public sector within the service industries by using Pyhä-Luosto tourism destination in Lapland, Finland, as a context of analysis. The analysis stresses, first, the challenging tension between cooperation, competition and coopetition in a tourism destination, and secondly, both strategically planned and unintended, more instinctive coopetition. In particular, the case illustrates interplay between public and private sectors, the relationship between strategic and operational levels of development work, and emphasises the role of the surrounding region in development. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd..

How can tourism use land more efficiently? A model-based approach to land-use efficiency for tourist destinations

Kytzia, S.W., A.; Wegmann, M. , Tourism Management Vol 32 side 629-640.

In densely populated areas of Central Europe, many successful tourist destinations face the problem of approaching the limit of their growth potential. Solutions to this problem commonly refer to the idea of " smart growth" based on increasing efficiency in the use of nature for economic production (eco-efficiency). In this paper, we show how eco-efficiency can be used to evaluate tourism strategies on local scale based on an augmented regional input-output model that delivers information on economic performance, land use (as indicator for environmental pressure), and employment. We illustrate this approach via a case study of the tourist destination of Davos in the Swiss Alps. The model predicts that the key drivers of land-use efficiency are: (i) the economic impact of tourists, (ii) occupancy intensity, and (iii) the density of beds per area covered by residential buildings and hotels. The economic impact of increasing bed capacity is highly dependent on the tourist category triggering the development; this can also be used to attract new tourist categories at the expense of tourist categories that make inefficient use of available land. As the impact of an increased density of beds per ground floor area is as high as an improved occupancy rate over during the year, spatial planning, building design, and facility management also play a major role in improving land efficiency in the tourism sector. © 2010..

Food as a form of destination identity: A tourism destination brand perspective

Lin, Y.-c.P., Thomas E.; Cai, Liping A. , Tourism and Hospitality Research Vol 11 side 30-48.

The study investigated the identity of food in relation to Taiwan as a tourism destination. Tourism brochures and destination websites were assessed. Thereafter, a comparison on the identity of food was drawn between the materials used in destination marketing and the perspectives of destination stakeholders. The findings illustrated that the structure of food identity in relation to a destination includes a core and extended identity. The core and extended identity of food in Taiwan is inconsistent to some extent, in terms of the type of food that best attracts international tourists. It is suggested that seven identified dimensions of food can be used to specify the aspects of food that can adequately reflect the characteristics of a destination; and, therefore, properly convey this to its intended markets. On the whole, food can be used as a form of destination brand identity and become a powerful means in building a destination brand. [PUBLICATION ABSTRACT].

Territorial brands for tourism development: A statistical analysis on the Marche region

Lorenzini, E.C., V.; Giudici, P. , Annals of Tourism Research Vol 38 side 540-560.

The paper aims at understanding the impact of territorial brands on tourism development studying the statistical relevance of belonging to the Association The Most Beautiful Villages of Italy. The analysis is carried out by means of multivariate regression and partial correlations graphs, applied to 79 touristic towns of the Marche Region (Italy). Our results show that the significant drivers of tourism development are the presence of noteworthy heritage and an integrated system of supply, while territorial brands show a limited impact. In this respect the paper confirms the findings of recent research work, which identifies the need to consolidate regional networks of certification programmes, as well as to include the brands in an adequate process of planning and destination management. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd..

Impediments to a cross-border collaborative model of destination management in the Catlins, New Zealand

Lovelock, B.B., S. 2006, Tourism Geographies Vol 8 side 143-161.

This paper examines the obstacles and opportunities for cross-border (north-south) collaboration in the development of tourism in the Catlins - a peripheral destination in New Zealand. A macro-meso-micro framework is proposed for considering collaboration. At the macro-level central government policies of retreat and devolution are important in the Catlins, and have influenced the way that government agencies have engaged with the tourism-specific demands of a growing destination. At this level, both policy and associated resourcing are issues. At the meso-level, regional and local government, largely through resourcing and legislative impediments, are reluctant to commit to a fully collaborative cross-border planning and management model. While, at the micro-level, historical perceptions over what constitutes 'the Catlins', which attractions 'belong' to which community, and of who should be involved, also act as obstacles to be overcome. The extent to which the northern and southern authorities and communities feel that they have 'ownership' of the Catlins (in terms of individual attractions and as a destination) has posed challenges: to the way that the destination is marketed, to how the attractions are managed, to the level and direction of tourism investment by government, and to the way that tourism's impacts are either addressed or ignored. © 2006 Taylor & Francis..

WHY THE DESTINATION MANAGEMENT ORGANIZATION?

Magas, D. , Faculty of Tourism and Hospitality Management in Opatija. Biennial International Congress. Tourism & Hospitality Industry Vol side 1041-1047.

A number of destinations access the global tourism market in a naive and quite dangerous way. One of the dangers consists in wrong market and actual competitive position assessments, while other dangers appear in destinations satisfied with their development plans and the overall destination recognition, which hinder their timely acceptance of changes brought along with tourism. The contemporary tourism trends speak in favour of deflection from standardization and approach the even greater diversity in way of life, which stimulates new approaches both to lifestyle and recreation. Therefore we believe new challenges like socio-cultural aspects, consumption changes, and technological aspects, along with integral planning, represent direct impact on processes leading from tourism product towards the tourism experience. Therefore this paper indicates all understatements of the actual system of Tourism Boards in terms of optimal management of a destination as a market-tourism valorized unity. We believe the optimal solution consists in transforming the existing system of Tourism Boards into destination management organizations, whose functions should not be institutionally exposed. According to this, at the end of the paper all functions of the destination management organization are stated which should enable coherent destination management. [PUBLICATION ABSTRACT].

Northern exposure: opportunities and challenges for tourism development in Torngat Mountains National Park, Labrador, Canada

Maher, P.T.L., R. Harvey 2011, The Polar Record Vol 47 side 40-45.

ABSTRACT Torngat Mountains National Park (TMNP) is Canada's newest national park, and was established in 2005. The development of the park has mirrored a change in mandate for the agency that manages it, Parks Canada. Since 2005 Parks Canada has sought to focus on 'proactively facilitate[ing] opportunities for meaningful and memorable visitor experiences', complimentary to maintaining the protection of ecological integrity and providing education (Parks Canada 2005, no page numbers). Under the auspices of this new multi-faceted mandate, this research note will examine the current state of tourism in TMNP, and will also evaluate some of the opportunities and challenges for the future. Within Parks Canada's Visitor experience vision 2015 statement, understanding tourism delivery in the present and future are important components of its mission, as is engagement with external partners to assist in this process. The analysis of tourism development in TMNP for this note comes from the authors' two week research trips to the park in August 2008 and July 2009, undertaken to assist Parks Canada to evaluate their current visitor experience activities and future options. [PUBLICATION ABSTRACT].

Real estate: A complex factor in the attractiveness of French mountain resorts

Marcelpoil, E.F.o., H. 2009, L'immobilier, un facteur complexe de l'attractivit́e des stations de montagne en France Vol 11 side 334-349.

This paper addresses the future of French mountain resorts. They face two major trends: on the one hand, changes in tourist habits with much shorter stays, a greater availability of leisure time and, generally speaking, shifts in customer expectations; and, on the other, changes in housing and residential conditions with the extension of peri-urbanization around French cities. These processes contribute to making real-estate management a critical factor in the competitiveness of mountain resorts. Historically, State policy for resort devlopment was based on close ties between skiing equipment and site lodging, but today, tourism development shows clear signs of malfunctioning. Mid-altitude resorts are directly impacted by the development of shorter stays at lesser distances, in conjunction with new residential phenomena. High-altitude resorts are confronted with a steady drop in the number of paying beds. All these real-estate phenomena raise questions concerning the resorts' adaptability and highlight the importance of real-estate management tools. © 2009 Taylor & Francis..

Tourism's role in rural development of Finnish Lapland: Interpreting national and regional strategy documents

Maria, H.T., S. 2008, Fennia Vol 186 side .

Rural communities in sparsely populated areas are facing considerable social changes as a result of depopulation and the introduction of new forms of livelihood and working practices. The communities also have to deal with environmental changes caused by the increase in the use of natural resources and by global issues, such as climate change. Anticipation and adaptation, as well as active participation, are important strategies for local communities. Strategic development work is part of the planning system at many geographical levels. This article asks how strategy documents take into account future prospects for tourism development. The objective is to examine how changes in operating environments, land-use patterns, and in the nature-based industries of local rural communities, are taken into account in the "development speech" of tourism strategies. The relationship between tourism strategies and other rural strategies is also briefly addressed. The grass-root level of local communities is introduced by analysing the group discussions held at the village of Lokka in Finnish Lapland. Textual analysis is carried out by using content analysis and rhetorical analysis. The results show that an increase in tourism is regarded as inevitable and that tourism development is often discussed separately from other realms of rural life, even though different rural livelihoods are in many ways strongly interconnected..

TOURISM PLANNING: CONTRIBUTION OF TOURISM TO SOCIO-ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT OF MONTENEGRO

Markovic, A.T.M. , Faculty of Tourism and Hospitality Management in Opatija. Biennial International Congress. Tourism & Hospitality Industry Vol side 1289-1304.

In a destination, basic economic value of tourism is tourist spending. Impact of tourism on the activities and services that make up tourism sector principally refers to hotel industry, transport, trade, crafts and utility services where a high correlation can be found between the extent of services development and tourism development. Apart from that, tourism influence investment activities and structure, as well as almost all economic sectors (industry, agriculture, wholesalers, etc). Above mentioned theoretical propositions has been the starting point for conducting one year long research whose final goal was the estimation of the tourism contribution to the social-economic development of Montenegro. Economically, socially and geographically Montenegro has been clearly divided into three main regions: coastal, central and mountain. Being a main industry in Montenegro, tourism development had extremely diverse effect among those three regions. Challenge is to develop and implement a tourism strategy which will ensure that destination development is balanced with broader economic, social and environmental objectives. It has to be steered by the government in close coordination with tourist industry, local communities and regions. The article include analysis of valid tourism strategies in Montenegro, comparison between planned and implemented, as well as future fundamental strategic principles for tourism planning in Montenegro. For tourism planning in Montenegro, key issue would be to define and implement integrated strategic approach that would, at the same time, prevent further existing social and economic disparity between three regions, and promote more balanced development of tourism and the state in general. [PUBLICATION ABSTRACT].

Visitor management in protected areas: From 'hard' to 'soft' approaches?

Mason, P. 2005, Current Issues in Tourism Vol 8 side 181-194.

Historically, visitor management in protected areas has been concerned largely with visitor impacts and emphasis has been placed on managing negative impacts. This has involved controlling visitor numbers, attempting to modify visitor behaviour and also modifying the resource. These approaches can be divided into 'hard' and 'soft' categories (Ling Kuo, 2002). 'Hard' visitor management approaches involve physical management, regulatory management and economic management. 'Soft' approaches make use of education and interpretation. While the approach of managing impacts has its merits, and has met with some success, it has tended to assume that the visitor is 'guilty until proven innocent' (Mason, 2002). Such an approach has also tended to ignore the role of visitor experience in relation to visitor management. This paper critically evaluates a number of 'hard' and 'soft' approaches to visitor management, focusing specifically on interpretation and codes of conduct in protected natural areas in New Zealand, Australia and Antarctica. It argues that the traditional approach of managing visitor impacts should be supported by a far greater emphasis on managing visitor experience. It proposes that placing emphasis on managing visitor experience should allow a more holistic perspective to be employed, in which the visitor can be put within a context that includes both the destination community and the environment visited. Such an approach, it is argued, should not only lead to better informed and behaved visitors, but a reduction in negative visitor impacts. © 2005 P. Mason..

Tourism and regional development in the bavarian alps

Mayer, M.W., M.; Hubert, J. O. B. 2008, Tourismus und Regionalentwicklung in den Bayerischen Alpen Vol 60 side 40-46.

Tourism is an indispensable source of income and employment opportunity in peripheral rural areas in the Bavarian Alps. The effects of tourism can be differentiated into tangible and intangible impacts. The value-added analysis is a common method for evaluating economic effects of tourism within a region. In the Bavarian Alps overnight tourists and day trippers play a major role within the regional economy during the entire year. Therefore reasons can be seen in quality insufficiencies concerning the supply side and structural disadvantages concerning the demand side. The contribution to value added by the infrastructure-based winter sports tourism cannot be substituted by nature-based tourism supply within a foreseeable period of time. This represents an important supply niche..

Rejuvenation strategies: A comparison of winter sport destinations in Alpine regions

Mueller, S.P., M.; Blanco, E. , Tourism: An International Interdisciplinary Journal Vol 58 side 19-36.

Using the tourist area life cycle as a basic framework and with the help of tourism destination case studies, the aim of this paper is to investigate tourism destinations' initiatives to rejuvenate their product/service bundles. A literature review highlights recent contributions in the tourist are life cycle research and concludes with strategic alternatives of tourism destination growth. In the empirical part of the paper tourism destination management strategies are analyzed. We attempt to assess those indicators used by destination managers to set strategic decisions. Primary (interviews) and secondary data were collected to compare six individual Alpine tourism destinations in Tyrol, Austria. Interviews with CEOs of destination management organizations and cable-way companies (influential stakeholders in Tyrolean tourism development) revealed that all destinations in the study were in a stagnation phase at some point in their product life cycle, with sharp differences in derived policy responses. The study shows that in Tyrolean tourism areas, destination managers are aware of rejuvenation strategies, but they conceive these policies from a reactive perspective to market variations or increasing competition. The destinations are focused predominantly on the winter tourism, and none of them take advantage of summer tourism opportunities. The paper concludes with implications for tourism destination management and for further research in the area of destination development..

Executive insights on globalization: Implications for hospitality managers in emerging locations

Munoz, J.M. 2005, International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management Vol 17 side 365-371.

This study provides an enhanced understanding of the changing business dynamics resulting from globalization, and offer hospitality managers in emerging locations strategies for success. The research was based on a descriptive survey conducted among 118 senior level travel executives in 35 countries. Based on the concepts furthered by Thomas L. Friedman, executive insights were gathered on the impact of globalization on business, technology, accounting and finance, psyche, and knowledge flows. Research findings point out to the evolving business dynamics in a globalized environment requiring strategic operational adjustments by hospitality managers, specially those located in emerging locations. Though the research was conducted across several countries, the respondent number does not merit a solid basis for a generalized conclusion. Furthermore, as English was used in the survey questionnaires, respondent misunderstandings may have occurred. Being an exploratory study, a stronger theoretical foundation in future research will provide added benefit to the academic and business communities. The research points out to the need for greater awareness of the impact of globalization among hospitality managers in emerging locations. Furthermore, strategies need to be fine-tuned in accordance with the evolving nature of globalization. The study identifies salient points that need to be considered. With insights gathered from travel executives from around the world, and about one-quarter of the respondents being directly engaged in hospitality management, strategic approaches presented are valuable to industry practice..

Limits to Sami tourism development: The case of Jokkmokk, Sweden

Müller, D.K.H., S. K. 2009, Journal of Ecotourism Vol 8 side 115-127.

Indigenous populations are frequently used in tourism promotion and marketing. This is also true for the Sami people in northern Europe. In the area, sometimes called Europe's last wilderness, the Sami and their culture are epitomised as a main asset for a growing tourism industry. Previously this has caused problems and irritation among the Sami. Nevertheless, tourism development is indeed also seen as a potential solution to problems affecting the Sami society, offering new sources of income and future employment in situ. Against this background, it is an interesting notion that only few Swedish Sami choose to make a living within tourism. Instead, tourism appears to be a complementary activity to reindeer herding only. Hence, the purpose of this article is to analyse constraints preventing Sami from getting more involved in tourism development. The article mainly draws on a study conducted in Jokkmokk, Sweden. Here, interviews were carried out with Sami tourism entrepreneurs who were also members of local cooperatives for reindeer husbandry. The results of the study indicate that cultural norms and legal obstacles form the main limitation for Sami tourism development. © 2009 Taylor & Francis..

Destination brand components

Nekhili, R.L., Clifford 2011, International Journal of Culture, Tourism and Hospitality Research Vol 5 side .

Purpose - This study matches destination brand components with motives and identifies those components that are most important for the consumer during various stages of the decision process. This study also aims to classify various functional and symbolic brand components. The findings take the customers' point-of-view in identifying those descriptors that affect consumer choice preference and create destination loyalty. Design/methodology/approach - The research is exploratory. Through a detailed literature review, destination brand components are identified, simplified and then classified as symbolic or functional. They are also classified by motive. The review is followed by a quantitative study that uses open-ended questions to find the relationship between destination brand components and the stage of decision making. This study also presents a conceptual model with taxonomy of brand components. Findings - Functional brand components seem to play a major role in a consumer's description of place brands during the various decision making stages. This finding highlights the importance of stressing functional components in the destination's branding strategy. Originality/value - This study is the first of its type and can serve as a platform for future research, practically helping destinations create more effective communication. [PUBLICATION ABSTRACT].

Mountain tourism: Toward a conceptual framework

Nepal, S.K.C., R. 2005, Tourism Geographies Vol 7 side 313-333.

A conceptual framework is proposed to examine tourism and recreation issues in mountainous regions. First, six mountain-specific resource characteristics are discussed, which include diversity, marginality, difficulty of access, fragility, niche and aesthetics. It is argued that these characteristics are unique to mountainous regions and, as such, have specific implications for mountain recreation and tourism development. The paper then examines the changing nature of recreation and tourism use in the mountains, especially increasing levels of recreation and tourism activities sought by local recreationists, tourists and amenity migrants, and the implications of these activities for mountain tourism planning and management. A three-class system of recreation and tourism land-use settings is proposed to resolve planning and management challenges associated with increasingly diverse needs of these users. Tourism planning and management in mountainous regions should consider and incorporate mountain-specific resource characteristics. It is argued that the proposed framework not only assists in developing an integrated perspective on mountain tourism planning and management but also advances research fronts in areas of mountain resource characteristics, mountain amenity users and mountain recreational zoning. © 2005 Taylor & Francis Group Ltd..

Resort-induced changes in small mountain communities in British Columbia, Canada

Nepal, S.K.J., T. B. , Mountain Research and Development Vol 31 side 89-101.

The provincial government of British Columbia (BC) has proactively pursued resort development opportunities in its interior towns. Traditionally dependent on extractive industries such as forestry and mining, many interior mountain communities in BC are increasingly looking toward tourism and resort-induced economic opportunities. Fueled by the movement of amenity seekers, primarily from urban areas, resort development in mountain communities has triggered several internal and external pressures. This exploratory study examines growth trends in the mountain resort industry in 5 communities in BC: Fernie, Golden, Kimberley, Rossland, and Revelstoke. The analysis is based on secondary data, followed by field visits during the months of June and July 2006, which included 30 qualitative interviews with the mayors, planners, residents, and other stakeholders in the tourism and resort sectors. Research results indicate a significant growth in resort-induced development, primarily to attract second home owners and seasonal tourists. The development of mountain resorts may be characterized as enclavic, where almost all resorts are physically separate from the towns. This has given rise to gentrified communities, and it has posed planning and destination management challenges. The study concludes that local-level planning capacity needs to be greatly improved to address issues that are much broader in scope and require collaborative approaches to address the conflicting needs of the various stakeholders. © International Mountain Society..

Development of cooperation between residents and local authority in tourism destination

Niezgoda, A.C., K. 2008, Tourism Vol 56 side 385-398.

The aim of the article is to present the results of the research on cooperation between local authorities and residents in three tourism destinations in Poland. The article puts forward a thesis on key importance of cooperation between local government and residents for local development. The article researched weather there is cooperation between local government and residents in taking decisions which concern local development and weather residents are satified loth the realisation of the tasks by local government. Authors also researched whether in areas with developed tourist function residents are aware of their participation in tourism development. Results indicate that despite cooperation of local authorities with the residents which is declared by the representatives of local government, local communiy does not perceive such cooperation. The residents of the municipalities are not satisfied with the realisation of local government tasks as far as fulfillment of residents needs is concerned. The results indicate therefore the necessity of work connected with the increase of residents awareness about their participation in decision-making process and the necessity of informational actions..

'Cittaslow' eco-gastronomic heritage as a tool for destination development

Nilsson, J.H.S., A. C.; Widarsson, A.; Wirell, T. 2011, Current Issues in Tourism Vol 14 side 373-386.

Slow Food has gained considerable attention as a social movement trying to counteract increasing globalisation in eating habits and food production. Cittaslow, a network of towns, are working with qualitative local urban development, based on similar principles as Slow Food. The 'slow' movements could be expected to have influences on tourism development. This possible connection has been neglected in the scientific tourism literature. Based on a study in three Cittaslow towns in Northern Italy, this article concentrates on how destination development is conducted in a Cittaslow context, unveiling some contradictions between the commercial sides of tourism and the non-commercial ethos of the Cittaslow movement. The studied towns were involved in various efforts in the field of sustainable planning, thereby also improving destination specific resources and local identity. One example is their focus on 'slow' events, mainly based on local gastronomy. Tourism marketing was, however, only of secondary importance; which mirrors some scepticism towards mass tourism and commercialisation, and even against marketing as such. Despite this, the Cittaslow concept may have an indirect potential for tourism development by improving product development and increased visibility. The risks involved concern gentrification and overexploitation..

Spatial planning as the function of sustainability of the island KRK

Niẑić, M.K.I., S.; Drpić, D. 2009, Ekonomska Istrazivanja Vol 22 side 98-111.

The processes of regional spatial planning and tourism are both interconnected and conditioned. The tourism development defined by its mass-participation certainly leads to spatial degradation. Any overbuilt area (recreational homes, concrete-paved beaches) is most likely to become unattractive to tourists. Within the island of Krk sustainable development the assumptions must be secured for the purposeful resource management based on new principles in order to form the basic suppositions for the transformation of comparative advantages into competitive ones. Two island of Krk essential resources - space and tourism - are particularly accentuated within this work. The future development must be directed towards the sustainable tourism which can protect the island of Krk from the future areal devastation, and in order to achieve it, the ecological-economic destination programme application is proposed by the authors..

DESTINATION MANAGEMENT: CONSENSUS FOR COMPETITIVENESS

Osmankovic, J.K., Vanja; Zrnic, Renato 2010, Faculty of Tourism and Hospitality Management in Opatija. Biennial International Congress. Tourism & Hospitality Industry Vol side 513-525.

Destination management plays a crucial role in marketing, proper organization of tourist visits and fulfilment and exceeding of the visitors' expectations. Understanding the concept and models of destination management and applying those may eventually define the competitiveness of the destination. The understanding of the role of the Destination management organisations (DMOs) have shifted and expanded from exclusively marketing activities to the other fields. Most of the definitions related to destination management describe it as the process that includes decisions taken on different levels which ensure commercialisation of the incoming tourism. The flow shall be managed properly, in agreement with local service providers and residents (which are often excluded) and it shall be focused on satisfying the expectations of the tourists. Destination management allows destination to be managed and marketed also by providing platform for public-private partnerships. Destination management on any level (either performed by NTO, regional or local DMO) needs to be based on consensus-building among the stakeholders and strategic planning and management of destination in its totality, providing enough flexibility for adaptation to the changes in the environment. DM addresses marketing of the destination, delivery of superb services to tourist, but also ensures favourable conditions for development of products and tourism. The intention of this paper is to stress the importance of the destination management in the contemporary tourism and to emphasise the added value creation process. Beside the concept and models, the paper will explore and possibly give concrete proposals for the overall destination management of the specific location in Bosnia and Herzegovina. [PUBLICATION ABSTRACT].

Tourism destination marketing management: Status and prospects in croatia

Pavlović, D.K.Å.i., S. 2008, Upravljanje marketingom turisticke destinacije: stanje i perspektive u republici hrvatskoj Vol 21 side 99-113.

By adopting marketing approach in business, tourism destinations can meet the challenges of modern tourism macro environment and overcome strategic gap of traditional way of doing business. Given that very few academic reports address tourism destination marketing concept in a comprehensive and systematic manner as well as the issue of management this paper presents designed model of tourism destination marketing management. Like many countries with developed tourism industry in the beginning of 1990's Croatia started with reingeneering of the marketing management process in tourism and it established the Tourism Board system. In Croatia this system is the main body responsible for tourism destination marketing management. Based on the empirical research the features of marketing management in tourism destination of Croatia have been acknowleged. This paper also provides recommendations for improvement of marketing management over tourism destinations in Croatia..

The resource-based and the market-based approaches to cultural tourism in alpine destinations

Peters, M.S., L.; Matzler, K. 2011, Journal of Sustainable Tourism Vol 19 side 877-893.

This study focuses on the relevance of cultural resources in tourism, including cultural heritage sites, cultural landscapes, events or festivals. It seeks to reveal the differences between two management strategy perspectives, the market-based view or approach (MBV) and the resource-based view or approach (RBV), of involved destination stakeholders and the impacts of those differing approaches on their perception of cultural tourism development. The literature on the strategy orientation of organizations/ destinations is reviewed and serves as the theoretical background. Data were gathered from 38 semi-structured interviews with experts and key stakeholders in alpine destinations of cultural tourism in Northern Italy, using GABEK, a tool for analyzing complex qualitative data. The results indicate differences between destinations with diverse strategy-perspectives in terms of authenticity perception, standardization, leadership and sustainability orientation. The MBV requires larger financial resources to create an effective brand image. Authenticity was found to be very important and the VRIO framework (valuable, rare, inimitable and organized) a valuable tool. The RBV is best related to niche market products. The RBV also leads to more sustainable strategies for resource use but requires strong vision and network management skills. © 2011 Taylor & Francis..

The effectiveness of regional marketing alliances: A case study of the Atlantic Canada Tourism Partnership 2000-2006

Reid, L.J.S., S. L. J.; McCloskey, R. 2008, Tourism Management Vol 29 side 581-593.

Strategic alliances have become a common strategy in tourism marketing. These alliances take many different forms, and operate with different objectives. Too often, though, alliances are created without realistic expectations, clear operating procedures, or objective criteria by which to evaluate success. This case study reviews a tourism marketing alliance that has been successfully created and operated for a number of years, the Atlantic Canada Tourism Partnership. The partnership brings together the tourism ministries of four Canadian provinces, four industry associations, and the federal government. The basic role of the partnership is to promote Atlantic Canada in the US and selected overseas markets. This case discusses the strategic approach and results of the partnership and concludes with lessons learned from the case study and identification of areas for further improvements in the partnership. © 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved..

Where's the Strategy in Tourism Strategic Planning? Implications for Sustainable Tourism Destination Planning

Ruhanen, L. , Journal of Travel and Tourism Research (Online) Vol side 58-76.

Strategic planning is an acknowledged caveat of the sustainable tourism planning approach and is considered imperative in ensuring that a destination's resources are managed and sustained for the future, while still responding to environmental, financial, community and tourist needs. Yet some authors have claimed that there have been no previous attempts to gauge the extent to which strategic planning actually underpins real world tourism planning processes. To address this gap, a study was undertaken to examine the extent to which strategic planning, as a contributor to sustainable development, is incorporated in the tourism planning and management initiatives of tourism destinations. The research utilised qualitative semi-structured interviews with 31 participants from five tourism destination planning processes in Queensland, Australia. The respondents identified many benefits of engaging in a specific tourism planning exercise yet noted numerous challenges that were inhibiting the process. Importantly, some respondents attributed the lack of strategy in strategic planning to the fact that the negative impacts of tourism have yet to be experienced in their respective destinations. This confirms assertions that where the tourism industry does plan, there is a tendency to revert to short-term perspectives focused on more immediate outcomes. These results support the notion that sustainable tourism policies may give the appearance of a paradigm shift but in reality are focused on the traditional concern of financial returns. [PUBLICATION ABSTRACT].

Supply chain in tourism destinations: The case of levi resort in finnish lapland

Rusko, R.T.K.n., M.; Saari, R. 2009, International Journal of Tourism Research Vol 11 side 71-87.

Tourism destinations in Finnish Lapland provide a suitable base for supply chain management (SCM). Often, the investments in these destinations are directed to wilderness areas without significant initial infrastructure. Thus, the surroundings provide better possibilities to build and direct the experiences of tourists in contrast to city tourism where the surroundings are not especially designed for tourism. In this paper we apply an SCM framework to the Levi Fell resort in northern Finland. By identifying some special characteristics of tourism destinations and region-based tourism production, we further develop the traditional SCM framework in the context of tourism. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd..

SOCIAL MEDIA IN DESTINATION MARKETING ORGANISATIONS (DMOs)

Ruzic, D.B., Antun , Faculty of Tourism and Hospitality Management in Opatija. Biennial International Congress. Tourism & Hospitality Industry Vol side 178-190.

For destination marketing organizations (DMO), marketing has changed dramatically in the last five years with the adoption of online techniques. As marketers have gained more experience, they have seen growing success with interactive tools. The areas of greatest improvement have been achieved through the integration of social media with more traditional forms of online marketing along with cooperative promotional initiatives that support partner organizations. The advent of social media has been met with a more mixed response. Many DMOs want to experiment but are unsure where to begin while others have jumped in and discovered methods that directly support both their branding and transactional goals. Destination Web sites have significantly evolved from the simple adaptation of the visitor guide approach used by first generation Web sites to more robust sites in which the DMO can showcase the destination's product and partners in more interactive ways, providing multiple means to access content and more useful sets of planning tools..

World heritage sites: The purposes and politics of destination branding

Ryan, J.S., S. , Journal of Travel and Tourism Marketing Vol 27 side 533-545.

Stakeholder management and politics have been described as key component of destination branding (Balakrishnan, 2009). This article investigates the impact of political influences on destination branding by examining a sample of 94 United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) World Heritage Sites (WHS) in 54 countries to determine whether democracy and political instability have a significant influence on the decisions of national tourism offices (NTOs) to promote their WHS as tourist destinations. It also examines the relative importance of political instability and democracy on the promotion of WHS by NTOs in comparison to other influences such as stewardship, economic development, and tourism. One of the key contributions of this article is that it applies a multivariate analysis to a field dominated by case study methodologies and suggests the potential complementarities between the two approaches. Democracy, it is hypothesized, facilitates the give and take inherent in reaching a common consensus among stakeholders on the nature and special meaning of a destination. It increases a society or country's civic capacity for collective action. Political instability, by contrast, is assumed to complicate the building of a consensus that enables nations to invest in and promote their heritage sites. The findings of this study suggest that the degree of democracy in a society has a significant role in encouraging the promotion of WHS as destinations. Political instability, by contrast, does not appear to have a significant impact in that regard. Democracy also appears to have a greater influence on the promotion of WHS by NTOs than influences such as economic development, quality of stewardship, and tourism. © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC..

The World Heritage List: The making and management of a brand

Ryan, J.S., S. 2009, Place Branding and Public Diplomacy Vol 5 side 290-300.

The central contention of this paper is that the World Heritage Site (WHS) designation has over time evolved from a technical measure aimed exclusively at preservation into an acclaimed and widely respected brand that countries use to attract heritage tourists, and that tourists, in turn, rely on in selecting the destinations they will visit. The article adopts the definition of Kotler and Gertner (2002) that the two principal requirements of a place brand are a promise of quality and differentiation, requirements that the WHS designation fully meets. It then examines the special requirements and challenges of destination branding, noting in particular the multiple stakeholders involved and the often limited and divided management control that results from a multiplicity of partners. In the following section, the development of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization's (UNESCO) World Heritage program is traced from its origins as an emergency measure to save the Egyptian temples of Abu Simbel to the establishment of the inter-governmental World Heritage (WH) Committee in 1972 and the inauguration of the World Heritage (WH) List in 1978 (UNESCO, 2009). During the ensuing three decades, a total of 890 WHS designations have been conferred on natural and cultural sites in 148 lands. Lastly, the article looks at the management of the WHS brand at the international, national and site levels. It is concluded that the WH Committee is using the limited means available to it- particularly the designation process and the Endangered Listin a prudent and effective manner to preserve and enhance the WHS brand. At the national and particularly the site level, the data available are insufficient to draw definitive conclusions. Nonetheless, the WHS brand continues to be respected and valuable both to the WH sites that use it in their advertisements and to tourists who depend on it in selecting the destinations they will visit. © 2009 Palgrave Macmillan..

The Learning Tourism Destination: The potential of a learning organisation approach for improving the sustainability of tourism destinations

Schianetz, K.K., Lydia; Lockington, David 2007, Tourism Management Vol 28 side 1485-1496.

Globalisation, increasing complexity, and the need to address triple- bottom line sustainability have seen the proliferation of Learning Organisations (LO) who, by definition, have the capacity to anticipate environmental changes and economic opportunities and adapt accordingly. Such organisations use system dynamics modelling (SDM) for both strategic planning and the promotion of organisational learning. Although SDM has been applied in the context of tourism destination management for predictive reasons, the current literature does not analyse or recognise how this could be used as a foundation for an LO. This study introduces the concept of the Learning Tourism Destinations (LTD) and discusses, on the basis of a review of six case studies, the potential of SDM as a tool for the implementation and enhancement of collective learning processes. The results reveal that SDM is capable of promoting communication between stakeholders and stimulating organisational learning. It is suggested that the LTD approach be further utilised and explored..

Visitation at capacity-constrained tourism destinations: Exploring revenue management at a national park

Schwartz, Z.S., W.; Backlund, E. A. , Tourism Management Vol 33 side 500-508.

This study explores issues related to the introduction of revenue management principles in the mechanism of allocating permits to visitors. Specifically, the study looks at ways in which backcountry hikers in Grand Canyon National Park, a World Heritage Site listed among America's most visited tourism attractions, value a particular allocation mechanism for a permit application. From a stratified random sampling scheme with a 76% response rate, over 1400 overnight backcountry hikers reported the potential for considerable increased revenues. At the same time the findings indicate that certain demographics and user groups will not participate in the modifications, and thus, may be less likely to get a permit when they apply for one. Any policy implementation from such an analysis needs to consider the implications of privileging those who are both willing and able to pay more for access, and effectively excluding others from the same opportunity. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd..

Yield applied to destination management: an inefficient analogy?

Scott, N.B., Noreen 2007, Tourism Economics Vol 13 side 3.

This paper reports on a research project that examines the use of yield as a performance indicator for destination management. It reviews the history, definitions and use of yield and yield management in hospitality and transport businesses and then examines how these ideas have been transferred to the literature of tourism destinations. A series of recommendations on usage of the term 'yield' are provided. [PUBLICATION ABSTRACT].

The dependence of tourism SMEs on NTOs: The case of Finland

Seppälä-Esser, R.A., D.; Szivas, E. 2009, Journal of Travel Research Vol 48 side 177-190.

This article reports on a study to explore the level of dependence of small and medium-sized tourism enterprises (SMEs) in Finland on the resources of the Finnish Tourist Board (FTB). A tool to measure resource dependence was developed. The overall importance of specified resources, the level of exchange of these resources acquired from the FTB, the existence of alternative sources for similar resources, and access to them were assessed. The level of dependence of Finnish tourism SMEs on the FTB was reported to be moderate. Differences were, however, identified among different types of enterprises. The size of enterprises, their proportion of foreign guests, their marketing planning, and their cooperation with others affected the level of resource dependence. The FTB resources on which tourism SMEs were most dependent were destination marketing and marketing knowledge. Results contribute to an understanding of the role of national tourism organizations. © 2009 SAGE Publications..

Distribution in emerging tourism markets: The case of Indian travel to New Zealand

Sharda, S.P., D. G. 2006, Asia Pacific Journal of Tourism Research Vol 11 side 339-353.

In the context of the continuing growth in outbound travel from Asia and the paucity of integrated distribution studies in international markets, this paper examines aspects of distribution in emerging tourism markets by a detailed analysis of distribution channels for Indian travel to New Zealand. The paper seeks to establish the structure and functioning of tourism distribution channels between New Zealand and India and to examine the factors that influence these by reference to market and destination characteristics. The research is based on in-depth interviews with providers and intermediaries in New Zealand and India. Channel structure in this market is currently characterized by multiple, multi-layered Indian intermediaries exhibiting little specialization, a heavy dependence on the bundling functions of a handful of New Zealand-based inbound tour operators and a comparative lack of direct sales by the New Zealand suppliers to Indian travellers. Much of this structure can be attributed to the immaturity of the Indian market..

Tourism struggling as the Icelandic wilderness is developed

SæThórsdóttir, A.D. , Scandinavian Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Vol 10 side 334-357.

Nature, especially the wild and "untouched nature" has become an important resource for the tourist industry and outdoor recreation due to the experiences it can provide.Other industries sometimes have interests in the same areas as nature tourism and therefore land use conflicts can occur that require management of these natural resources. This paper seeks to explore the nature of wilderness experience in the Highlands of Iceland. The data is furthermore used to speculate about the conflicts that could occur between wilderness tourism and the power production industry in the Icelandic Highlands. The study was carried out with 1710 questionnaires, 51 in-depth interviews and 30 diaries. The data was collected at six Highland destinations where power plants have been proposed. The results imply that the Highlands are an important part of Iceland's attraction, especially for the French, Dutch and German markets. The main conclusion is that for most visitors the wilderness experience will be reduced if the plans for power production in the Highlands are realised. As land use allocation issues have not been resolved in Iceland we can expect an ongoing debate on how to use the Highlands. In order to have better tools when discussing the utilisation of the Highlands it is necessary to work on a Master Plan for tourism land use. © 2010 Taylor & Francis..

Hiking in the Alps: Exploring substitution patterns of hiking destinations

Thiene, M.S., R. 2008, Tourism Economics Vol 14 side 263-282.

Tourism in the Alps used to rely on a network of facilities maintained in part by the military Alpine Corps. Hiking has been growing in popularity, while the national draft is no longer compulsory. This situation calls for a renewed approach to management of the maintenance of alpine facilities. The authors explore the use of destination choice models which allow for various substitution hypotheses and highlight how single mountain sites can be substitutes for others, although located in a different geographical area. The results supply helpful information for local policy decision makers as they provide insights about the redistribution of visits following the implementation of different policy scenarios. The authors investigate such redistributions following the variation of availability to hikers in terms of alpine shelters, length of trails, site access and the application of access fees. They also estimate changes in welfare for selected variations of alpine facilities and availability of destinations. The findings highlight the sensitivity of results to the use of different specifications of demand models to guide local policy strategies..

Differentiation and tourism destination development: Small business success in a close-knit community

Tinsley, R.L., Paul A. 2008, Tourism and Hospitality Research Vol 8 side 161-177.

This paper considers small tourism business relations within a rural tourism destination. They are examined within the context of small business (predominantly hospitality-based) networks and their contribution to destination development. A cultural understanding of relations is presented through a qualitative research framework. Findings highlight the concept of differentiation at individual, business community and destinations levels. This ideal is discussed as a means for maintaining harmony within the business and wider social community through social network norms, which are reinforced at all levels of society. [PUBLICATION ABSTRACT].

Competitive advantage, knowledge and relationship marketing: where, what and how?

Tzokas, N.S., Michael 2004, The Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing Vol 19 side 124-135.

An organization's ability to enjoy long-term competitive advantage is closely related to its capacity for knowledge creation, dissemination and use. From a practical point-of-view the value of this statement could be increased if suggestions could be made to managers as to what kind of knowledge to seek for their organization, where and how to look for it. This article provides tentative answers to these questions from a relationship marketing perspective. In doing so the scope, processes and technologies of relationship marketing are discussed and their knowledge content and potential outlined. Finally, a conceptual framework for knowledge generation and dialogue in relationship marketing is proposed and directions for further research, alongside their practical implications for contemporary firms, delineated.[PUBLICATION ABSTRACT].

Differences in tourists' and local residents' perceptions of tourism landscapes: A case study from Ylläs, Finnish Lapland

Uusitalo, M. , Scandinavian Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Vol 10 side 310-333.

The landscape is one of the main pull factors of nature-based tourism. Tourism landscapes are multifunctional since landscape characteristics, functions and human values interact with economic activity. People's experiences and perceptions of the environment are emphasized in the experience economy. The objective of this case study was to demonstrate cognitive cartography in revealing differences in the spatial perception of the tourism landscape among three social groups: domestic and foreign tourists and local residents. Altogether 35 mental maps were sketched during focus group interviews and workshops which took place in the Ylläs tourism destination of Lapland (Finland). The composition of visual elements and spatial structure of the maps were studied by using Lynch's, Appleyard's and Hart & Moore's models. The mental maps differed in composition and structure and were influenced by the drawers' personal factors. Consequently, the users of large-scale nature-tourism destinations are either road or survey mappers. The observations were consistent with previous studies on spatial cognition of nature-based tourism destinations. The users were classified into four subgroups for further discussions on landscape management applications. Although the sketch-mapping technique is disputed, it has obvious strengths, such as the ability to indicate missing elements and linkages relevant to users in the spatial structure of an area. © 2010 Taylor & Francis..

The Application of Quality Management Principles into the Management of the Destination

Vajcnerova, I.R., Katerina , The Business Review, Cambridge Vol 16 side 306-311.

Tourism is an important economic branch that supports the development of connected areas, export activities as well as the development of domestic regions. In spite of its indisputable importance the responsibility for the development in individual destinations is not clearly determined in many countries. The whole range of authors inclines to the opinion that managing tourist destinations has to be legislatively adjusted; functions as well as a clear organization structure have to be set. The development of tourism in developed tourist destinations is dealt with by destination management that implements activities leading to increasing the efficiency of demand and offer. Considering strong mutual competition and possible substitutions among individual tourist destinations the use of destination management is an inevitable and also key precondition for the success of a destination and its assertion on the market. One of the key activities in destination management is managing the quality of a tourist destination. The paper deals with approaches towards the quality in tourism services. Nowadays there are three different approaches towards the management of quality being used. These are standards of facilities, systems based on ISO norms and the systems of complex quality management. To ensure the quality of a destination it is recommended to launch integrated quality management. It is an approach based on the model of exceptionality EFQM respecting four key elements of a destination - these are tourists' satisfaction, service providers' satisfaction, the quality of local inhabitants' lives and the quality of environment. [PUBLICATION ABSTRACT].

Competitiveness of new outdoor tourist areas A case study of the residential region of a minority group

Vassiliadis, C.F., T. A.; Vassiliadis, S. 2006, International Journal of Sustainable Development and Planning Vol 1 side 214-225.

This paper presents certain aspects of modern tourism management of outdoor destinations. Destination management now includes programmes that reinforce the competitive capabilities of a destination by taking into consideration both the demand and the supply sides of tourist services. After a brief description of pertinent international examples, a case study of a potential tourist region in Greece is presented, with particular emphasis on the perspectives of a resident religious minority. The paper emphasizes community involvement in planning practices, and how this can influence sustainable tourism development in association with local and regional government authorities..

Tourism Destination Attractiveness: The Mediating Effect of Destination Support Services

Vengesayi, S. , The Business Review, Cambridge Vol 16 side 179-185.

This paper examines the influence of tourist attractions, destination support services and people related factors on the attractiveness of a tourism destination. A sample consists of 275 tourists visiting major tourism destinations. Through Structured Equation Modeling, the study investigates the association between destination attractions and destination attractiveness, and how this relationship is mediated by destination supporting services. Destination supporting services were found to have a direct effect on destination attractiveness, contrary to literature that position destination supporting services as complimentary to destination attractions [PUBLICATION ABSTRACT].

Destination Attractiveness: Are There Relationships with Destination Attributes

Vengesayi, S. 2008, The Business Review, Cambridge Vol 10 side 289-294.

This paper investigates the effects of Destination Attractions (DA) and Destination Support Services (DSS) on Destination Attractiveness (DAtt). The aim is to highlight how destination supporting services influence destination attractiveness. Researchers have highlighted the importance of various destination attributes as determinants of destination attractiveness, but rarely has the relationship been empirically tested to examine the influence of these attribute on destination attractiveness. This study uses Structural Equation Modeling to empirically examine this relationship. A study of 275 tourists reveal that not all destination attractions have direct influence on destination attractiveness. On the other hand destination support services have both direct and indirect influence on destination attractiveness. [PUBLICATION ABSTRACT].

DESTINATIONS' COMPETITIVENESS IN MODERN TOURISM

Vlahovic, S. , Faculty of Tourism and Hospitality Management in Opatija. Biennial International Congress. Tourism & Hospitality Industry Vol side 1332-1348.

The needs, expectations and anticipated benefits of tourism vary greatly from one destination to the next, and there is certainly no "one size fits all" approach to creation of destination tourism strategy. Tourism strategy should ensure that destination development is balanced with broader economic, social and environmental objectives. It has to be steered by the municipality in close coordination with tourist industry, local community and region/state. Growing competition, both national and international, is making this more and more apparent. The paper develops a model of destination competitiveness that will enable comparisons between countries and between tourism sector industries. The model seeks to capture the main elements of competitiveness highlighted in the general literature, while appreciating the special issues involved in exploring the notion of destination competitiveness as emphasized by tourism researchers. It aims towards indicating key roles and factors that would help destinations minimize weaknesses and threats and maximize opportunities and strengths in order to implement their development strategies more effective..

Tourism education in Austria and Switzerland: Past problems and future challenges

Weiermair, K.B., T. 2006, Journal of Teaching in Travel and Tourism Vol 5 side 39-60.

Both Austria and Switzerland are small countries with a long tradition hosting tourists. Irrespective of high levels of economic development, the two countries also have high levels of tourism intensity when measured either in terms of number of tourists per native population or in terms of tourism receipts per population (e.g., per gross national product). Consequently, both countries also display a long tradition and evolution in their development of systems of tourism education and training albeit under differing market conditions and pressures. Both countries provide similar products like in the field of cultural tourism and alpine tourism. The tourism structure is also comparable. Both countries are dominated by family owned small and medium size businesses. However, their political structures are very different. This paper shows how each country under the three forces of labour market pressures and industry requirements, on the one hand and tourism education policy initiatives on the other has evolved two slightly different tourism education systems. Furthermore, an attempt was made to provide, based on the discussion in the first part of the paper, a more general explanation with respect to the response of tourism schooling/ training supplies to varying conditions in tourism product markets, tourism employment and labour market systems, public choice decisions and general economic conditions. Finally, the paper discusses the paradigmatic shift (i.e., structural change) of tourism factor and product markets from the "Old to New Tourism" and discusses its implications for new types of tourism schooling and training in these two countries. Copyright © by The Haworth Press, Inc. All rights reserved..

Destination brand identity, values, and community: A case study from rural victoria, Australia

Wheeler, F.F., W.; Weiler, B. 2011, Journal of Travel and Tourism Marketing Vol 28 side 13-26.

This article explores a values-based approach to regional destination branding. Drawing on a qualitative case study of the branding of Victoria's High Country, a regional tourism area in rural Victoria, Australia, the article illustrates the shortcomings of a branding process (both in theory and practice) that draws on an overly narrow values base. It argues for consideration of a broader suite of values including social, cultural, historic, geographic, symbolic, environmental, and economic, to fully reflect what the destination has to offer. The article engages with the concept of sense of place as a theoretical lens through which to view destination branding and suggests that sustainable brands are those that are developed organically, driven by the values held by local brand communities and networks, rather than a more limited consumer-based value set being imposed upon a destination. © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC..

Destination image: to see or not to see? Part II

White, C. 2005, International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management Vol 17 side 191-196.

The purpose of this paper is to generate insights into the area of tourism destination image. This paper was based on earlier work that identified a number of gaps in the literature related to destination image, and a qualitative design that incorporated structured interviews generated the results. The findings indicated that when individuals (45) were requested to respond to questions that included the terms image and perceptions of a destination, the responses were mostly identical. There was, however, some differences in the content of a small but significant number of responses (15) to the image question. Moreover, these individuals were more animated than the others, and six of them used colours in their response. The representativeness and generalisibility of the findings are limited due to the small and convenient sample that formed the basis of this study. These findings provide interesting possibilities for tourism destination researchers and question whether managers and marketers should use the term image when gathering the information. This paper has contributed to the development of theory related to destination image and has presented insights that have not yet been considered in the tourism literature..

Confronting tourism's environmental paradox: Transitioning for sustainable tourism

Williams, P.W.P., I. F. 2009, Futures Vol 41 side 396-404.

Tourism requires environmental resources as core ingredients and compelling backdrops for the production of tourism experiences. Paradoxically it also depends on the protection of the ecological integrity of these features for sustained competitiveness. This 'resource paradox' has epitomized relationships between tourism and the environment for decades. However, unprecedented reportings of the frequency, severity and persistence of adverse weather conditions; climate change; natural disasters; disease outbreaks; and various forms of environmental pollution, cumulatively highlight the urgency for more systematically managing tourism's resource paradox. This paper characterizes the industry's environmental and sustainability performance, and suggests planning and management approaches that will be needed to move it towards a more sustainable future. It uses a case study of 'sustainability-focused' tourism destination planning to illustrate the type of collective actions that must occur if the industry is to successfully manage tourism's challenging environmental relationships. It is argued that more collective and vision-oriented approaches to tourism industry planning are needed to address broader and more pervasive environmental and sustainability challenges. © 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved..

Analyzing performance audit reports of destination management organizations' actions and outcomes

Woodside, A.G.S., M. 2009, Journal of Travel and Tourism Marketing Vol 26 side 303-328.

The present article includes a case study that describes and analyzes three performance audit reports over a 3-decade period for one U.S. State government's destination management organization's (DMO) actions and outcomes. This report extends prior studies (Woodside & Sakai 2001, 2003) that support two conclusions: (a) the available independent performance audits of DMOs' actions and outcomes indicate that frequently DMOs perform poorly and fail to meaningfully assess the impacts of their own actions, and (b) the audits themselves are shallow and often fail to provide information on DMOs' actions and outcomes relating to these organizations largest marketing expenditures. The article calls for embracing a strategy shift in designing program evaluations both by government departments responsible for managing destinations' tourism marketing programs and by all government auditing agencies in conducting future management performance audits. The article offers a "tourism performance audit template" as a tool for both strategic planning by destination management organizations and for evaluating DMOs' planning and implementing strategies..

Benchmarking as a strategic tool for destination management organizations: A proposed framework

Xiang, Z.K., T.; Hu, C.; Fesenmaier, D. R. 2007, Journal of Travel and Tourism Marketing Vol 22 side 81-93.

Benchmarking has been studied as a tool for comparatively evaluating the performance of tourist destinations. However, existing research is limited in that benchmarking is rarely linked with organizational strategy and thus, its potential as a management tool has yet to be fully realized. This paper argues that benchmarking should be considered as a systematic and continuous learning tool that enables destination marketing organizations to develop strategies. It also posits that, due to the unique nature of tourist destinations and the complexity of the industry environment, a set of necessary conditions must be satisfied in order to ensure the success of benchmarking. This paper concludes that under these circumstances the practice of benchmarking has the potential to foster the development of strategy-focused and change-oriented organizations. © 2007 The Haworth Press, Inc. All rights reserved..

Rethinking regional tourism governance: The principle of subsidiarity

Zahra, A.L. , Journal of Sustainable Tourism Vol 19 side 535-552.

This paper examines the governance of regional tourism organisations (RTOs) and relates governance to the principle of subsidiarity. The principle maintains that tasks and responsibilities should be accomplished by the lowest and most basic elements of any social organisation, and it is an injustice to assign to a larger and higher association what the lesser and subordinate associations can do. There is little research on understanding RTO governance, on how governance may contribute to RTO instability or on the application of the principle of subsidiarity in a tourism context. A New Zealand case study demonstrates a series of fundamental problems with typical RTO governance structures, linked to problems found in many tourism partnerships. Data collection methods for the case study of the Waikato RTO included observation, interviews, focus groups and document analysis. The paper concludes that the principle of subsidiarity can underpin an RTO governance system if the RTO adopts an ethos of service to the tourism sector and the wider community. This governance style requires open communication and consultation, must foster trust and legitimacy and contribute to securing the RTO's ongoing required resources. Such a governance structure would align well with the principles of sustainable tourism. © 2011 Taylor & Francis..

The development of a Destination Management System (DMS) in South Tyrol

Zehrer, A.P., H.; Hölzl, B. 2005, Anatolia Vol 16 side 147-161.

Recent changes in modern information and communication technologies have resulted in a big challenge to create new Interfaces among service providers and tourism organizations like a Destination Management System (DMS). The information revolution has reduced the transaction costs of communication and further democratized access to information and knowledge. DMO management generally requires a certain amount of cooperation and networking among the actors involved, which is highly complex and often results in high transaction costs. These costs may be decreased by means of a well-structured DMS. In South Tyrol, the northern-most province of Italy, a project was carried out by the European Academy of Bozen-Bolzano (EURAC) from 2001 to 2004, to develop a DMS for the thirteen DMOs of the province. After the project was successfully piloted by the destination 'Eisacktal valley' in the year 2001, it was extended to all regional tourism organizations of South Tyrol with the Upper Pusteria Valley presented as a case study in the paper. The article draws insights from the transaction costs theory of the New Institutional Economics on the potential role of DMOs in inducing a technological and strategic tool for the tourism industry. Copyright © 2005 anatolia..