Alebaki, M.I., O. 2010, New Medit Vol 9 side 31-40.
When wine tourism is approached as a form of consumer behavior, a part of research focuses on the demand side, exploring the consumers who travel to wine regions. Key researchers have commented that there is no stereotypical 'wine tourist'; however, some distinctive features regarding profiling and segmentation can be drawn from literature. The objective of this paper is to address these issues as well as to provide an insight into the winery visitor in Greece. A quantitative approach was employed and 133 visitors to 13 wineries of the ' Wine Roads of Northern Greece' were surveyed through the use of a structured questionnaire. Accordingly, in order to identify their profile, descriptive analysis was carried out and specific demographic, socio-economic, and other behaviour characteristics were assessed. Analysis suggests that the winery visitor in Northem Greece is predominately a young male, well educated, with a high income and comes from urban centres in close proximity to the wine region. Furthermore, Two-step Cluster Analysis was performed on the basis of the wine tourists' motivations for visiting the wine region. Four exclusive groups were generated: (i) the 'Wine lovers'; (ii) the 'Neophytes'; (iii) the 'Occasional visitors' and (iv) the 'Hangers-on'..
Alebaki, M.I., O. 2011, Tourismos Vol 6 side 123-140.
In an attempt to approach wine tourism as a form of consumer behaviour, a substantial amount of research has focused on the demand-side, exploring the consumers who travel to wine regions. Despite the fact that there is no single, stereotypical "wine tourist", some distinctive characteristics regarding demographics, motivations or wine lifestyle can be drawn from literature. Several authors have recently addressed this issue and developed various wine tourist typologies, on the basis both of socio-economic and psychographic data. The objective of this paper is to provide a better understanding of the wine tourist, taking into account the different approaches for profiling and segmentation that have been used in recent studies. © University of the Aegean..
Andereck, K.L. 2009, Journal of Sustainable Tourism Vol 17 side 489-499.
This paper investigates tourists' perceptions of environmentally responsible practices by tourism businesses by analyzing the attitudes of tourists toward "green" innovations in tourist places. It was hypothesized that tourists who were more strongly motivated by nature-oriented experiences would perceive environmentally responsible practices as more valuable than tourists less motivated by nature-oriented experiences. The study is based on a survey of individuals who visited the Arizona Welcome Center in northeastern Arizona and the Chamber of Commerce offices in Holbrook and Springerville, Arizona. As expected, visitors with a stronger nature orientation had more positive views of environmentally responsible practices by tourism businesses than tourists not nature-oriented. They felt such innovations are important and valuable. © 2009 Taylor & Francis..
Andriotis, K. 2008, Journal of Sustainable Tourism Vol 16 side 428-444.
Many governments have encouraged integrated resort development in an attempt to improve the well-being of the local population by generating jobs and increasing income, and because of the easier control of tourism activities within their boundaries. However, most research reports various adverse environmental and social impacts. Because of the difficulty of assessing the impacts that may result from the construction of integrated resorts, the majority of research has been conducted after their construction. This study is an impact assessment carried out prior to a large-scale development that examines whether an integrated resort proposed for development at Cavo Sidero, Crete, will result in positive impacts for the destination and the local community, and it investigates whether any conflicting interests have arisen within stakeholder groups. Through primary research examining various stakeholder groups it is revealed that economic impacts are perceived as mostly positive, while social and environmental impacts, in many cases, are viewed as negative, and that conflicting interests have arisen between different stakeholder groups. © 2008 Taylor & Francis..
Bosworth, G.F., H. 2011, Annals of Tourism Research Vol 38 side 1474-1494.
Tourism is viewed as an increasingly important component of rural economic potential, especially in peripheral regions of the UK. As a sector, however, it is dominated by low skilled employment, seasonal demand cycles and perceived low levels of innovation and entrepreneurship. In this paper we explore the role of in-migrant owners of small tourism firms (STFs) in promoting entrepreneurship and developing competition in the tourism economy of Northumberland. We hypothesise that through a combination of extra-local networks and local embeddedness these business owners are not only succeeding for themselves but they are stimulating other local businesses by increasing local trade, heightening competition and raising standards and aspirations among all STFs. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd..
Campbell, G.A.S., T. J.; Franklin, R. M.; Wiggers, E. P. 2011, Journal of Ecotourism Vol 10 side 165-174.
The South Carolina lower coastal plain, locally called the Lowcountry, is an area of great ecological diversity with bottomland swamps and coastal marshes. The Lowcountry still contains many large tracts of land, privately owned as 'plantations'. These plantations tend to be self-supporting and many are seeking additional revenue sources, and ecotourism is developing as one of these sources. Tourism is the backbone of the Lowcountry economy. This study identified the level of existing ecotourism activities supported by Lowcountry plantations and their expectations for the future levels of natural resource-based activities. Ecotourism is blossoming as an income source, but hunting leases and timber harvests are the primary natural resource-based income sources. Owners did express interest in ecotourism activities as a source of future income. A lack of the management and business ability was the main obstacle to expanding ecotourism enterprises. © 2011 Taylor & Francis..
Dube, L.E., Cathy A.; Renaghan, Leo M.; Siguaw, Judy A. 2000, Cornell Hospitality Quarterly Vol 41 side 30-39.
A study of the US lodging industry best practices found that managers use innovation to create customer value. A resounding majority of best practices arose at the corporate level, with a minority at the property level. Of those coming from properties, most came from upscale, full-service hotels, rather than limited-service or budget properties. However, there is no evidence that innovation is inherently a function of corporate offices or upscale hotels. Relatively few best practices were in the areas of design or information technology, while many appeared in human resources, marketing and operations. Virtually all innovations began with one person's idea and survived only because of that person's initiative. Lodging companies need to develop ways to measure the outcomes of their innovative practices. In many cases a given practice was thought to have improved employee morale, customer satisfaction, or profitability, but specific, outcome-related measurements were frequently unavailable..
Hjalager, A.M. 2010, Tourism Management Vol 31 side .
Over the past two decades, there has been increasing focus on the topic of innovation in tourism. This article reviews the research contributions. Various categories of innovation - product, process, managerial, marketing and institutional - are addressed. Important determinants of innovation are acknowledged, including the role of entrepreneurship, technology push and the existence of territorial industry clusters. Representation of knowledge is also identified as a critical factor for both the occurrence and nature of innovations. The review reveals that there is still only limited systematic and comparable empirical evidence of the level of innovative activities and their impacts and wider implications for destinations and national economies. An agenda for future research is emerging, suggesting that there is quest for both formal quantification and for qualitative studies of the foundations, processes, implications and policies of innovation in tourism. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved..
Hu, W.W., G. 2005, Journal of Sustainable Tourism Vol 13 side 617-635.
Studies of competitiveness have been most often conducted at the destination rather than the attraction level. However, a destination is an aggregation of tourist attractions plus supporting infrastructure and services, and many attractions are small-scale destinations in themselves, providing visitors with multiple opportunities. This paper, by examining the environmental strategies adopted in the development process of Nanshan Cultural Tourism Zone, the most visited attraction in Hainan, China, shows that the image, and hence the competitiveness of tourist attractions can be enhanced through sound environmental management practices. © 2005 W. Hu & G. Wall..
Jang, S. 2011, Tourism Management Vol 32 side 667-674.
Profitable growth is the most desirable state tourism and hospitality firm managers can hope to achieve. In reality, however, it is not easy for a tourism and hospitality firm to consistently grow and accumulate profits. In order to achieve profitable growth, some firms focus on sales growth while victimizing profits, while others concentrate on profits and hold off on growth. To better understand these strategies, this study investigated the growth state, profit state and transitions of restaurant firms. The findings of this study supported that profit-focused firms are more likely to achieve profitable growth than growth-focused firms. In addition, growth-focused firms with low liquidity had a higher likelihood of transitioning to a state of low growth and low profit in the short-term, and this liquidity effect was more serious for small firms in terms of long-term performance. Further, when profit-focused firms had few growth opportunities, large free cash flows increased the likelihood of transitioning to a state of low growth and low profit in the short-term. More detailed results are provided in this paper. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd..
Jurowski, C. 2006, Journal of Sustainable Tourism Vol 14 side 100-101.
Jóhannesson, G.T. 2010, Event Management Vol 14 side 261-274.
During the last three decades, Iceland has experienced a rapid growth of tourism, both in regard to international tourist arrivals and in domestic terms. Tourism has increasingly been taken up as an option for economic development not least at regional levels where innovation in the area has been promoted by public actors. This article focuses on the accomplishment of a particular tourism innovation project, the Gísla Saga project, in the small fishing village of fiingeyri. The article follows how the project emerges through the networking practices of key actors. Particular emphasis is put on exploring how the local village festival, Dýrafjardardagar, has been related to the innovation project and how that connection plays a part for its accomplishment. Inspired by relational materialism in the form of Actor-Network Theory, the article argues that it is important to follow the enactment of diverse styles of ordering for gaining insight into the emergent cultural economy of tourism. By tracing the practices through which the project is established, the article illustrates some of the ways in which tourism innovation relates to the social ordering of local communities. © 2010 Cognizant Comm. Corp..
Konan, D.E. 2011, Economic Modelling Vol 28 side 473-481.
The paper provides a methodology for considering the carrying capacity and limits to growth of a labor-constrained mature tourism destination. A computable general equilibrium model is used to examine the impacts of visitor expenditure growth and labor migration on Hawai'i's economy. Impacts on regional income, welfare, prices, sector-level output, and gross state product are considered under alternative migration scenarios. Labor market constraints impose limits to growth in real visitor expenditures. Labor market growth with constrained visitor demand generates falling per capita household welfare. © 2010 Elsevier B.V..
Kutzner, D.W., P. A. 2010, Journal of Vacation Marketing Vol 16 side 97-110.
Aboriginal tourism is increasingly seen as a strategy for economic diversification by many Aboriginal communities. While demand for Aboriginal tourism experiences in North America has been demonstrated, little is known about visitor product preferences. This information is needed, however, by Aboriginal tourism business entrepreneurs and operators in order to manage for the long-term profitability of their businesses. Using a psychographic segmentation methodology, we surveyed visitors to northern British Columbia who expressed an interest in Aboriginal tourism to explore their interest in specific features of potential Aboriginal tourism products. Three distinct clusters were identified as the Culture Seekers, the Nature-Culture Observers and the Sightseers. The first two segments appear to hold the strongest potential for rural First Nation communities. In the end, which segment to target and which marketing channels to use will depend on each First Nation's level of comfort in interacting with visitors and how much of their culture they are willing to share with tourists. © The Author(s) 2010..
Lawson, S.R. 2006, Journal of Sustainable Tourism Vol 14 side 600-617.
The United Nations Environment Programme's Principles on Implementation of Sustainable Tourism suggest that implementing sustainable tourism must include monitoring visitor use of protected natural areas and directing it to areas where the environmental and social impacts of tourism are minimised. Thus, sustainable tourism management requires information about the spatial and temporal flow of visitor use in protected natural areas to help identify potential tourism-related threats to the natural and cultural resources of an area and the quality of visitors' experiences. Recent research has identified at least four ways in which simulation modelling of visitor use can facilitate more informed planning and management of sustainable tourism in protected natural areas, including (1) describing existing visitor use flows; (2) monitoring the condition of 'hard to measure' indicator variables; (3) testing the effectiveness of alternative visitor use management practices; and (4) guiding the design of research on public attitudes. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate, using findings from studies conducted in the Inyo National Forest and Isle Royale National Park, USA, each of these four potential contributions of computer simulation to sustainable tourism management and planning. The paper concludes with an assessment of the limitations of existing applications of computer simulation to nature-based tourism and recommendations for future research. © 2006 S.R. Lawson..
Lemmetyinen, A.G., F. M. 2009, Tourism Management Vol 30 side 31-40.
This article applies the IMP (Industrial Marketing and Purchasing) Group approach to the analysis of the coordination of cooperative activities. It challenges the sustainability of the 'manipulating' demand approach in favor of the Value System Continuum in tourism business networks. It is hypothesized that local tourism businesses must develop new key capabilities in order to face future global competition. The study uses case methodology and in-depth interviews to examine organizational realities as a product of the subjective enactments or social constructions of individual actors through the perceptions of two coordinators. The case-analysis findings identify the coordination of cooperative activities in tourism business networks as a prerequisite for (1) enhancing the value-creation process, and (2) building the brand-identity process across the network. The empirical evidence in the article is limited to one country. Future work will broaden the study context by including the analysis of international networks. © 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved..
Lew, A.A. 2008, Journal of Travel and Tourism Marketing Vol 25 side 409-419.
The Long Tail concept refers to the Internet-based economy that has enabled company success through a focus on highly specialized services and products that are not in high volume demand, but maybe in high-value demand. The concept of the post-tourist, for example, is a Long Tail phenomenon. Long Tail marketing approaches are proving success due to advances in communication technology and social networking that have given more people access to a broader range of goods and services and information. The Long Tail is not without its challenges, including increased global competition, and it has not abandoned geographic considerations. Geography, in fact, can help to differentiate niche products and must still be overcome to consummate the tourist experience. © 2008 by The Haworth Press. All rights reserved..
Lynes, J.K.D., D. 2006, Journal of Sustainable Tourism Vol 14 side 116-138.
Many commentators have examined the airline industry's impacts on the environment but not the internal management processes used to develop company environmental policies. This paper argues that environmental management tools need to take into consideration the complex, value-laden setting in which corporate environmental policy-making occurs if such tools are to be socially and politically legitimated. A case study of Scandinavian Airlines (SAS) examines an airline's decision-motivations for environmental commitment. An in-depth analysis of the drivers identified by both Scandinavian Airlines and related industry officials shows that attitudes, values and beliefs generated both internally and externally have a critical impact on the airline's environmental policy-making. Although there are numerous influences that drive SAS's level of environmental commitment, three 'motivators' are found particularly noteworthy. Firstly, this research demonstrates that eco-efficiencies, in various forms, are a strong motive at SAS. Secondly, Scandinavian culture also plays an influential role in the value SAS puts on the environment at a strategic level. Thirdly, it was found that internal leadership, in the form of environmental champions in senior management positions, played a key role in the positive outcomes of the airline's environmental performance. Given the current growth in benchmarking and eco-labelling activity across tourism, this research enhances understandings about what motivates airlines to develop environmental policy in this increasingly competitive and volatile sector. © 2006 J.K. Lynes & D. Dredge..
Marion, J.L.R., S. E. 2007, Journal of Sustainable Tourism Vol 15 side .
Protected area managers, tourism providers, and other organisations commonly employ education programmes to address visitation-related impairment of natural and cultural resources, social conditions, and neighbouring communities. These programmes have different names (Leave No Trace, Codes of Conduct, Environmental Guidelines for Tourists) but share common objectives: to sustain opportunities for high quality visitor experiences while avoiding or minimising associated negative impacts to protected area resources, visitor experiences, and park neighbours. Theoretical and empirical research studies in the United States are reviewed to evaluate the efficacy of educational efforts that seek to encourage adoption of low impact behaviours. Findings reveal that most of the visitor education efforts evaluated did effectively alter visitor knowledge, behaviour and/or resource and social conditions in the intended direction. These findings, including discussions of message content, delivery, audience characteristics and theoretical grounding, provide insights for improving the efficacy of future educational efforts. © 2007 J.L. Marion & S.E. Reid..
Marques, C.R., E.; Menezes, J. 2010, Journal of Sustainable Tourism Vol 18 side 971-996.
This study identifies the diversity of domestic visitors to Portuguese protected areas (PPA) based on benefit segmentation. The segments of PPA visitors are also compared with other nature-based tourist segments using some empirical benefit segmentation literature. Data were collected by means of a self-administered questionnaire and mul-tivariate statistics techniques (principal components, hierarchical and K-means cluster analyses) were applied. Five distinct segments of visitors were identified based on the motivation for their visit and further characterized by the perceived importance of activities, facilities and services, frequency of visit and socio-demographics. Three segments are nature-focused and two are focused on activities or events. Only one segment shows specific interests and motivations associated with ecotourism and similar characteristics to international ecotourists; moreover, the reasons for the visit in one segment are unrelated to any of the motivations of nature-based tourism. Some implications for management are also described. © 2010 Taylor & Francis..
Mbaiwa, J.E.S., A. L. 2010, Journal of Sustainable Tourism Vol 18 side 635-656.
The Community-Based Natural Resource Management (CBNRM) program in Botswana aims to achieve biodiversity conservation and rural development in rich biodiversity areas like the Okavango Delta. CBNRM assumes that if rural communities derive benefits from natural resources, they will be obliged to use such resources sustainably. Using the sustainable livelihoods framework, this study analyzes the effects of tourism development through CBNRM on rural livelihoods at Khwai, Sankoyo and Mababe in the Okavango Delta, Botswana, using primary and secondary data sources. Results of long-term surveys and in-depth interviews indicate that the three communities have forgone traditional livelihood activities such as hunting and gathering, livestock and crop farming to participate in tourism through CBNRM. Livelihoods in these villages have been improved as a result. Basic needs such as shelter, employment and income and social services like water supply systems, transportation, scholarships and payment of funeral expenses are now provided to community members and funded with income from CBNRM. Social capital has been built up in order to agree, manage and develop the CBNRM process. These results show that tourism development in these villages is achieving its goal of improved livelihoods, contradicting claims that community development projects are failing to achieve rural development. © 2010 Taylor & Francis..
Moore, S.A.R., K. 2010, Journal of Sustainable Tourism Vol 18 side 831-844.
Wildlife tourism is potentially a common pool resource (CPR) issue when the following are applicable: it is difficult to exclude tourists; their experiences are affected by others' activities; and adverse impacts on the wildlife occur. CPRs are typified by non-excludability and subtractability. Relatively few efforts have been made to consider tourism in this way or to use the concept of CPR in tourism management schemes. This paper (1) explores the possibility of wildlife tourism being a CPR issue, (2) derives a list of enabling conditions required for the sustainability of such resources and (3) determines the applicability of the conditions through a case study. Having described the potential for wildlife tourism to be a CPR issue, the enabling conditions explored in the rest of the paper follow: the characteristics of the tourism resource system and its user groups, the associated institutional arrangements and the external environment. The application of CPR thinking to the case study, whale shark tourism in Ningaloo Marine Park,Western Australia, revealed the contribution of institutional arrangements, particularly those associated with the State Government, to sustainable management. The use of the enabling conditions as a tool for managing wildlife tourism is discussed. © 2010 Taylor & Francis..
Müller, D.K.H., S. K. 2009, Journal of Ecotourism Vol 8 side 115-127.
Indigenous populations are frequently used in tourism promotion and marketing. This is also true for the Sami people in northern Europe. In the area, sometimes called Europe's last wilderness, the Sami and their culture are epitomised as a main asset for a growing tourism industry. Previously this has caused problems and irritation among the Sami. Nevertheless, tourism development is indeed also seen as a potential solution to problems affecting the Sami society, offering new sources of income and future employment in situ. Against this background, it is an interesting notion that only few Swedish Sami choose to make a living within tourism. Instead, tourism appears to be a complementary activity to reindeer herding only. Hence, the purpose of this article is to analyse constraints preventing Sami from getting more involved in tourism development. The article mainly draws on a study conducted in Jokkmokk, Sweden. Here, interviews were carried out with Sami tourism entrepreneurs who were also members of local cooperatives for reindeer husbandry. The results of the study indicate that cultural norms and legal obstacles form the main limitation for Sami tourism development. © 2009 Taylor & Francis..
Nastase, C.C., Carmen; Popescu, Mihai; Scutariu, Adrian Liviu 2010, European Research Studies Vol 13 side 137-148.
This paper aims to illustrate in the context of the challenges of the Europeanization process what kind of co-operation models there exist between nature-based tourism companies and the critical stakeholder groups effecting the business activities and social sustainability of the companies. The following topics are part of our current research: which are the cooperation strategy; which are the management models applied in countries with competitive market and strong innovation policy; which are the costs of implementing innovation policies for co-operation strategies enhancing the innovation in nature based tourism services; which barriers avoid the entrepreneurship development and how innovative can be the firm management. We intend to analyze the importance of stakeholders and policy influence enhancing the innovation in nature based tourism service, in Greece, Austria, Finland and Romania case studies. The research will continue with a comparison between these cases, including the perspective of supporting entrepreneurship and regional competitiveness in Romania. [PUBLICATION ABSTRACT].
Nybakk, E.H., E. 2008, Forest Policy and Economics Vol 10 side 473-479.
Entrepreneurship and innovativeness have seen considerable attention in the literature. However, little research has focused on micro-scaled enterprises, especially in the context of nature-based tourism. This work investigates how entrepreneurial attitude influences innovativeness and performance in Norwegian nature-based tourism enterprises. Data collection consisted of an e-mail survey and resulted in 178 usable responses. Respondents that exhibit a stronger entrepreneurial attitude appear more likely to change the way they organize their enterprise and tend to have higher income growth. Results point to potential policy actions that could positively impact rural development as well as individual firm actions that may enhance performance..
Pechlaner, H.F., E.; Hammann, E. M. 2006, Journal of Quality Assurance in Hospitality and Tourism Vol 6 side 31-57.
The new challenge for destinations is to professionalize the continuous development process of innovative products and services. In this context, innovation is regarded as a bipolar process between market and resources. From the resource-oriented perspective, the concentration on regional core competencies will therefore become a source of innovation for destinations while the customer is the source of innovation from the market-oriented perspective. Resulting from the nature of the destination product, the innovation process is interpreted as an inter-organizational network process. The aim has to be the mentation of continuous innovation processes in the form of networks within a system of a learning destination. Given the fact that, especially for innovative activities, networks play a minor role in tourism at present, the question is raised of how to overcome the obstacles of cooperation and to initiate network activities to foster innovation networks within a destination. A study was conducted that focused on the identification of forms of cooperation that strengthen and reinforce innovative behavior in a destination. The article aims at discussing the enhancement of the attractiveness and the quality of innovative network activities by increasing the value of cooperation for the providers of the destination. Copyright © 2005 by The Haworth Press, Inc. All rights reserved..
Quinn, B. 2006, Journal of Sustainable Tourism Vol 14 side 288-306.
This paper problematises the term 'festival tourism'. It conceptualises festivals as socially sustaining devices and argues that while they frequently function as tourist attractions, their social significance extends far beyond tourism. Using empirical material gathered in two case study arts festivals in Ireland, the paper demonstrates how festivals can contribute to arts development by inter alia creating demand for the arts, enhancing venue infrastructures, encouraging local creativity and animating local involvement. The paper contends that arts festivals, irrespective of their initial objectives almost inevitably develop tourist profiles over time and it proceeds to examine how changing tourism priorities in the two festivals studied impact upon sustainable festival practices. The findings suggest that tourism emerged as a key force promoting festival growth and expansion. It was found to be associated with increased revenue flows but also with increased arts activity on a year-round basis and with an improved venue infrastructure in both places. However, problems were identified with respect to the quality of the relationship forged between the festivals and local populations in the respective places. The paper concludes by arguing that festivals' engagement with tourism needs to be carefully managed in the interests of promoting the socially sustaining function of festivals and of encouraging sustainable approaches to tourism development. © 2006 B. Quinn..
Radwan, H.R.I.J., E.; Minoli, D. 2010, Journal of Sustainable Tourism Vol 18 side 175-190.
Collectively, small hotels constitute a significant solid waste management (SWM) problem. Little research has focused on the SWM practices of small hotels. In the United Kingdom, much of the solid waste generated by small hotels goes to landfill. This study uses a constructionist approach to investigate SWM issues in small hotels in a local authority in Wales and examines the role of the public sector in helping small hotels manage their solid waste effectively. The results revealed that only a minority of small hotels were considering the adoption of sustainable SWM practices, either because hoteliers felt negatively about sustainable SWM alternatives or perceived challenges - an issue which necessitates government intervention. At the time of this study, the public sector provided only very modest services to enhance SWM practices. This study proposes a best practice model for the public sector to encourage small hotels to manage their solid waste effectively, in order to reduce or even eliminate waste for landfill. Local authorities' support is required to make waste management hierarchy options more accessible to small hotels and should incentivise better waste management through increasing the gap between the costs of landfill and recycling waste. © 2010 Taylor & Francis..
Randall, C.R., R. B. 2009, Journal of Sustainable Tourism Vol 17 side 357-374.
This paper explores the potential of tour guides to contribute to the protection of natural areas by educating their customers through interpretation and modeling environmentally appropriate behaviors. Applying Cohen's (1985) model of the guides' role, modified by Weiler and Davis (1993), as a framework, it examines the potential role that kayak tour guides can play in shaping the experience of visitors to one marine area, the Pacific Rim National Park. It uses two approaches to explore the perceptions of clients about the role of kayak guides using: (1) a pre- and post-trip questionnaire and (2) participant observation. Results indicate that five of the six roles were rated high in importance, but one role, the communication role, was not as important. Comparing performance with importance attached to each role revealed congruence with five roles, but lower levels of performance in relation to importance with the role of "motivator of responsible behavior". Variability within all of the importance and performance measures suggest that for some individuals, performance did not match importance, highlighting the need to consider market segmentation in future studies. These findings are discussed within the ecotourism paradigm, and their implications for protected area management and for visitor behavior modification are considered.© 2009 Taylor & Francis..
RØnningen, M. 2010, Scandinavian Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Vol 10 side 190-206.
This paper develops four propositions for the role of a tour-operator as the driver of innovations in a nature-based tourism case. This system features small-scale tourism firms that cooperate with a tour-operator who holds the position as the driving force. The propositions are analysed in a comparison with the empirical data from a case-study, which includes a tour-operator and 12 firms that offer nature-based products and services. The empirical findings indicate that the system works well for entrepreneurs still in the founding stage. Additionally, small-and medium-sized firms are quite satisfied with the tour-operator both as a transfer channel of competence and as a distributor of the supplier's services. The most professional firms are more critical of the outcome of the system. The system has, however, contributed to innovations and innovative capacity in general. To meet the skilled firms' demands for support for complex developmental processes, the system requires refinement. © 2010 Taylor & Francis..
Scarles, C. , Journal of Hospitality, Leisure, Sports and Tourism Education Vol 10 side 37-48.
The aim of this paper is to explore the process of developing a model for applied dissertations in taught postgraduate tourism programmes. Findings suggest that applied dissertations afford students the opportunity to engage in learning through and for work. Secondly, as learning demands the direct incorporation of external agents and knowledge, applied dissertations emerge as complex adaptive systems: a series of dynamic, fluid and complex interrelations. Finally, the paper explores the ways in which applied dissertations encourage students to become reflexive practitioners as they review and learn from their experiences. [PUBLICATION ABSTRACT].
Selby, A.P., L.; Huhtala, M. 2011, Forest Policy and Economics Vol 13 side 446-455.
The tourists and recreationists who are attracted to national parks create a basis for the development of nature-based tourism. The paper examines the attitudes of entrepreneurs and local decision-makers towards the development of tourism- and recreational service enterprises adjacent to three small, different-aged national parks in southern Finland: Linnansaari, Seitseminen and Repovesi.Four distinct groups of entrepreneurs could be formed on the basis of their attitudes to business. The most "advanced" group (adapters) were aware of both the demand for tourism services and their enterprises' business resources. The second group (adopters) were resource aware but had ideas for new business ventures rather than knowledge of demand. An "informed satisficer" group exhibited satisficing attitudes (where lifestyle aspirations are placed before business growth and development) but who were well informed and could be related to the adopters. The final group of entrepreneurs were simply satisficers.There was a greater proportion of adapter entrepreneurs adjacent to the oldest park, while entrepreneurs adjacent to the youngest park were predominantly satisficers or informed satisficers. The adopter class of entrepreneurs was most common in the two older national park areas.The majority of local decision-makers in the municipalities adjacent to the national parks preferred to develop tourism together with other sectors of the economy, although industrial alternatives were preferred. The decision-makers fell into three groups with respect to their preferred ways and means of developing tourism-based local enterprise: supporting existing enterprises, lowering the threshold for (new) enterprise, and developing the business infrastructure and funding arrangements. The greatest support for new enterprises was found in the Repovesi area, the district with the greatest proportion of satisficing entrepreneurs. Decision-makers preferred to support existing businesses adjacent to the oldest park, Linnansaari, with its greater proportion of adapter and adopter entrepreneurs and fewer satisficers.Opportunities for business will not be realised if local enterprises fail to perceive or respond to them, or if decision-makers fail to play an active role in encouraging tourism enterprises by means of support schemes or by developing the tourism infrastructure. Regional differences in the development of tourism-related services therefore depend on the attitudes of the key actors and their ability to encompass new economic activities and their associated institutions and discourses. © 2011..
Sharpley, R. 2007, Journal of Sustainable Tourism Vol 15 side 125-143.
This paper proposes an alternative approach to rural tourism that returns to a more traditional model of development: large, flagship attractions that act as a 'growth pole' for the local economy and community. It questions some of the accepted beliefs about sustainable rural tourism development current in recent years. It is based on a case study of Alnwick Garden in Northumberland, England. It suggests that, under certain circumstances, flagship or mega-attractions can not only increase substantially the number of visitors to rural areas but also, through appropriate policies and processes, can underpin the longer-term, sustainable development of those areas. © 2007 R. Sharpley..
Sharpley, R.P., T. 2007, Journal of Sustainable Tourism Vol 15 side 557-573.
This paper examines the work of the English National Park Authorities (NPAs) in relation to aspects of the development of sustainable tourism. The NPAs have implicitly sought to achieve sustainable tourism development since the parks were first designated, striving to balance the needs of visitors and the environment within the context of living, working landscapes. Studies have revealed, however, that some NPAs are not fully championing sustainable tourism development. The paper examines the NPA's use of marketing and marketing perspectives in encouraging sustainable tourism, exploring attitudes, roles and activities. A diverse, piecemeal and sometimes under-informed approach is revealed. The paper concludes with ways forward for English NPAs and for other protected area management organisations. © 2007 R. Sharpley & T. Pearce..
Sims, R. 2009, Journal of Sustainable Tourism Vol 17 side 321-336.
In recent years, attempts to improve the economic and environmental sustainability of both tourism and agriculture have been linked to the development of "alternative" food networks and a renewed enthusiasm for food products that are perceived to be traditional and local. This paper draws on research from two UK regions, the Lake District and Exmoor, to argue that local food can play an important role in the sustainable tourism experience because it appeals to the visitor's desire for authenticity within the holiday experience. Using evidence from qualitative interviews with tourists and food producers, the paper records ways in which local foods are conceptualised as "authentic" products that symbolise the place and culture of the destination. By engaging with debates surrounding the meaning of locality and authenticity, the paper challenges existing understandings of these concepts and offers a new way forward for tourism research by arguing that "local food" has the potential to enhance the visitor experience by connecting consumers to the region and its perceived culture and heritage.© 2009 Taylor & Francis..
Solberg, H.A.P., H. 2007, Journal of Sport Management Vol 21 side 213-234.
Hosting major sport events can cause positive shifts in tourism demand on a long-term basis, but the additional revenues might not counterbalance the investment costs that are required of the host destination. Whether positive shifts have actually occurred cannot be measured solely by counting the additional number of tourists. Increases might also come from positive shifts in supply. Megaevents require expensive investments in sport facilities, as well as in nonsport city-related infrastructure. These investments must fit into the city's long-term plan to make the event economically successful. The demand from tourists can subsidize the production of goods and services that are characterized by the advantages of economies of scale. This provides local residents with goods and services that they otherwise could have only consumed outside the region. Many of the benefits from sport events fall into the category of public goods. This represents a rationale for governmental funding if those who benefit are driven by free-rider incentives. The prospect of governmental funding, however, provides motives to exaggerate the socioeconomic value of the events. This complicates thejob of deciding which events to support and by how much. © 2007 Human Kinetics, Inc..
Viard, J. 2009, La ville nuage L'urbanité du XXI siècle Vol side 73-86.
Jean Viard is a specialist in time-usage and the way it has evolved historically and also an expert on the regions of France and the mobility of individuals across those regions. In this issue of Futuribles, devoted, as it is, in very large measure to European cities, he makes a detailed analysis of the social developments that have been ongoing for several decades and their consequences for the relationship to space in general and to cities in particular. In his view, 21st-century urban style will be that of the "cloud city". To put it another way, the urban style historically based on place is now no longer the monopoly of cities; it has gradually been "virtualized", becoming a "multi-site" phenomenon. Moreover, the increase in healthy-life expectancy in a context of shorter working hours has produced a veritable time revolution, and the impact of that revolution on social relations and the use of time (free time, working time, time for romance etc.) also has effects on urban organization. In this way, Jean Viard shows that, despite its no longer being the principal activity in French people's time, work is still too often the key element in the way housing, urban districts and entire cities are structured, whereas social demand is increasingly oriented towards leisure and focuses on places where people can meet, walk etc. He also shows the degree to which the culture of mobility influences the organization of urban space today, enabling this to extend far beyond the historic boundaries of towns and cities. And in this mobile society, new polarities of development and attractiveness are emerging, alongside new dangers of (spatial and generational) segregation. These are the major future challenges cities are going to have to face up to: they will have take on board the fact that employment is no longer their prime determinant; they will need to grow, to smarten themselves up and to advertise their attractiveness - to become "sustainable" so as to win the loyalty of today's res-idents and attract people in the future, whether it be tourists, entrepreneurs or ordinary citizens..
Volo, S. 2010, Tourism Economics Vol 16 side 1073-1080.
This paper addresses the need for an understanding of the evolution of international and domestic tourism in Sicily, in particular, the relationship between seasonality patterns and the development of the tourism sector. Annual tourist arrivals and overnight stays data were studied using univariate methods. It is concluded that Italian and international tourism demand differ significantly and that seasonality has been changing somewhat over time, creating a challenge to economic planners and marketers..
Wachsman, Y. 2006, Tourism Economics Vol 12 side 531-541.
This paper examines strategic interactions among hotels and airlines in tourist destinations. It shows that when there is a single tourist destination an airline and a hotel can increase their profits by simultaneously reducing their price. An agent can lead both firms to cooperate, thus increasing consumer surplus. When there are two competing destinations, firms in one of the destinations can benefit from cooperation; however, if firms in both destinations cooperate their joint profit will fall. Finally, if a single firm operates in both destinations, then it will increase the cost of travel, thus reducing consumer surplus..
Weiermair, K. 2006, Journal of Quality Assurance in Hospitality and Tourism Vol 6 side 59-72.
The tourism product is a composite one with its production, distribution and marketing being configured along a value chain involving many activities which are vertically, horizontally and diagonally related and integrated in varying degrees. Both orthodox and non-orthodox economists agree that innovations will only be undertaken when there is a sufficiently high innovation dividend which pays for the added cost and risk of innovation. Thus profitability appears to be the strongest explanatory variable both behind investment and innovation. Based on the notion that expected profitability from innovation can serve as the primary independent variable determining innovation behaviour across different economic sectors and/or sub branches of tourism, the paper sets out to establish the innovation potential for each of the tourism value creating economic activities from the provision of information to prospective customers (tourists) in the sending region to post-trip (after sale) services. In addition to the usual profit-generating forces of costs and revenues, such dimensions as firm size and economics of scale, proximity to relevant science and technology (know-how for innovation) through human capital and forms of organisation (e.g., network-organisation and/or clusters) will equally be taken into consideration. This analysis will therefore help in pinpointing those areas of the tourism value chain where innovations are most likely to occur. The paper concludes with the presentation of a model aimed at empirically testing innovation behaviour across the tourism value chain. Copyright © 2005 by The Haworth Press, Inc. All rights reserved..
Weiss, G.M., Suzanne; Matilainen, Anne; Vennesland, Birger; Nastase, Carmen; Nybakk, Erlend; Bouriaud, Laura 2007, Small Scale Forestry Vol 6 side 423-442.
This article examines innovation processes in forest recreational services on the basis of case studies in five European countries with differing institutional backgrounds of forest ownership and access rights. The analysis reveals that forest-related recreation services are developed under varying institutional conditions and on public as well as private land. Ideas for innovations in recreational services may come from within but often outside the forestry sector. Financing is provided from public and private sources. Both public and private spheres have important roles in providing natural, human and financial resources and usually a network of public and private actors are involved in innovation processes. Of particular importance are cross-sectoral interactions between forestry and tourism. Greater institutional support is needed for the development of forest-related recreation services because the field is at an early stage of development. It is concluded that support should focus on providing ideas and financial resources for product development and on facilitating cross-sectoral interaction between forestry and tourism actors. A particular need is seen for development of models for durable interaction between land owners and tourism operators on a regional scale..