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Sustainable leisure life modes and rural welfare economy. The case of the Randers Fjord area, Denmark

2004, The International Journal of Tourism Research Vol 6 side 177-188.

As increasing attention has been paid to rural tourism as a specific form of tourism development, so too has the scope of research into tourism in rural areas become more diverse. Typically, studies focus primarily upon the economic developmental contribution of rural tourism, although a significant amount of work has been undertaken on the consequences of rural tourism development and attitudes/motivations on the part of visitors and/or local communities. However, no attempt has yet been made to integrate studies of both visitors and local communities within the framework of rural tourism development policy. The purpose of this paper is to address this gap in the literature. Drawing on a study of tourism in the Randers Fjord, a relatively underdeveloped area of rural Denmark, it identifies and analyzes three groups of tourists characterized by life modes: (i) traditionalists, (ii) peace seekers and (iii) adventurers. In each case, expectations, behavior and future needs are revealed through qualitative interviews. The predominant (traditionalist) life mode of tourists, it is argued, closely matches that of the area's residents. This, the paper suggests, presents significant barriers to the development and enhancement of tourism, as do the prevailing economic structures and employment patterns. Thus, tourism development policy should take into account both tourists' and locals' life modes in order to progress towards sustainable rural tourism development. [PUBLICATION ABSTRACT].

Second home countryside. Representations of the rural in Finnish popular discourses

2010, Journal of Rural Studies Vol 26 side 194-204.

This paper focuses on the representation of post-productive countryside in Finland by exploring how the rural is presented in the context of second home tourism. Being an integral part of rural areas and their history, second homes are an established example of the post-productive consumption of countryside. The international and Finnish literature on rural images provides the theoretical framework for the paper. Research on rural visions has been active in recent years with an emphasis on the Anglocentric interpretations of the rural idyll. This paper contributes to this discussion by providing an empirical review of Finnish popular discourses of second homes. The review is based on an analysis of second-home owners' motives and media representations. The second home countryside is analysed as a farmscape, wildscape and activityscape. The results suggest that the Finnish second home landscape is seen as wilderness (1), life at second homes imitates visions of traditional rural life (2), and the environment is used for traditional consumptive and leisure activities (3)..

Challenges in tourism strategy implementation in peripheral destinations-the case of stewart Island, New Zealand

Albrecht, J.N. 2010, Tourism and Hospitality, Planning and Development Vol 7 side 91-110.

Peripheral tourism destinations face a variety of characteristic management challenges that differ from those experienced in more central destinations. While there is much literature addressing tourism strategy and management approaches in general, strategy implementation in peripheral destinations has not been investigated in great depth. This paper addresses this literature gap and examines tourism strategy implementation on Stewart Island, New Zealand. It is based on a qualitative investigation of implementation processes using content analysis, semi-structured and in-depth stakeholder interviews. First, challenges in tourism strategy and management in peripheral areas are presented and discussed with a specific focus of the roles and significance of various stakeholders. Implementation challenges identified include issues related to control over the implementation environments, the involvement of volunteers and low levels of government support. The serendipitous nature of planning at the community level adds to the lack of control over potential outcomes of tourism management in peripheral destinations. © 2010 Taylor & Francis..

Tourism activity and economic conditions in Britain

Apostolakis, A.C., D. 2011, Tourismos Vol 6 side 83-102.

This study examines the impact of tourism activity on local business and economic conditions in local economies in Britain. The empirical investigation focuses on whether or not tourism activity is beneficial to local rural and urban economies and informs policy makers aiming to maximise their tourism potential. The analysis differentiates local authority areas into two distinct groups according to the intensity of tourism employment (below and above average). Whilst the empirical evidence suggests that tourism exerts positive benefits to local economies in the form of entrepreneurship, these benefits may not accrue to the tourism sector itself because in the act of "moving on" the labour force takes its improved human capital with it. This means that the promotion of tourism alone as a policy for regeneration may not be as successful as some policymakers might perceive. It is clear that a "one size fits all" prescription is inappropriate. © University of the Aegean..

Local tourism governance: A comparison of three network approaches

Beaumont, N.D., D. 2010, Journal of Sustainable Tourism Vol 18 side .

There is an absence of knowledge about the advantages and disadvantages of different local tourism governance approaches. Consequently, experimenting with different modes of local tourism governance is increasingly common. This paper addresses this knowledge gap by investigating the ways in which three different local tourism governance networks operate, and the effects of this governance on local tourism policy. The three local tourism networks examined are a council-led network governance structure, a participant-led community network governance structure and a local tourism organisation (LTO)-led industry network governance structure. The study found that these governance arrangements were underpinned by four key trade-offs and that these tended to shape the effectiveness of local tourism governance. The significance of this paper is that it opens up discussion about local tourism governance, highlights the advantages and disadvantages of different approaches and reflects on their relevance to sustainable tourism management. The findings can inform local councils interested in improving their local organisation of tourism, and spur further research. © 2010 Taylor & Francis..

Location, location, location: Film corporations' social responsibilities

Beeton, S. 2008, Journal of Travel and Tourism Marketing Vol 24 side 107-114.

Many TV series are set and filmed in small rural communities that are often attempting to deal with issues of rural decline. Increasing tourism is an extremely attractive option for these communities. Entrepreneurial film-tourism business activities such as guided tours, branded souvenirs, and guidebooks can also assist in arresting decline in these communities. However, such opportunities do not always eventuate, with the community left to deal with increased visitation and often a serious loss of privacy. Film companies have a vested interest in maintaining a positive relationship with the location communities, particularly if they wish to continue filming there. This paper argues that they need to consider their responsibilities to the communities in which they film, particularly in relation to the tourism legacy they leave behind. © 2008 by The Haworth Press. All rights reserved..

Cooperation among prominent actors in a tourist destination

Beritelli, P. 2011, Annals of Tourism Research Vol 38 side 607-629.

Cooperative behavior in tourism destination communities is a condition for sustainable planning and development. However, evidence is lacking on how actors choose to cooperate. Previous research in institutions, organizations, and communities show that formal, contract-based as well as informal, relation-based cooperation occur jointly or in substitution, depending on the context and the subject of research. However, neither the approaches nor their underlying dimensions have been tested for the reality of tourist destination communities. For a European Alpine tourism destination the results show that only relation-based items, in combination with communication variables, strongly positively influence cooperative behavior. The paper suggests a series of implications for tourism destination planning and concludes with indications for further research. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd..

When leisure and work are allies: the case of skiers and tourist resort hotels

Boon, B. 2006, Career Development International Vol 11 side 594-608.

There are signs that leisure is becoming increasingly important in contemporary working lives. This paper seeks to contribute to the career literature by examining how work and leisure can operate as allies. Qualitative data from fieldwork engaging with hotel employees located within the tourist resort of Queenstown, New Zealand are used to explore the positive interdependencies between work and leisure for both the leisure-orientated employee and the hotels. The results suggest that skiing-orientated employees are able to engage in skiing due to the money and time resources they receive from their hotel employment. At the same time, hotels have access to a seasonal, non-standard work-time and leisure competent labour pool as a result of the employees' orientation and participation in skiing. The results support the existence of a leisure-orientated career identity that conforms to the contemporary individualistic revision of career. In addition, the results emphasise the significant impact that the employment relationship, industry setting and geographic location have on the leisure-work relationship..

Resource configuration and creative practices of community entrepreneurs

Borch, O.J. 2008, Journal of Enterprising Communities Vol 2 side 100-123.

Purpose - This paper aims to focus on the role of the community entrepreneur and the process of community entrepreneurship. It seeks to emphasize the social context as critical for gaining access to the resources needed by a community venture and elaborates on the action pattern of the community entrepreneur towards raising critical resources from the environment. Design/methodology/approach - The analysis is based on a longitudinal field study of community entrepreneurs in four Norwegian rural municipalities. The data consists of interviews, observations, and documents. Findings - Community entrepreneurs create local arenas and thereby facilitate cooperative entrepreneurial action, through bridging social capital. The actors are part of these community contexts and are involved in a range of reciprocal relations. Thus, the actors' creative practices toward the community have to run parallel with the resource configuration process. Research limitations/implications - Future studies may provide a broader empirical platform in different communities, and take part in the process for a longer time period. One may also develop comparative studies focusing on the basic resource platform, the action pattern, and the performance of the different social ventures. Practical implications - A major finding is that government support should be flexible and develop tools "tailored" to the characteristics of the rural communities. The combined resources of the entrepreneurs, social networks, and more formal institutions create more ambitious results. Originality/value - The paper contributes to the field of entrepreneurship by studying community entrepreneurs and their entrepreneurial ventures. Further, an integration of a resource configuration approach and a practice-oriented approach gives an increased understanding to the community venture creation process. [PUBLICATION ABSTRACT].

Trying to be attractive: Image building and identity formation in small industrial municipalities in Sweden

Cassel, S.H. 2008, Place Branding and Public Diplomacy Vol 4 side 102-114.

Efforts of creating and communicating positive images constitute a considerable part of contemporary regional development strategies. The use of different marketing practices has become a popular way to promote attractiveness for tourists, business and in-migrants in growth regions as well as in peripheral and economically vulnerable regions across Europe. In this paper, I explore the employment of different place marketing strategies as a development tool in specific local contexts. The study aims at understanding the role of place marketing in the process of image building in municipalities with experiences of negative economic development and unfavourable images. The empirical material used consists of a case study with six small industrial municipalities in the Swedish Bergslagen region. Strategies of image building are described and analysed by using a conceptual model of different cultural economy approaches to development. The case study indicates that place marketing in a broader sense should not only be looked upon as a matter of selling the municipality to outsiders such as tourists and potential in-migrants. In some types of municipalities, place marketing efforts are rather a matter of adding new aspects to, or entirely changing the place brand. An important target group is in this case the inhabitants of the region. By selling itself to 'insiders', the municipalities are trying to create a discourse of attractiveness. [PUBLICATION ABSTRACT].

Integrated rural tourism:. Concepts and Practice

Cawley, M.G., D. A. 2008, Annals of Tourism Research Vol 35 side 316-337.

A model of integrated rural tourism, which took account of the various resources (cultural, social, environmental, economic), their use, and the role of pertinent stakeholders, was developed to explore effective methods of promoting tourism as part of a rural development strategy. "Strategic fit" was used to assess the effectiveness of the model in adding value locally in the context of an established tourism area in western Ireland. The model reveals considerable robustness in identifying features that promote the adding of value in a holistic way and in identifying the pertinent stakeholders and issues that require attention to meet objectives more effectively. © 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved..

Sociocultural effects of tourism in Hoonah, Alaska

Cerveny, L.K. 2007, USDA Forest Service - General Technical Report PNW-GTR Vol side 1-122.

This report examines the growth and development of the tourism industry in Hoonah, Alaska, and its effects on community life and resource use. The report describes the gradual development of tourism in Hoonah and presents resident perceptions of tourism's effect on the natural and social environment. A multisited ethnographic approach was used featuring indepth, open-ended interviews with local residents, tourism providers, business owners, and government officials. Data were analyzed using Ethnograph, a software program used to assist in coding data based on prominent themes. Results indicate that tourism has brought changes to the lives of Hoonah residents, particularly those relying on natural resources for everyday survival. Expansion of nature-based tourism in the area surrounding Hoonah resulted in conflicts between resource users. The growth of the charter fishing fleet led to competition with commercial fishers. Nature tour operators using remote recreation sites experienced conflicts with local hunters and fishers as well as other commercial guides. The development of a cruise ship destination on private land outside of Hoonah led to shifts in use of this historic site by local residents as well as in use of other private lands used for subsistence. Findings may enable Forest Service planners to identify factors involved in the relation between tourism growth and community well-being. It also may assist small southeast Alaska communities in decisionmaking related to tourism development..

Towards an integrated image-based typology of volunteer tourism organisations

Coghlan, A. 2007, Journal of Sustainable Tourism Vol 15 side 267-287.

This paper focuses on volunteer tourism organisations that offer conservation expeditions, where volunteer tourists can assist in scientific research or ecological restoration. It seeks to identify organisational. images and suggest how these images affect the expectations of volunteer tourists. Using the promotional material of volunteer tourism organisations, the contents of organisations' mission statements, promotional photographs and volunteer testimonies were analysed. Potential volunteer tourists were also asked to perform a multiple sorting procedure on the organisations' brochures to assess their images of volunteer tourism organisations. From the results, four groups of volunteer tourism organisations were identified and labelled 'conservation research expeditions', 'holiday conservation expeditions','adventure conservation expeditions' and 'community holiday expeditions'. It is proposed that organisations need to be aware of their perceived images in order to match their volunteers' expectations and needs, manage tourists' expectations and ensure the success of their volunteer tourism expeditions. © 2007 A. Coghlan..

Rethinking social impacts of tourism research: A new research agenda

Deery, M.J., L.; Fredline, L. 2012, Tourism Management Vol 33 side 64-73.

Understanding the social impacts of tourism on communities is extremely important for government at all levels so that action can be taken to reduce the likelihood of a community backlash against tourists and tourism development. Given that the residents of many tourism destinations are a fundamental part of the tourism 'product', resident attitudes and behaviour have a sizable impact on the success or otherwise of a destination. Research on the social impacts of tourism on communities is substantial and ongoing and while advances have been made in the area, the research has not addressed some of the deep seated issues faced by tourist destinations. This paper provides a critique of the social impact of tourism literature, highlighting the inadequacies in the research that has been conducted to date, which then leads to the development of a new conceptual framework. The paper traces the key developments in social impact research and argues that the predominance of quantitative methods potentially limits our ability to gain a more in-depth understanding of the impacts and how they influence both the host community and tourists. The paper finds that the quantitative focus from previous social impact research has led to a narrow understanding of the issues surrounding social impacts and proposes a new research agenda based on 'layers' of social impact understanding through the use of ethnography or phenomenology. The paper concludes with recommendations to progress social impact research beyond simply describing the issues towards explanations of why they occur by suggesting that social impact research examine, in greater depth, the values and intrinsic characteristics of the host residents. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved..

Stakeholder Consensus Regarding Trail Conditions and Management Responses: A Norwegian Case Study

Denstadli, J.M.L., Kreg; Vistad, Odd Inge 2010, Scandinavian Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Vol 10 side 358-374.

Trail damage and vegetation loss due to recreation activities is an increasing problem in many natural areas. Managing ecological impacts through the selection of indicators and standards is a key component of developing a sustainable tourism industry, a process that appropriately is based on the judgment of different stakeholder groups. This study investigates stakeholder consensus regarding trail impacts and management preferences in the Norwegian community of Lom and the surrounding region. Evaluations are compared across three groups; tourists, residents with tourism-related income, and other residents. Results show a fairly high tolerance for trail impacts across stakeholder groups. Differences are more noticeable with respect to management actions that might be used to reduce ecological impacts, with tourists generally being more supportive of actions. Results suggest that consensus on relevant indicators and standards may be achieved relatively easily, but agreement on management actions may be more difficult..

Place change and tourism development conflict: Evaluating public interest

Dredge, D. 2010, Tourism Management Vol 31 side 104-112.

As a set of economic activities, tourism trades on the character of special places. Conflict can emerge where local residents perceive that tourism development proposals challenge the special qualities of place, and where place meaning and attachments are compromised. A key function of government in mediating conflict is to protect public interests, yet explicit consideration of public interest in tourism development conflict is unusual. This paper argues for a reinvigoration of public interest in the mediation of tourism development conflicts. It explores the concept of public interest and how governments interpret and give meaning to it in development debates. In a case study of a cruise ship terminal proposal on the Gold Coast, Australia, the state adopted a neoliberal interpretation of public interest wherein increased global competitiveness of the destination was the overriding common good pursued. Local and diverse interests were marginalised in the debate. The paper concludes that in order to reinvigorate public interest, a public interest evaluation framework for tourism development is needed. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved..

Rural residents' opinions about second home owners' pursuit of own interests in the host community

Farstad, M. 2011, Norsk Geografisk Tidsskrift Vol 65 side 165.

Many second home owners demand rights, benefits, and influence in their host community, and the article examines how second home owners in pursuit of their interests can gain acceptance among local residents. The analysis is based on interviews with local residents in four rural Norwegian second home municipalities. The findings show that local residents' attitudes towards second home owners' pursuit of their own interests in the host community depend to a large degree upon the residents' perceptions of the outcome of second home tourism in their municipality. Local residents can tolerate second home owners' demands as long as the second home owners satisfy some of the community's significant economic-material or social needs. When second home owners make demands while their presence does not bring any evident benefits to the host community they are perceived as trying to take without giving. Based on these findings, the author argues that it is not second home owners' (objective) otherness from locals that is the main problem in cases of a conflictual climate between the two parties. Rather, it is the local structural context that constitutes the main problem if it does not make it possible for second home owners to contribute to the host community. [PUBLICATION ABSTRACT].

Impacts of short-time visitors on local communities in the mountain areas of Southern Norway

Flognfeldt, T. 1999, The International Journal of Tourism Research Vol 1 side 359-359.

Many of the rural municipalities in the mountain areas of southern Norway want to develop their tourism possibilities, in addition to agriculture and industrial production. Until now most studies of tourism development in these areas have focused on possibilities of developing facilities for guests staying at resorts, or at tourist bases. Tourists that are passing quickly through the area, just stopping for some hours or just one night, have been looked upon as a type of non-visitor or non-important tourists. As such they are often regarded as a type of non-user of attractions and non-spenders. Our studies show that, measured in economic figures or by activity utilisation, this view is not based on reality. In this paper the focus is to look closer at the roles of such short-time visitors, and to compare their behaviour with that of other types of visitor to the area. [PUBLICATION ABSTRACT].

An empirical structural model of tourists and places: Progressing involvement and place attachment into tourism

Gross, M.J.B., G. 2008, Tourism Management Vol 29 side 1141-1151.

Research which examines the relationship between involvement and place attachment has started to emerge in the leisure literature and this paper reports the findings of a study, which applied these constructs within a tourism context. A survey was conducted with tourists in five South Australian tourism regions that measured respondents' attitudes towards tourism experiences in South Australia. Involvement was conceptualised as a multidimensional construct consisting of the dimensions of attraction, centrality to lifestyle, self expression and food & wine. Place attachment was also conceptualised as a multidimensional construct of place dependence and place identity. The study developed and tested a structural model that was found to reliably and validly measure predictive relationships between the constructs of involvement and place attachment. The findings indicated that the combined use of involvement and place attachment is applicable in tourism. The implications for destination management are discussed. (C) 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved..

Oil spill: Year one

Guillot, C. 2011, Planning Vol 77 side .

Craig Guillot examines the challenges facing the oil companies and the tourism industry following Deepwater oil spill in the Gulf Coast. While most of the Gulf Coast's beaches and waters are almost back to normal, the tourism industry is still recovering. Louisiana is suffering from a serious perception problem regarding its seafood, despite the fact that the fish that is harvested is consistently being proven to be safe by several federal and state testing agencies. Fishing and the seafood industry are critical along the Gulf Coast. In Louisiana, which accounts for more than 30 percent of the US's entire seafood harvest, it is a $2.4 billion industry. Tourism and the seafood industry are high priorities. The alliance recently worked with the Department of Defense to place Gulf seafood in military commissaries and to link Gulf seafood to new markets in China..

Locals' Attitudes toward Mass and Alternative Tourism: The Case of Sunshine Coast, Australia

Gursoy, D.C., C. G.; Dyer, P. 2010, Journal of Travel Research Vol 49 side 381-394.

This study examines local residents' attitudes toward two different types of tourism development, mass tourism and alternative tourism, using data collected from residents of Sunshine Coast, Australia. The study findings reveal that host community support is affected directly and/or indirectly by the level of community concern, community attachment, ecocentric values, use of the tourism resource base, state of the local economy, and the perceived impacts of tourism development. Findings suggested that even though some of the factors influence attitudes toward both mass and alternative tourism, attitudes toward each form of development is likely to be formed based on the perceptions of different factors..

Harmony or Conflict? A Focus Group Study on Traditional Use and Tourism Development in and around Rondane and Jotunheimen National Parks in Norway

Haukeland, J.V.D., K.; Vistad, O. I. 2011, Scandinavian Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Vol 11 side 13-37.

Rural industries in Norway are increasingly being marginalized, and rural populations are decreasing. Rural areas and the mountain landscapes which often characterize them are, however, highly valued for their biodiversity, and for amenity values, which in many cases are associated with national parks and other protected areas. In this context, the present study seeks to explore local stakeholders' views on issues associated with tourism development in Norwegian national parks - in particular, their personal interests, rural discourses and management planning processes. Four focus group meetings were undertaken in two prominent national parks in Norway, Rondane National Park and Jotunheimen National Park, and with two main user groups: traditional rural user interests and local tourism interests. Findings revealed strong support across all groups for the existence of the two national parks. Both groups in both parks were in favour of some level, and certain types, of tourism within the parks. The local tourism interests, however, felt more strongly than their counterparts that a more extensive tourism strategy was needed to support the local communities. A general frustration with the present management regime was noted among several stakeholders. A key conclusion is that local stakeholders should be significantly involved in future park management processes..

Depathologizing the tourist syndrome: Tourism as social capital production

Heimtun, B. 2007, Tourist Studies Vol 7 side 271-293.

The intention of this article is to discuss and contrast two central aspects of a published interview with Zygmunt Bauman addressing the nature of 'the tourist syndrome' (Franklin, 2003). First, the tourist syndrome is a metaphor for contemporary living in liquid modernity and second, tourism is referred to as 'a substitute satisfaction of a genuine need' (Franklin, 2003: 214). The interview presents a critical and somewhat sceptical perspective on tourism and social life, in which the tourist syndrome is labelled a 'peg community' and the tourism industry characterized as an insatiable seducer. Based on the experiences of Norwegian midlife single women, a more positive notion is suggested. Although most of the midlife single women do not seek difference as tourists, the meaning of tourism is not superficial and/or contrived. It is rather a space for bonding with significant others and about social integration in everyday life. © 2007 SAGE Publications..

Environmental impacts of rural second home tourism - Case lake district in Finland

Hiltunen, M.J. 2007, Scandinavian Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Vol 7 side 243-265.

Second homes are widespread in the Finnish countryside and represent a significant part of domestic tourism. In this paper impacts of rural second home tourism on natural environment and landscape are discussed mainly from a non-anthropocentric point of view and from the perspective of ecological sustainability. Both negative and positive impacts of second home tourism on nature, climate and landscape are distinguished Environmental impacts caused by housing and living, shoreline building and physical mobility related to second home tourism are highlighted. It is argued that mobility related to second home tourism and year-round use of second homes are likely to increase in the near future and consequently pose negative environmental impacts. The argument is based on current societal trends and on results of a questionnaire survey conducted amongst second-home owners living in the metropolitan region of Helsinki and possessing second homes in eastern Finnish Lake District. There is today a large political will to enhance second home tourism in Finland, which is seen crucial for revitalizing the declining countryside. Contradictions between rural development policy on one hand, and environmental protection on the other, are critically discussed and ecological sustainability of second home tourism explored..

Sustainable leisure life modes and rural welfare economy. The case of the Randers Fjord area, Denmark

Hjalager, A.-M. 2004, International Journal of Tourism Research Vol 6 side 177-188.

As increasing attention has been paid to rural tourism as a specific form of tourism development, so too has the scope of research into tourism in rural areas become more diverse. Typically, studies focus primarily upon the economic developmental contribution of rural tourism, although a significant amount of work has been undertaken on the consequences of rural tourism development and attitudes/motivations on the part of visitors and/or local communities. However, no attempt has yet been made to integrate studies of both visitors and local communities within the framework of rural tourism development policy. The purpose of this paper is to address this gap in the literature. Drawing on a study of tourism in the Randers Fjord, a relatively underdeveloped area of rural Denmark, it identifies and analyses three groups of tourists characterised by life modes: (i) traditionalists, (ii) peace seekers and (iii) adventurers. In each case, expectations, behaviour and future needs are revealed through qualitative interviews. The predominant (traditionalist) life mode of tourists, it is argued, closely matches that of the area's residents. This, the paper suggests, presents significant barriers to the development and enhancement of tourism, as do the prevailing economic structures and employment patterns. Thus, tourism development policy should take into account both tourists' and locals' life modes in order to progress towards sustainable rural tourism development..

Can a niche-market captive-wildlife facility place a low-profile region on the tourism map? An example from Western Australia

Hughes, M.M., J. 2005, Tourism Geographies Vol 7 side 424-443.

Rural areas often present special problems in terms of tourism development owing to a lack product, market access and infrastructure. This paper presents the findings of a case study focusing on the central southern wheat belt of Western Australia, in an area known as Dryandra Country. This area embarked on a tourism development initiative centred on a woodland and its wildlife tourism product. The aim was to develop the woodland as an internationally significant nature-based destination. This was attempted partly through constructing a captive-wildlife tourism facility, Barna Mia, housing some rare local fauna. Research during 2003 found that, while Barna Mia provided a highly satisfying experience for its visitors, there was little indication that it was progressing toward the international tourism icon status as intended. Further efforts to develop a co-ordinated regional product also appeared to be slow owing to factors relating to management of Barna Mia and tourism development in the wider region. This paper explores the issues as they were in 2003 and identifies key factors influencing the progress of tourism development in a low-profile region. © 2005 Taylor & Francis..

Changes in Residents' Attitudes toward Tourism over Time: A Cohort Analytical Approach

Huh, C.V., Christine A. 2008, Journal of Travel Research Vol 46 side 446.

Tourism development in a community must acknowledge residents' attitudes toward and support for tourism as residents are often the business owners, service providers, or workers, and vote on tax millage funding infrastructure investments. Few studies have examined longitudinal changes in hosts' attitudes to tourism. Using a 7-year period and employing a cohort analytical method, residents' attitudes and time-related effects (i.e., age, period, and birth cohort) were studied in an Alaskan island dependent on fishing-related industries with an emerging tourism industry from small cruise ships and outdoor recreation. Constrained multiple regression analyses identified age effect as the dominant variable explaining changes in residents' attitudes toward economic impacts. Successive young adult cohorts were more likely to have favorable attitudes toward tourism's economic impacts. Residents' perceptions of the leading industry (tourism or seafood) in the community, socioeconomic factors, and the effects of age and period explained variations in their attitudes toward tourism over time. [PUBLICATION ABSTRACT].

Resident attitudes towards mountain second-home tourism development in Norway: The effects of environmental attitudes

Kaltenborn, B.P.A., O.; Nellemann, C.; Bjerke, T.; Thrane, C. 2008, Journal of Sustainable Tourism Vol 16 side 664-680.

Rural tourism, especially through second-home development is increasing rapidly in much of Europe, the USA and Canada offering new economic opportunities for local communities, but also challenges related to environmental impacts and differing perceptions within communities about appropriate development paths. This study examines associations between the environmental attitudes of residents and attitudes towards second-home development in two regions in Southern Norway, with community attachment and economic dependency as additional predictors. Ecocentrism was found to have a strong negative effect on attitudes towards tourism development, while, in contrast to previous findings, community attachment did not have significant effects. Economic dependency is significantly related to attitudes towards development, both ecocentrism and economic dependency are mediated by other variables, such as expected impacts and benefits. The findings are important in planning to reduce potential conflicts. © 2008 Taylor & Francis..

The meaning of place: attachments to Femundsmarka National Park, Norway, among tourists and locals

Kaltenborn, B.P.W., D. R. 2002, Norwegian Journal of Geography Vol 56 side 189-198.

In Norway, the management of natural and cultural resources is subject to increasing public scrutiny. Conflicts are escalating over many issues concerning the balance between preservation and utilisation. Traditionally conflicts over issues like growth in commercial nature tourism, predator control, forest policies, protected areas management, cultural heritage protection, and rights associated with common access, have been explained in terms of opposing values, attitudes, and goals between urban and rural interests. However, historical differences between the urban and rural in terms of social conditions, employment opportunities, services, cultural norms, and lifestyles are no longer clear-cut or predictable. Nor can differences between urban and rural communities easily explain attitudes or values held in relation to the environment. To examine how a local community and a population of tourists feel about an area we examine data from two separate surveys from the Femundsmarka-Roeros region in Southern Norway. This region includes a wilderness-type national park and a historic mining town recognised as a World Heritage Site and including a diverse agricultural landscape. We compare the perspective of the community with that of tourists regarding the strength and nature of attachment to place, and reasons and priorities for resource protection. We also assess how residence and experience of using the area affect attachment to place and attitudes to management priorities. The results have implications both for the management of this particular area, and for how we approach attitude diversity in resource management..

Locals' and Tourists' Sense of Place: A Case Study of a Swiss Alpine Village

Kianicka, S.B., Matthias; Hunziker, Marcel; Müller-Böker, Ulrike 2006, Mountain Research and Development Vol 26 side 55-63.

The development of Swiss Alpine landscapes must comply with the needs of different interest groups. We assume that the way people relate to places, and particularly the sense of place they have, is a basis for their needs and aims regarding future landscape development. Conflicts among aims can be better understood if the underlying place relations are known. Therefore, we inductively examined differences between locals' and tourists' sense of place by means of a qualitative interview study in Alvaneu, a Swiss Alpine village. In social science theory, "sense of place" is used as an umbrella concept for manifold people-place relations. The findings reveal that the place characteristics relevant to sense of place are approximately the same for both groups. However, locals and tourists attribute different meanings and significance to these characteristics, and thus have distinct needs regarding landscape development. Consequently, a balance between appropriate economic development desired by locals and the preservation of the cultural characteristics and authenticity sought by tourists must be found when pursuing sustainable landscape development. [PUBLICATION ABSTRACT].

Tourism as a mechanism for farm survival

Knowd, I. 2006, Journal of Sustainable Tourism Vol 14 side 24-42.

This case study explores the linkages between tourism, community and development forces in the peri-urban zones of Sydney, Australia. The Hawkesbury Harvest Farm Gate Trail (HHFGT) emerged as a response to market, development, settlement and consumer pressures threatening the survival of farming in the region, together with connections to community health initiatives in food access, safety, security and quality that were spawned by the Healthy Cities programme and Agenda 21. The interaction created between farmers and tourists involved new challenges for farmers in production, marketing and service provision. Although challenging, community-based initiatives like the Farm Gate Trail are shown to hold great potential for sustainable development and sustainable tourism despite the attendant risks associated with small-scale, intensive agriculture, tourism management issues and the land use conflicts that are created when town and country meet in the urban fringe areas of major metropolises. © 2006 I. Knowd..

Appreciative inquiry and rural tourism: A case study from canada

Koster, R.L.P.L., R. H. 2009, 'Recherche appréciative' et le tourisme rural: Un cas d'étude canadien Vol 11 side 256-269.

Many Canadian, resource-based communities are facing an economic crisis and often turn to tourism for economic diversification and some recent trends in the growth of tourism employment in Canada's rural areas suggest that such choices are well founded. Despite positive growth indicators, rural tourism is criticized for several reasons, including issues with employment, ownership and lack of understanding of the industry. Although much has been written on the development of community-based tourism and its potential to address such concerns, much of the discussion remains at theoretical levels, with few examinations of practical frameworks for rural communities in crisis, such as the current experience in Northwestern Ontario, Canada. Enquiries into tourism's contribution to rural community economic development identified two gaps concerning how rural tourism can be a viable industry in resource-dependent communities and how to embed the industry within a community seeking alternatives from a deficit/crisis context. Interviews with a tourism operator in rural Manitoba, Canada seemed to provide an answer to both of these questions, through the application of Appreciative Inquiry (AI) to rural tourism development. Such an examination indicates that although such an approach does not solve the issues, it does provide a new lens through which to understand the potential for tourism in rural communities. © 2009 Taylor & Francis..

The big catch: Negotiating the transition from commercial fisher to tourism entrepreneur in Island environments

Lovelock, B.L., K.; Normann, O. 2010, Asia Pacific Journal of Tourism Research Vol 15 side 267-283.

Peripheral island communities face challenges emanating from changes to their traditional fishing industries. Stewart Island and Chatham Island in New Zealand provide examples of such communities, their economies and communities supported by the extractive industries of crayfishing and codfishing for many years. However, increasingly depleted fish stocks and changes to the regulatory regimes for fishing have transformed the industry, bringing a dramatic decline in the number ofsmall ishing operators and accompanying socio-economic changes. This paper reports on the transition from a ishing economy to a tourism economy, with a focus on the lived experiences of commercial ishers turned tourism entrepreneurs. Commentators point to the importance ofentrepre-neurs in destination development; however, a number of barriers may impede the establishment and growth of tourism enterprises in remote islands. This paper explores personal and environmental factors relevant to those undertaking the transition from commercial ishing to tourism in peripheral island destinations, reporting the indings ofqualitative research undertaken with tourism entrepreneurs on islands in New Zealand. © 2010 Asia Pacific Tourism Association..

Senses of Seascapes: Aesthetics and the Passion for Knowledge

Mack, K.S. 2007, Organization Vol 14 side 373-390.

This paper seeks to aesthetically explore the relationship between passion and knowledge. Some of the challenges associated with aesthetic readings surround the location, evocation and representation of multi-sensory experiences and aesthetic expressions. Place-based research indicates that places are important for both aesthetics and meaning. This symbiotic connection between aesthetics and 'senses of place' opens an important gangway through which to embark on a journey to locate, evoke and represent the 'aesthetic dimension' of seascapes and shipboard life. Conversations with 34 Norwegian seafarers support the relationship between passion and knowledge anchored in seascapes; provide the researcher with a familiar harbour for an impassioned aesthetic reading. Reflections along the voyage consider the importance of an 'integrated aesthetic approach' (Brady, 2003) which includes a double focus: on both the aesthetic experiences of organizational members and on the places wherein these experiences are aroused. This aesthetic reading also attends to the 'aesthetics' of aesthetic research. [PUBLICATION ABSTRACT].

Global restructuring and local responses: Investigating rural tourism policy in two Canadian communities

Mair, H. 2006, Current Issues in Tourism Vol 9 side .

The paper examines the relationship between rural development strategies and tourism in two Canadian communities from 1975 to 2000. Concentrating on these case studies, the paper utilises a political economy approach to consider the forces leading to tourism having been positioned as a saviour in local economic development, and makes links between this and overarching ideological changes within the globalising capitalist economy. As capital cements its latest form through the withdrawal of the state and the extension of the consumption, service-based economy, tourism is naturalised as an appropriate policy response to rural development problems. The response of local governing structures to this era of political and economic restructuring can be seen as a move towards establishing a new regime of accumulation based upon the service industry. It is argued that the actions of the local state cannot be considered without a reflection upon the broader political economy; tourism is presented as a policy option that is part of a more general response to the changing place of rural areas in the continental and global economy. The paper contributes to a growing literature addressing strategies of tourism promotion within the context of economic development as four dimensions are presented: rationale, responsibility, execution, and content. © 2006 H. Mair..

Searching for a new enterprise: Themed tourism and the re-making of one small Canadian community

Mair, H. 2009, Tourism Geographies Vol 11 side 462-483.

While many have explored fantasy-based and themed cities, relatively few consider these developments within small communities. This paper investigates the implications for fantasy-themed tourism development in one small community on the Canadian Prairies. Vulcan, Alberta was a product of the agricultural industry but economic hardships have threatened the community, leading to ongoing attempts to'cash in' on the community's name in connection with the Star Trek television series. Three main features of this case of worldmaking are presented: (1) why and how this image/identity has been brought into the community; (2) how it has been contested and negotiated by visitors and locals; and (3) how this case helps develop our critical understanding of the implications of themed environments. In addition, a critical, interpretivist research methodology is presented as offering valuable insights into the making and re-making of communities through tourism. © 2009 Taylor & Francis..

Tourism's role in rural development of Finnish Lapland: Interpreting national and regional strategy documents

Maria, H.T., S. 2008, Fennia Vol 186 side .

Rural communities in sparsely populated areas are facing considerable social changes as a result of depopulation and the introduction of new forms of livelihood and working practices. The communities also have to deal with environmental changes caused by the increase in the use of natural resources and by global issues, such as climate change. Anticipation and adaptation, as well as active participation, are important strategies for local communities. Strategic development work is part of the planning system at many geographical levels. This article asks how strategy documents take into account future prospects for tourism development. The objective is to examine how changes in operating environments, land-use patterns, and in the nature-based industries of local rural communities, are taken into account in the "development speech" of tourism strategies. The relationship between tourism strategies and other rural strategies is also briefly addressed. The grass-root level of local communities is introduced by analysing the group discussions held at the village of Lokka in Finnish Lapland. Textual analysis is carried out by using content analysis and rhetorical analysis. The results show that an increase in tourism is regarded as inevitable and that tourism development is often discussed separately from other realms of rural life, even though different rural livelihoods are in many ways strongly interconnected..

The development of second homes' assessed property values in Sweden 1991-2001

Marjavaara, R.M., D. K. 2007, Scandinavian Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Vol 7 side 202-222.

The second home phenomenon is deeply rooted within the Swedish society. To own a second home or have frequent access to a second home is important anti desirable for the Swedish population. The comparably high level of second home ownership in the country manifests this. Second homes are scattered all over the country, with main concentrations in or near densely populated areas. Some, not unimportant, concentrations can be registered in places with relatively low population density and at a considerable long distance from major population centres. In recent years, there has been an increasing interest in second homes among the Swedish population, but also increasingly from incoming visitors. This has resulted in a growing competition for properties, especially those located in attractive areas with high amenity values. The purpose of this paper is to identify attractive second home landscapes and their characteristics in Sweden. Utilizing data from the comprehensive geo-referenced database ASTRID (generated by Statistics Sweden) covering all second homes in Sweden 1991-2001, attractive second home landscapes are examined and defined.

From passenger to driver: Creativity and culture in rural communities

Mitchell, P.F., R. 2010, Tourism, Culture and Communication Vol 10 side 187-200.

This study examines the activities of an arts group in a small rural town in Australia through the lens of the Creative Industries paradigm. The aim of the study is to gain deeper understanding of the potential of arts activities to impact on a community. The study evaluates how future growth of the arts in such communities may be augmented by use of the paradigm supported by a branding approach based on creativity and innovation. The research uses in-depth interviews of volunteers and other key actors in a rural arts festival. Findings suggest that the Creative Industries paradigm provides a framework that supports and develops the work of community art in rural communities. The paradigm also supports the development of a branding strategy based on creativity and innovation. © 2010 Cognizant Comm. Corp..

Land use in the Swedish mountain region: trends and conflicting goals

Moen, J. 2006, International Journal of Biodiversity Science & Management Vol 2 side 305-314.

This paper describes historical and current trends in the use of natural resources in the Swedish mountain region, with the aim of providing a background for understanding the complexity of managing natural resources in the area. The mountain region is a sparsely populated area with low productivity and large conservation values. Traditionally, hunting, fishing and reindeer husbandry were important and still are important. Mining, hydroelectric energy production and forestry have also employed many people, although less in recent times. Tourism is sometimes seen as a potential saviour in terms of employment, but has not yet reached high enough levels to compensate for other losses. The intensity and types of land use have thus varied over time, with some rapid changes. The contribution of different forms of land use to the well-being of local societies has also varied. This highly dynamic pattern is likely to continue in the future, and the question is how to meet these changes in order to achieve a sustainable use of natural resources. The current management of different natural resources is a complex issue, not least because of conflicting goals and many hierarchical levels in the decision processes. Underlying many of these conflicts are also unclear legal rights which will have to be clarified..

Tourism interaction on islands: the community and visitor social exchange

Moyle, B.C., Glen; Weiler, Betty 2010, International Journal of Culture, Tourism and Hospitality Research Vol 4 side 96-107.

Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to explore the cultural interaction between communities and visitors to islands using social exchange theory to enhance the understanding of the island experience. Design/methodology/approach - The method consisted of 30 in-depth interviews with community and tourism stakeholders, and formed part of a multi-phase study that used social exchange theory as the lens to illuminate a range of perspectives of island interaction. This paper presents a comparative case study of Bruny Island in Tasmania, and Magnetic Island in Queensland, Australia. Findings - Findings revealed that local community members have a wide range of motivations for entering into social exchanges with visitors, ranging from solely economic, to a genuine desire to provide quality experiences. Additionally, findings showed the nature of island cultural interaction could vary immensely, from welcoming and meaningful exchanges through to superficial and even hostile contact. Research limitations/implications - As this research is on two islands in Australia, within a particular timeframe, the results may not be representative of island communities generally. Nonetheless, the results are indicative of locals' perceptions of their interactions with visitors. Practical implications - The findings have a range of practical implications for the management of local and visitor interaction on islands. A key implication for island communities is the importance of developing programs that educate and inform locals about the potential benefits of interaction. Additionally, this research illustrates how islands can use cultural interaction to differentiate their tourism product and market island experiences. Originality/value - The paper's contribution is its use of social exchange theory at a micro-level to illuminate a range of local community members' perspectives of their tourism exchanges, in order to enhance understanding of the complex process of interaction between locals and visitors to islands. [PUBLICATION ABSTRACT].

Community perceptions of tourism: Bruny and magnetic Islands, Australia

Moyle, B.C., W. G.; Weiler, B. 2010, Asia Pacific Journal of Tourism Research Vol 15 side 353-366.

Tourism is increasingly perceived as important for island sustainability, though it also has impacts. Impacts on host communities have negative consequences on desired interactions with visitors, an important visitor appeal ofislands. This paper uses social exchange and social representation theories to investigate island community perceptions of tourism development and impacts. The investigations highlight a diversity of island community perspectives, the salient tourism consequences, and importantly the processes that lead to the perceived impacts. On Magnetic Island, the development of resorts, changes to the type of visitor and consequent changes to the social environment were uncovered reasons not to interact with visitors. On Bruny Island, visitors overcrowding island infrastructure was highlighted as a key reason not to interact with visitors. On both islands, the reason not to interact was more due to the process of tourism development decision-making, rather than the consequent impacts of these developments. Overall, the research highlights the need for community inclusion and consultation in sustainable island tourism policy and planning, both to facilitate the process of sustainable development and to educate communities of the likely consequences. © 2010 Asia Pacific Tourism Association..

Second home ownership and sustainable development in northern Sweden

Muller, D.K. 2002, Tourism and Hospitality Research Vol 3 side 343-355.

Second home tourism can be considered a good option for contributing to sustainable development in rural areas due to its limited negative impact on environment and host community and due to its important contribution to local service suppliers. This is particularly true when the second home is not rented but owned. Hence, the purpose of this paper is to provide a broad overview of second home ownership in peripheral parts of Sweden and to discuss the interrelationship between sustainable development and second home tourism in those areas. It is argued that a decreasing demand for second homes due to societal changes in the metropolitan areas challenges the role of second home tourism for a sustainable development. The analysis is mainly based on a unique geographical database covering more than 500,000 second homes in Sweden and providing information about their value, location and owners..

THE INTERRELATIONSHIP OF BIODIVERSITY AND RURAL VIABILITY: SUSTAINABILITY ASSESSMENT, LAND USE SCENARIOS AND NORWEGIAN MOUNTAINS IN A EUROPEAN CONTEXT

Olsson, E.G.A.R., K.; Hanssen, S. K.; Wehn, S. 2011, Journal of Environmental Assessment Policy and Management Vol 13 side 251-284.

The decline and restructuring of agriculture is particularly evident in mountain areas, leading to forest recolonisation on former mountain pastures threatening biodiversity and landscape qualities, and the appeal of the mountain landscape for recreation and tourism. Land use change scenarios based on different agri-environmental incentives were developed for the Jotunheimen mountains, Norway, in collaboration with local stakeholders. Sustainability assessments of the scenarios underscored the connections between landscape, biodiversity and local cultural heritage as the fundament for the development of local enterprises for tourism and niche production. Biodiversity values solely, were not considered to be of major importance by the stakeholders..

A future in the past? Tourism development, outport archaeology, and the politics of deindustrialization in Newfoundland and Labrador in the 1990s

Overton, J. 2007, Urban History Review Vol 35 side 60-74.

The fishing industry crisis of the 1990s saw the already precarious economic base of the many towns and small communities further eroded in Newfoundland and Labrador. The situation was made worse by both federal and provincial pursuit of programs of economic liberalization that sought to limit the role of the state in economic and social affairs. As the effects of the crisis were felt, and established state supports were weakened, tourism was embraced by a growing body of local development and heritage organizations as a way of restoring the shattered economic base of many communities. Limited, sbort-term funding for some tourism-related projects was provided mostly from government programs, largely as a means of politically managing the structural adjustment that was being pursued. This paper examines the role of the state policy in deindustrialization. After discussing the crisis in Newfoundland and Labrador and the promotion of community development in response to that crisis, some of the problems associated with tourism development and "outport archaeology" are outlined. Focusing on sustainability and survival, an assessment is made of the role of tourism in dealing with crisis in the once-fishing-dependent communities of Newfoundland and Labrador..

Second Homes, Rurality and Contested Space in Eastern Norway

Overvåg, K.B., Nina Gunnerud 2011, Tourism Geographies Vol 13 side 417.

From international experience, second homes often lead to 'contested space issues'. This seems to be grounded mainly in the fact that second-home owners and local populations share the same spaces but disagree about the future development of them. Tensions are often rooted in second-home owners' eagerness to prevent local developments that may spoil their new-found rural lifestyle. This article, based on a study of eastern Norway and particularly the municipalities of Ringebu and Kragero, examines how conceptions of Norwegian rurality and the Norwegian second-home phenomenon impact on the level and types of contestations connected to second homes in eastern Norway. The main conclusion is that second homes are a less contested issue in eastern Norway than in many other countries, mainly because vast unpopulated and relatively cheap land has made possible a separation of first and second homes. Simultaneously, rural restructuring processes are changing this picture. Rural land for second-home development is becoming a confined resource in many attractive areas, especially along the coast where the density of second and permanent homes is quite high. Thus, the potential for contestations between second-home owners and rural residents is increasing. [PUBLICATION ABSTRACT].

Local re-appropriation of tourism: The case of Verbier (Switzerland)

Petite, M. 2005, La réappropriation locale du phénomène touristique: Le cas de Verbier (Suisse) Vol 93 side 57-78.

The article endeavours to analyse the representations of the local population of a mountain area affected tourism development by examining the discourse of the inhabitants, Using the example of Verbier in the Valais region of the Swiss Alps, we attempt to show that the relations between the resident population and the local area depend on a tourism-based productive system and that these relations are strongly influenced by tourism-based representations of both the local area and the landscape, Going beyond this observation, our analysis reveals that the touristic places and the landscape, originating a priori in their perception by people from outside the area, become transformed into identity attributes that are used by the resident population to define the relationship that they have with their local area. The representation of certain places in the Verbier local area is examined. These are found to be subjected, in varying degrees, to this process of identification..

Route-based tourism development and the "Turkey trail" in Manitoba, Canada

Ramsey, D.E., J. 2007, Prairie Forum Vol 32 side 87-110.

Rural tourism case studies are highlighted within the "Westman" vernacular region of Manitoba. A "trails model" is developed to illustrate how the creation or re-creation of place is being used as a community development strategy. Examples include Arden, a village that is attempting to become a tourist destination, Neepawa that has already had considerable success in this respect, and the Asessippi area which includes a rural tourism/recreation complex. A common theme is that all are connected to a greater or lesser extent with a general problem associated with rural areas - the peripherality of these regions to the major centres of population..

The destination image gap - visitors' and residents' perceptions of place: evidence from Waiheke Island, New Zealand

Ryan, C.A., M. 2010, Current Issues in Tourism Vol 13 side 541-561.

This paper reports results derived from a survey of 2229 residents of, and 2151 visitors to the island of Waiheke, New Zealand. The study finds there was a close similarity of place image held by both visitors and residents. The paper examines the proposal that where congruency exists between visitor and resident image of place, there may be less negative perceptions of visitor impact on the part of residents. Both qualitative and quantitative data were collected and analysed, the former involving the use of CatPac (TM), a neural network program for analysing textual data. Little support was found for the contention that place images shared by residents and tourists would increase tolerance of tourists on the part of residents..

Rural families, industry change and social capital: Some considerations for policy

Sampson, K.G., C.; McManus, R. 2011, Social Policy Journal of New Zealand Vol side .

Rural communities are an important part of New Zealand society, and the New Zealand economy is highly dependent on rural-based activities. Substantial changes occurring in the rural economy have the potential to significantly affect local communities. This study has taken a social capital perspective to examine how 12 rural families have attempted to resolve dilemmas that have arisen as a consequence of local industry change. This change included the loss of the forestry industry, and growth in the tourism and dairy sectors. The social responses observed highlight the strong presence and substantial buffering role of social capital in assisting rural people to balance family, work and community life. We suggest that the level of self-determination afforded to the community and control over the processes required to amass social capital are fundamental to successfully fostering it. Agencies taking approaches that embrace the norms inherent in social capital itself, such as trust, reciprocity and mutuality, will be advantaged in their capacity to "bring along" families and community. These insights will be discussed in terms of their social policy implications..

Is tourism just another staple? A new perspective on tourism in remote regions

Schmallegger, D.C., D. 2010, Current Issues in Tourism Vol 13 side 201-221.

Staples thesis describes the development paths of remote economies that have been reliant on the export of relatively unprocessed natural resources - the staples. These economies tend to be overdependent on external markets, are susceptible to boom and bust cycles, and can ultimately become 'trapped' in their development paths because they fail to convert initial staples export-driven economic growth into more sustainable and diversified local industries. Tourism has often been described as a potential way to escape such a 'staples trap' but, so far, has never been examined from a staples thesis perspective. This paper analyses the case of Central Australia and shows that tourism in remote areas can exhibit similar characteristics as traditional staples industries. If remote regions are to harness tourism for economic and social development, there needs to be a better understanding of the conditions under which remote economies (including tourism) can become locked into a continuous export-dependency development path. The paper concludes that using staples thesis as a conceptual framework offers considerable potential to enhance the understanding of tourism development in remote regions. Finally, it proposes a research agenda for tourism in remote areas to facilitate more targeted future research..

Recreational home users - Potential clients for countryside tourism?

Sievanen, T.P., E.; Neuvonen, M. 2007, Scandinavian Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Vol 7 side 223-242.

Today, almost half of the Finnish population has regular access to a recreational home in a rural area. As recurrent visitors, recreational home users create the potential for rural development. This study uses population survey data to approach recreational home use from the perspective of a way-of-life and lifestyle framework. The results demonstrate that Finnish recreational home users are more likely to be city-dwellers and highly educated and to be employed in clerical and administrative positions. Older people who use a recreational home tend to spend more time there than users in other age categories. Recreation activity choices that reflect a more general life style were analyzed in order to obtain a picture of the recreational home users as potential consumers of recreation services. Active recreational home users appear to differ distinctively from occasional users in terms of their patterns of participation in outdoor activities. Motivated by a desire for self-sufficiency, active users participate more often in traditional rural recreational activities, such as fishing and berry and mushroom picking, than less active users. Occasional users are more likely to participate in sports-oriented activities and spend more money on recreational home trips than active users. This family-oriented group thus shows the greatest potential to use commercial recreation services..

Community understanding of the impact of temporary visitors on incidental destinations

Simpson, K.B., P. 2010, Community Development Vol 41 side 340-353.

Influential changes in global economics have posed important survival and sustainability questions for small urban communities. In response, many such communities have turned to the tourism industry as a potential economic saviour, and have thus embarked on a developmental journey that has been exhaustively examined in the tourism literature of the past thirty years. However, this literature is all but unanimous in examining the benefits and costs of community tourism after the event, when those costs and benefits have become clearly evident and significantly entrenched. In seeking to evaluate the extent to which residents of four small cities are aware of potential costs and benefits, before the advent of any significant tourism activity, this paper analyses the content of 782 responses to a written survey procedure. Results indicate a generally realistic local awareness of the economic aspects of increased tourism activity, but an over-optimistic assessment of environmental impacts, societal impacts, and the ability of local stakeholders to successfully manage the process of tourism industry development. © 2010 Community Development Society..

The embrace-withdraw continuum scale: Operationalizing residents' responses toward tourism development

Snepenger, D.O.C., Ryan; Snepenger, Mary 2001, Journal of Travel Research Vol 40 side 155-161.

For more than three decades, tourism scholars have devoted attention to describing, explaining, and potentially predicting how host residents respond to tourism development in their community. A recent qualitative study by Ap and Crompton proposed that residents employ four strategies with regard to tourism activity in their community. These responses to tourism fall along a continuum of strategies ranging from embracing tourism to physical or psychological withdrawal from the community. However, the literature has not provided researchers with an operational measure of the embrace-withdraw continuum. This study reports on the development of measurement of an embrace-withdraw scale using data from a probability sample of residents of Bozeman, Montana. The scale demonstrated both reliability and validity..

Reporting back research findings: A case study of community-based tourism research in northern Canada

Stewart, E.J.D., D. 2009, Journal of Ecotourism Vol 8 side 128-143.

In this article, experiences of reporting back research results to three communities in northern Canada (Churchill, Manitoba, Cambridge Bay and Pond Inlet, both in Nunavut) are described. The research examined residents' attitude towards tourism development. Reporting of initial findings was integral to the research process to ensure that results made sense from a local perspective. The research engaged a variety of traditional means (such as reports and talks) and more novel reporting mechanisms (such as weblogs). In each of the three communities, reporting research findings was met with genuine surprise and interest (i.e. that someone had taken the time to come back). The weblog did prove, and continues, to be a useful research tool to help facilitate communication between heterogeneous groups. We discuss how the reporting back process has (a) assisted in the verification of the research results; (b) lead to a variety of intended practical outcomes and (c) helped to demystify the research process. We argue that the reporting back of research results is a key component of working with and within communities and is crucial in developing and maintaining meaningful research relationships in northern Canada, and elsewhere. © 2009 Taylor & Francis..

The community impacts of different types of visitors: An empirical investigation of tourism in North-west Queensland

Stoeckl, N.G., R.; Mayocchi, C. 2006, Tourism Management Vol 27 side 97-112.

This paper uses data from a survey of visitors to the Carpentaria Shire in Queensland, Australia to investigate some of the economic and environmental (predominantly fishing) impacts of different visitor segments. The results show that different types of visitor generate different economic and environmental impacts and that the current visitor mix contributes most (financially) to caravan parks and local stores while drawing heavily upon local fishing stocks. The paper argues that in the short to medium term it is paramount for the continued success of tourism to manage the recreational fisheries. In the medium to long term, a more diverse range of visitor types could generate larger regional economic benefits, a broader distribution of benefits, and less reliance on just one of the region's otherwise plentiful natural resources. © 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved..

Place branding from a multi-level perspective

Syssner, J. 2010, Place Branding and Public Diplomacy Vol 6 side 36-48.

This article proceeds from the basic assumption that place branding is a place-creating process. Its main argument, however, is that these acts of place creation must be understood from a multi-level perspective. To substantiate this argument, the author provides empirical evidence from four spatial levels, namely, a neighbourhood, a municipality, a functional region and a county in Sweden. The empirical data show that at all these four levels place-branding actors use two particular techniques - spatial positioning and spatial anchorage - in order to communicate the space they wish to promote. The techniques of anchorage and positioning create a complex web of branded places, which, the author argues, can be understood only from a multi-level perspective on place branding. [PUBLICATION ABSTRACT].

Local People, Nature Conservation, and Tourism In Northeastern Finland

Toern, A.S., P.; Tolvanen, A.; Kauppila, P.; Raemet, J. 2008, Ecology and Society Vol 13 side .

The opinions and perceptions of local communities are central issues in the sustainable management of conservation areas. During 2002 and 2003, we studied the opinions of local people about nature conservation and the development of tourism to investigate whether these opinions were influenced by socioeconomic and demographic factors. Data were collected via a survey of local residents in six areas with different histories of land use, land ownership, conservation, and tourism development. We classified respondents by cluster analysis into three different groups according to their opinions about nature conservation and tourism development: (1) sympathetic to nature conservation, but quite neutral to tourism development (57.7%); (2) critical of nature conservation, but quite neutral to tourism development (30.5%); and (3) quite neutral to nature conservation, but critical of tourism development (11.8%). The most important factors for classification were residential area, age, level of education, primary occupation, indigenousness, frequency of contact with tourists through work, and effects of nature conservation on household economy. On the other hand, gender, level of income, land ownership, land donation for conservation, and income from tourism did not affect opinions concerning nature conservation and tourism development. Almost equal proportions of residents living in close proximity to conservation areas in Kuusamo had positive and negative opinions about nature conservation. Residents living in close proximity to conservation areas regarded conservation as something that might reduce employment and incomes. On the other hand, a greater proportion of residents living near tourist resorts and farther from conservation areas had positive opinions about and perceptions of nature conservation and tourism development. Based on the proportional division of all respondents into the three groups, there may be a coexistent relationship between nature conservation and tourism in our study area. When local stakeholders had a chance to commit to the planning process, they had positive perceptions of and opinions about nature conservation and tourism development in their residential areas. As a result, we concluded that negative opinions and a lack of commitment to the planning process may hinder local development..

Social Impacts of Tourism: An Australian Regional Case Study

Tovar, C.L., M. 2008, International Journal of Tourism Research Vol 10 side 365-378.

As the support of host communities is a precondition for a sustainable industry, regional social impact studies are a crucial input to tourism planning and decision-making. This study assessed the social impacts of tourism in a rural region of Australia where tourism is an important sector of the economy. As well as providing data to aid regional tourism planning, this study identifies differences in personal and community-wide impacts; advances understanding of the factors that influence residents' perceptions of tourism impacts; and assesses the degree to which tourism activity associated with protected areas contributes to the identified social impacts. Copyright (C) 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd..

Paradoxical Conjunctions: Rural Property and Access to Rural Resources in a Transnational Environment

Turner, B.W., Melanie G. 2009, Anthropologica Vol 51 side .

According to Haugen and Lysgård (2006:176), it is not so much the postmodern turn that changed concepts of the rural sphere in recent years, but the "cultural turn," especially in the Anglo-Saxon world. The result has been "the whole system of beliefs about the rural [was] questioned," so that "rurality may be understood as a social construction where the meaning of the term is floating, changeable and contextual" (Haugen and Lysgârd 2006:176). The main body of rural sociology, on the other hand, remains "functional" in tone and "policy-oriented" in focus, with the rural "treated as a fixed category" and defined by criteria such as population density and a lack of social services (Haugen and Lysgård 2006:176). Here the main contrast of traditional rural society with cosmopolitan urbanity remains entrenched (see for example Brown 2007; Collins and Quark 2006). In this survey of recent literature, we were struck by the way that the rural sociology literature employs a set of "ruralisms" that remind us of Tsing's (2000) discussion of "globalisms" (see for example Tovey 1998; Mormont 2003; Pratt 1996; Haugen and Lysgård 2006; and contributions to the edited volume by Havnevik et al. 2006). In addition to the conflation, futurism and focus on circulation that Tsing outlines, however, we find an additional set of rhetorical devices that take the form of binary oppositions, including: tradition versus modernization; sociality (proximity and intimacy) versus individualism (in the neo-classical economic sense); communitas versus civitas; place of production versus place of hedonistic consumption; rural (read "natural") landscape versus industrial "blight.".

Seeing, not Participating: Viewscape Fetishism in American and Norwegian Rural Amenity Areas

Van Auken, P.M. 2010, Human Ecology Vol 38 side 521-537.

Based on participant-driven photo elicitation and in-depth key informant interviews conducted in an American and Norwegian rural amenity area, this article argues that newcomers, seasonal home owners and other stakeholders in rural amenity areas may fail to appreciate, or choose to ignore, the social relations tied to their property or the consequences that their seemingly innocuous decisions can have for local communities. Viewscape fetishism can cause the "magic" of commodified natural amenities to obscure more complex, holistic understandings of the land in favor of a simplified view based on individualized use or exchange value, both of which are highly influence by the sign value inherent in property situated with access to scenic viewscapes. This phenomenon can create barriers to social interaction and community building, and lead to environmental degradation in places that are rich in natural amenities and vulnerable to change. [PUBLICATION ABSTRACT].

Impact of agriculture on rural tourism: A hedonic pricing approach

Vanslembrouck, I.V.H., G.; Van Meensel, J. 2005, Journal of Agricultural Economics Vol 56 side 17-30.

The increased awareness of farmers' role in the maintenance of rural landscapes may contribute to a reassessment of the place of agriculture in society. In this paper, we look at how this role, in relation to landscape, is valued by rural tourists or, in other words, whether it is a response to a societal demand, as is argued by defenders of multifunctional agriculture. The results from a hedonic pricing analysis indicate that landscape features associated with agricultural activities (such as meadows and grazing cattle) positively influence the demand for rural tourism and have a positive impact on the price tourists are willing to pay for rural accommodation. This is also illustrated by the adverse impact of perceived negative externalities from agricultural production (such as intensive maize cultivation) on this price. © Agricultural Economics Society..

Examining the nature and dynamics of At-destination recommendations: The local experts' perspective

Wang, Y.S., D.; Rompf, P. 2006, Journal of Hospitality and Leisure Marketing Vol 13 side 139-160.

At-destination referrals from local experts play a critical and complementary role in information sourcing and venue decision strategies by visitors of a destination. This context-specific form of word-of-moulh communication is widely practiced, yet remains an under-researched phenomenon when taking into consideration the broad range of locals utilized by visitors when making at-destination decisions on travel-related services. Most word-of-mouth studies have examined its influence on consumer's purchase behavior, but few attempts have been made to investigate the local experts' perspective. This exploratory study attempts to contribute to the understanding of the phenomenon from the local experts' perspective from two aspects: (1) examining the nature and significance of at-destination recommendations; and (2) developing and testing a motivational construct of locals making recommendations. The results provide further evidence of a broad range of residents within a community being involved in the provision of venue information and direct property referrals. A test of motivational scale items reveals that five themes emerge as the underlying constructs driving the local experts' referral behavior. Discussion and implications are also provided based on the study results. © 2005 by The Haworth Press, Inc. All rights reserved..

Residents' Attitudes Toward Tourism and Perceived Personal Benefits in a Rural Community

Wang, Y.S.P., R. E. 2008, Journal of Travel Research Vol 47 side 84-93.

This research focuses on residents' perceptions of personal benefits from tourism, identifying not only the relationships between personal benefits from tourism and residents' attitudes toward tourism but also the nature of benefits associated with tourism. The study was conducted in a small rural community where tourism is still at its emerging stage. It was found that residents' perceptions of personal benefits from tourism were closely associated with their attitudes toward tourism in a positive direction. The significant contribution of this study falls on the recognition of noneconomic perspective of tourism benefits for residents in a community where tourism has not yet explicitly emerged. In particular, the data lend support for social exchange theory and improve its understanding in tourism investigations..

BEYOND SOCIAL EXCHANGE THEORY Attitudes Toward Tourists

Ward, C.B., T. 2011, Annals of Tourism Research Vol 38 side 1556-1569.

Although social exchange theory has been used to predict and explain attitudes toward tourists, it has been criticized for lacking theoretical sophistication. This research goes beyond social exchange theory to test a predictive model of attitudes toward tourists, incorporating the contact hypothesis and Integrated Threat Theory. It was hypothesized that positive attitudes toward tourism would be predicted by employment in industry, country of residence, and positive perceptions of tourism impacts. It was further hypothesized that more frequent and satisfying intercultural contact, lower perceptions of threat, more positive stereotypes and less intergroup anxiety would predict positive attitudes. Hierarchical regression analysis supported all hypotheses. The utility of Integrated Threat Theory in predicting attitudes is discussed, and recommendations for future research proposed..

Factors for success in rural tourism development

Wilson, S.F., Daniel R.; Fesenmaier, Julie; Van Es, John C. 2001, Journal of Travel Research Vol 40 side 132-138.

Since the 1970s, economic restructuring and the farm crisis have reduced rural communities' economic opportunities. These changes have limited rural communities' economic development options, making older development strategies less viable and forcing many to look for nontraditional ways to sustain themselves. One of the most popular nontraditional rural development strategies has been tourism and its associated entrepreneurship opportunities because of tourism's ability to bring in dollars and to generate jobs and support retail growth. The purpose of this study was to identify and examine those factors that have helped rural communities successfully develop tourism and its entrepreneurship opportunities. Several focus groups were conducted with local businesspersons and leaders in six rural Illinois communities. The results clearly demonstrate the importance of the community approach to tourism development..

The relationship between recreation experience preferences and revealed activity choice in the North Shore Lake Superior region

Yuan, M.F., P. 2010, Tourism in Marine Environments Vol 6 side 133-138.

Planning for tourism in rural regions necessitates much information about the visitor. The goal of most planning efforts is to understand visitor expectations and predict participation patterns. When demand is understood, the provision of appropriate supply can be more effective and efficient. This study examined the degree to which the experience preference-activity relationship holds for the three primary target market groups (Northwest Ontario, rest of Canada, US) to the Ontario North Shore Lake Superior region. For this study, 464 visitors who engaged in activities along Lake Superior or related activities in the communities and land adjacent to the water were used in the analysis. The results suggest that there is a weak relationship between experience preference and activity choice, but when results are examined by more defined market segments, some moderate relationships appear. This suggests that associated promotion and advertising in the region should focus its message and images based on these significant relationships. © 2010 Cognizant Comm. Corp..