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Are travellers interested in wine tourism in New Zealand?

Alonso, A.D. 2009, International Journal of Culture, Tourism and Hospitality Research Vol 3 side 13-24.

Purpose - While much of contemporary wine tourism research focuses on on-site winery visitors, little is reported on the level of wine tourism participation among travellers outside the winery who may not necessarily be winery visitors or wine enthusiasts. This study investigates this dimension from the perspective of travellers. Design/methodology/approach - Between October and November of 2006, a total of 998 questionnaires were distributed among travellers from the North to the South Island of New Zealand. In all, 500 travellers participated in the study, a 50.1 percent response rate. Findings - One critical finding of this study is that while winery visitation appears common among domestic travellers, for the majority of international visitors lack of knowledge of New Zealand wines and wineries is their main reason not to visit wineries while members of this group travel in New Zealand. Research limitations/implications - The potential limitations of choosing a predominantly quantitative approach, as well as choosing specific days of the week for the questionnaire distribution are acknowledged in this study. Practical implications - The overall results suggest that if wine tourism is to continue its present development in New Zealand, winery operators and the wine industry need to address several issues identified in this study, particularly overseas travellers' apparent lack of knowledge about New Zealand's wine and wine tourism. Originality/value - This study examines wine tourism from a different perspective, namely, that of travellers who might not necessarily fall under the wine tourist category. This dimension has been ignored for the most part in previous wine tourism research. The study also provides avenues for future research to further explore this dimension of tourism/wine tourism..

Wine tourism development in emerging Western Australian regions

Alonso, A.D.L., Y. 2010, International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management Vol 22 side 245-262.

Purpose - The remarkable growth of wine tourism in recent decades has created opportunities for rural communities to diversify and stimulate development, and for travellers to enjoy an activity that brings together educational and gastronomic experiences. However, still today many areas around the globe with the potential to become quality wine tourism destinations have been ignored in contemporary research. This paper aims to examine winery operators' involvement with wine tourism, and current challenges the face in several emerging Western Australian wine regions. Design/methodology/approach - Semi-structured face-to-face and telephone interviews were used to collect data among 42 participating winery operators. Findings Respondents acknowledge the great potential for the development of wine tourism and many foresee their own future involvement in hospitality and tourism. However, the fragmented nature of the wine industry in some of the areas studied, financial limitations and geographical distance from large cities or tourist traffic are current barriers limiting further development. Research limitations/implications - With over 300 wineries in Western Australia the number of participating businesses in the study may not substantiate making generalisations of Western Australia's wineries or those of other wine regions. However, the findings of this preliminary study do provide information about efforts and challenges related to "new" wine regions in Western Australia. Practical implications - The existing potential to develop wine tourism in emerging wine regions may in the long term attract quality wine tourists seeking authenticity and uniqueness, the very same elements on which these regions seem to rely. However, to achieve these goals, current barriers need to be addressed by all parties involved: wineries, local tourism bodies and local/state authorities. Originality/value - The study constitutes an effort to extend the very limited existing knowledge on newly developing wine regions in Western Australia..

Luxury brand marketing - The experience is everything!

Atwal, G.W., Alistair 2009, Journal of Brand Management Vol 16 side 338-346.

Although the definition of a 'luxury' brand is open for debate, the natural evolution of luxury, with luxury brands first being adopted by the affluent and wealthy before inevitably being translated and reinterpreted down to mass markets, raises new challenges for marketing strategists. Luxury brands need to stay in front of luxury consumers, through the discovery of new and different ways to give expression to their desires. This paper discusses the fundamental difference between communication and connection, and identifies a means of assuring the greatest long-term success for luxury marketers by connecting with the luxury consumer using brand-related experiences. [PUBLICATION ABSTRACT].

Is this Shangri-La? The case for authenticity in the Chinese and Indian hospitality industry

Atwal, G.W., Alistair 2012, Journal of Brand Management Vol 19 side 405-413.

Despite its western orientation, recent literature has sought to apply postmodernism to aspects of culture and society within developing economies. The impact of globalisation is redefining what non-western consumers think, feel and do as goods and services, previously out of reach in developing countries, are now seen as necessities. However, this development is taking place simultaneously with a trend towards positioning many of these consumption experiences as authentic, emphasising the timeless values desired by consumers while downplaying their commercial realities. This article proposes a postmodern framework for interpreting authenticity in the marketing of hospitality concepts in China and India. [PUBLICATION ABSTRACT].

Location, Location, Location: Film Corporations' Social Responsibilities

Beeton, S. 2008, Journal of Travel & Tourism Marketing Vol 24 side 107-114.

Many TV series are set and filmed in small rural communities that are often attempting to deal with issues of rural decline. Increasing tourism is an extremely attractive option for these communities. Entrepreneurial film-tourism business activities such as guided tours, branded souvenirs, and guidebooks can also assist in arresting decline in these communities. However, such opportunities do not always eventuate, with the community left to deal with increased visitation and often a serious loss of privacy. Film companies have a vested interest in maintaining a positive relationship with the location communities, particularly if they wish to continue filming there. This paper argues that they need to consider their responsibilities to the communities in which they film, particularly in relation to the tourism legacy they leave behind..

The Parkes Elvis Revival Festival: Economic development and contested place identities in rural Australia

Brennan-Horley, C.C., J.; Gibson, C. 2007, Geographical Research Vol 45 side 71-84.

This paper discusses the annual Elvis Revival Festival in the small town of Parkes, 350 km to the west of Sydney, in rural Australia. It explores the way in which a remote place with few economic prospects has created a tourism product, and subsequently captured national publicity, through a festival based around commemoration of the birthday of Elvis Presley, a performer who had never visited Australia, and certainly not Parkes. The Festival began in the early 1990s, when a keen Elvis fan rallied promoters (and other fans) around the idea of bringing Elvis impersonators to the town for an annual celebration. Since then, the Festival has grown in size, with notable economic impact. The town now partly trades on its association with Elvis, constituting an 'invented' tradition and place identity. Yet the festival is not without tensions. The images of Elvis and the traditions generated by the festival challenge those who wish to promote Parkes through more austere, staid notions of place and identity. For some, Elvis is a means for the town to generate income and national notoriety, while others prefer less 'kitsch' tourism attractions such as a nearby (and nationally famous) radio telescope. Results from interviews with key players and surveys of visitors demonstrate how 'tradition' is constructed in places (rather than being innate), and how small places, even in remote areas, can develop economic activities through festivals, and create new identities - albeit contested ones. © 2007 The AuthorsJournal compilation © 2007 Institute of Australian Geographers..

Linking Wine Preferences to the Choice of Wine Tourism Destinations

Brown, G.G., Donald 2005, Journal of Travel Research Vol 43 side 266-276.

This article explores the links between wine consumers' preferences for wine from particular countries or regions and their interest in, and propensity to travel to, specific wine regions. Data from a convenience sample of 161 wine consumers in Calgary, Canada, revealed that specific appellation-of-origin preferences (e.g., for Australian or French wines) do have an influence on travel preferences and patterns. Nearly 70% of respondents preferred to drink wines from particular origins, and planned wine-related travel by respondents closely matched those geographic preferences. Other factors, however, were also shown to be important in shaping wine tourism destinations, including distance and cognitive factors. Implications are drawn for wine tourism marketing and for destination-choice theory. Recommendations are made for future research. [PUBLICATION ABSTRACT].

From erewhon to edoras: Tourism and myths in New Zealand

Buchmann, A. 2006, Tourism, Culture and Communication Vol 6 side 181-189.

This article presents the case study of the Upper Rangitata Valley, Canterbury, where literary and film tourists meet in the high country of the Southern Alps of New Zealand. Both the literary myth of "Erewhon" and the film myth of "Edoras" are being used to promote the region and present important case studies for mythical tourism in New Zealand. Samuel Butler published his tale of the Utopian society Erewhon in 1872 after having lived in New Zealand for 5 years. The book became a best-seller and established a new myth that endures until today. Within weeks of publication a specific tourism to the high country of Canterbury begun that brought tourists to locations described by Butler. This early literary tourism was facilitated by the fact that Butler interwove existing geographical and botanical features with purely mythical ideas of a Utopian society hidden in the mountains. And while the tourists sought the farmed high country scenery described in the book, they also visited the property and the homestead of the author. A hundred and thirty years later this early literary tourism faces a challenge by an unlikely rival. The set of "Edoras" of the Lord of the Kings movies used another location in the Upper Rangitata Valley. And even though the set was finally disassembled, the location is now attracting film tourists. What are the characteristics of these special-interest tourism forms? Both support the claim that tourists are seekers of myths and challenge the notion that tourists seek authenticity in their experience. It is interesting to note that both myths incorporated already existing images and used existing physical features to heighten the reality aspects of their telling. And both forms of tourism bring characteristic challenges for the tourism industry and its stakeholders. Copyright © 2006 Cognizant Comm. Corp..

Heritage Tourism and Inherited Institutional Structures: The Case of Falun Great Copper Mountain

Cassel, S.H.P., A. 2011, Scandinavian Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Vol 11 side 54-75.

This study focuses on the local resource that a mine represents and analyses the role of stakeholders and institutions during the development of heritage tourism. The paper aims to examine the role of stakeholders and their interpretation of heritage in the management process in the case of the Great Copper Mountain World Heritage Site in Falun, Sweden. The paper focuses on local strategies for developing heritage tourism in which concepts of institutions and path dependency in terms of inherited social and economic structures can shed light on more general local development processes. The empirical material consists of interviews, official documents and marketing material. While the goal of many of the interviewed stakeholders is to promote tourism development, a common view is often lacking in terms of what the tourist product is or how the role of the World Heritage Site can be interpreted with regard to tourism activities. There are also sceptical voices regarding the development of activities and attractions devoted to entertainment without educational purposes. The marketing texts focus on the landscape and the 17th century system of production, which further supports the view that the preservation of the remnants from this period will be prioritised in contemporary management policies. The present paper interprets this concept as an indication of the strength of the institutions and ideas that promote the importance of education and historical facts related to mining communicated by former mining-related stakeholders as well as by heritage organisations, including UNESCO..

You Felt Like Lingering . . .: Experiencing "Real" Service at the Winery Tasting Room

Charters, S.F., Joanna; Fish, Nicola 2009, Journal of Travel Research Vol 48 side 122.

There is a growing body of research on the experience of visitors to winery tasting rooms, and their expectations and satisfaction. This overview uses qualitative research in Australia and New Zealand to examine a number of themes relating to the visitor's experience in the tasting room, including the impact of the size of the winery, the nature of the service encounter, and the effect of paying for wine. The significance of these themes is placed in the context of the experience economy and the provision of hospitality generally. The practical relevance of the article is to relate consumers' expectations and perceptions of tasting rooms to the goals of wineries generally, and also the issue of wine quality as a significant factor in the experience, with some specific recommendations for further research and for the implementation of practical outcomes for a successful tasting room. [PUBLICATION ABSTRACT].

Experiences as gifts: from process to model

Clarke, J. 2008, European Journal of Marketing Vol 42 side 365-389.

The purpose of this paper is to examine the giving and receiving of gifts that are experiences rather than physical goods, and to illuminate how the behavioral processes in the selection, exchange and consumption of such intangible gifts might differ from the generic understanding of gift giving. A trio of qualitative research methods - depth interviews, self-completion written instrument, and semi-structured telephone interviews - captured donor, recipient and industry expert perspectives, yielding a total of 189 real life incidents of experience gift exchange. The model of experience gift-giving behavior encapsulates the behavior of donors and recipients with sufficient flexibility to incorporate purchased, modified and donor-created experiences, differing donor decision-making styles, and immediate or delayed consumption. It is structured around the process stages of decision making, exchange, and post-exchange/consumption/post-consumption. The empirical evidence is drawn from the UK, and is biased towards close personal relationships and experience gifts of higher monetary value. Consumers in Western societies are actively giving gifts that are experiences. Greater understanding of their behavior in this marketplace - as evidenced in the paper - will enhance marketing practice for those service organizations recognising the gift potential of their products. This research is believed to be the first to examine the phenomenon of experiences as gifts - a theoretical contribution that starts to close the gap between real world consumer behavior and corresponding academic knowledge. [PUBLICATION ABSTRACT].

Balamory revisited: An evaluation of the screen tourism destination-tourist nexus

Connell, J.M., D. 2009, Tourism Management Vol 30 side 194-207.

It is well-established that tourism induced by film and television (TV) (screen tourism) is a phenomenon of global significance, and a number of studies since the 1990s have explored its impacts on specific destinations and communities. While some research provides insights into motivations of screen tourists, understanding of the experiences of screen tourists in film and TV locations remains an emerging area of inquiry. Consequently, the aim of this paper is to explore the interface between the screen tourist and the destination. The results of empirical research with screen tourists to the Isle of Mull (Scotland) to view the filming location for the children's TV show Balamory are discussed. First, the degree to which people are attracted to a location through film connections and the types of visits are explored. Second, the nature of visit experiences is analysed, allowing some consideration of emerging issues for both visitors and the destination. Third, the visitor propensity to return for a future visit is examined. The paper identifies that the lower the influence of Balamory for the visit, the higher the level of adult satisfaction, and that a return visit was more likely if visitors were satisfied with their trip, especially if Balamory was not the only reason for the visit. A structural equation modelling approach is adopted to explore some of the issues induced by an evaluation of visit experiences and the perceived likelihood of repeat visits, generating a range of widely applicable implications for screen tourism destination management and development. (C) 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved..

Wildlife tourism: The intangible, psychological benefits of human-wildlife encounters

Curtin, S. 2009, Current Issues in Tourism Vol 12 side 451-474.

This article presents the results of an ethnographic study of wildlife tourists. The findings reveal the commonalities and complexities of the wildlife experience during wildlife encounters at home and while on holiday. Nature's design, performance and immense biodiversity initiate an emotional response of awe, wonder and privilege that unlocks ecocentric and anthropomorphic connections to wild animals and a feeling that is 'beyond words'. There is time to stand and stare, and contemplate. Nature and wildlife are not only spatial events but also temporal ones. In this liminal, embodied space of a wildlife encounter, socially constructed modern fast time dissipates and is replaced by stillness and nature's time whereby participants are totally absorbed in the spectacle. All thought and action is concentrated on the moment. This provokes a deep sense of well-being that transcends the initial encounter leading to spiritual fulfilment and psychological health benefits. The implications of this research has relevance to environmental conservation particularly the recognition that conserving habitats and wildlife has an intrinsic connection to the future well-being of the human population who are part of the ecosystem and not separate from it. © 2009 Taylor & Francis..

Globally marketing authenticated places

Dalecki, L. 2011, International Journal of Culture, Tourism and Hospitality Research Vol 5 side 38-46.

Purpose - The paper explores authentic places, personalities and products from a range of academic and professional frames. Design/methodology/approach - Authentic pop culture texts and tourist sites - and their associated web sites - are analyzed via three perspectives: Gilmore and Pine's notion of authentic placemaking, Peterson's notion of socially constructed and determined authenticity, and Holt's notion of the authentic slacker-rebel archetype. Findings - Perceived authenticity plays an important role in driving the consumption of certain types of pop culture and associated touristic sites. Originality/value - The article explores three major perspectives related to authenticity which have not been discussed together previously and is of value to marketing academics as well as stewards of authentic sites. [PUBLICATION ABSTRACT].

Event tourism governance and the public sphere

Dredge, D.W., M. 2011, Journal of Sustainable Tourism Vol 19 side 479-499.

Political and sociological shifts have profoundly affected state, business and civil society relationships. This paper explores governance as a new form of public-private policymaking wherein stakeholders deliberate on and take action to achieve common goals. It examines how different public spheres facilitate (or not) sustainability debates, and specifically facilitate (or not) discussion about sustainable tourism. Using a case study of the 2009 Australian World Rally Championship, the paper explores the development of the public sphere. Tuckman's group development process - forming, storming, norming and performing - is employed as a lens to understand these processes. Key findings include: the way the public sphere is constituted has a major influence on the dialogue that takes place; citizens are currently reactive, rather than strategic and creative in their engagement; the "third way" project, seeking to empower communities, requires government commitment; there is a blurring of public-private interests; control of knowledge and expertise within the public sphere is largely controlled by corporate and state interests; fast action to secure events prevents debate and engagement; and a discursive public sphere is essential for transparent and accountable governance, and sustainable development, and to move beyond government by powerful corporate interests and extra-local rule systems. © 2011 Taylor & Francis..

Cocreating Customer Value Through Hyperreality in the Prepurchase Service Experience

Edvardsson, B.E., Bo; Johnston, Robert 2005, Journal of Service Research : JSR Vol 8 side 149-161.

This article develops a new model depicting how organizations can help customers test out and experience a service prior to purchase and consumption or use. When customers buy a new car, for instance, they are allowed to test-drive it to get the feel of it. When customers wish to purchase services, it can be more difficult to provide customers with a "test drive." In some service situations, service organizations can and do provide "test drives, " but it is suggested that such experiences take place in a simulated setting. This article introduces the notion of hyperreality, the simulated reality of a service experience. It also introduces the concept of the "experience room," the place where the simulated experience takes place. Based on the existing literature, the authors apply six dimensions of experience rooms to demonstrate how organizations can cocreate value, in conjunction with the customer, through hyperreality inapreservice experience. [PUBLICATION ABSTRACT].

Emotion and Environment: Visitors' Extraordinary Experiences along the Dalton Highway in Alaska

Farber, M.E.H., Troy E. 2007, Journal of Leisure Research Vol 39 side 248-270.

To assess how the natural environment and social interaction foster emotional outcomes, this study surveyed recreational visitors to the Dalton Highway in northern Alaska (258 guided visitors, 187 independent travelers) about a special experience they had, the factors that influenced it, and the emotions it engendered. Scenery-especially mountains-was the most commonly mentioned feature, with vastness, contrasts, and colors emerging as important dimensions. Seeing wildlife was important in half of the special experiences, especially when it involved being near animals, watching natural behavior, or seeing young animals. Surprising, novel, or unexpected circumstances were explicitly described by nearly one fifth of respondents. The emotions of awe, excitement, and pleasure were strongly associated with special experiences. Experiences in which wildlife and scenery were experienced either as part of a social group or during a recreational activity generated significantly higher levels of positive affect. These findings emphasize the importance of positive emotions as a benefit of recreational activities and provide insight into the nature of extraordinary experiences. [PUBLICATION ABSTRACT].

O' sole mio: Italian charter tourists' experiences of the Midnight Sun in North Cape, Norway

Favero, P. 2000, Anthropological Quarterly Vol 73 side .

This article focuses on Italian charter tourists' experiences of North Cape, the site considered to be Europe's northernmost sport and the most privileged place for gazing at the Midnight Sun. My aim is to show that tourists' experiences and interpretation of a specific attraction are culturally shaped and contextually situated..

Quest for a story

Ferguson, S. 2011, International Journal of Culture, Tourism and Hospitality Research Vol 5 side 354-363.

Purpose - People arguably create "storied lives"; including constructing accounts of their leisure that become part of their personal and social identities. These stories are valuable and relevant, not just to themselves, but also to others with whom they choose to share their stories. This paper and accompanying film aim to further understanding of how consumers visiting the second highest bungy jump in the world construct and convey stories of this experience. Design/methodology/approach - The research approach is exploratory. The researcher observed, interviewed, and filmed informants at the primary site of investigation. The interview transcripts were transcribed in full. Emergent themes were validated through constant cross-checking. The themes provided the foundation for the accompanying video. Findings - Several themes regarding narratives and high-risk leisure emerged including the construction of factual accounts and rehearsed accounts, the use of markers to symbolize and make more tangible the consumption experience, and the role of technology in the communication of the stories. Research limitations/implications - This exploratory research offers insight into the components of narratives for Generation Y tourists consuming in New Zealand. These findings do not claim to generalize to other samples or activities. Originality/value - The paper extends the knowledge of how stories figure in consumers' lives; particularly in the context of the consumption of high-risk leisure..

The potential for rural heritage tourism in the Clarence Valley of northern New South Wales

Fisher, D.G. 2006, Australian Geographer Vol 37 side 411-424.

In the past, heritage tourism has been associated with urban sites but there is now an acceptance of the application of this concept to rural areas. In the Clarence Valley in northern New South Wales there is potential for an extension of agritourism associated with working dairy farms to include safari tours to clusters of dairy heritage sites which are scattered throughout the area. Remnants of the old dairy industry, which began in the Clarence River Valley of New South Wales in the late nineteenth century, are scattered throughout the landscape. Over 300 dairy milking bails remain-ghosts of the former thriving industry when over 2000 dairy farms were operating. Concrete foundations of some creameries built in the 1890s can still be found, and three factory buildings still stand. These relics are disappearing quite rapidly and if the importance of the industry is to be recognised by future generations then it seems that some heritage conservation is overdue. At the same time, in order to survive in a post-deregulated economic environment, the remaining 10 dairy farmers in the Clarence Valley are diversifying their activities, with one form of pluriactivity being agritourism. Currently few of these farmers have entered this field but most of them see its potential to broaden their income base. Associated with agritourism at the farm level, the local government authorities see heritage tourism as a way of increasing employment in the region..

The Rise and Fall of the Concept of the Experience Economy in the Local Economic Development of Denmark

Freire-Gibb, L.C. 2011, European Planning Studies Vol 19 side 1839-1853.

This article discusses the evolution of the concept of "The Experience Economy" (TEE) in the Danish local economic policy. The term is rarely known worldwide; however, it has become quite popular among the Danes and other Scandinavians. Its origin comes from the American business-marketing field in the late 1990s, while in Denmark, it evolved as a multifaceted idea with notable effects for economic development at the local level. The concept is related to the cultural or creative economy, but in the Danish case, it became more diffuse. This article does not intend to be a critique of these two lines, nor to tourist attractions, which are also linked to TEE. However, it criticizes the implementation of an unorthodox idea to LED, even though it may have useful principles to other disciplines. This article reflects the line of recent research which has questioned its applications in LED. Local governments have supported this strategy because of the national government's key role. Also, academics and consultants contributed to the process. The article also investigates the reasons Denmark had for developing the concept of TEE in Danish local planning and development. © 2011 Taylor & Francis..

Braveheart-ed Ned Kelly: historic films, heritage tourism and destination image

Frost, W. 2006, Tourism Management Vol 27 side 247-254.

There has been a great deal of interest in how feature films may create attractive destination images. Research has primarily focussed on films which promote scenery and to a lesser extent nostalgic rural cultures. In contrast, there has been little attention paid to historic films. The 2003 release of Ned Kelly provoked a great deal of media interest in how that film might promote tourism to north-eastern Victoria. This article examines Ned Kelly in terms of issues of authenticity, destination image and the development of heritage tourism. (c) 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved..

Scary food: Commodifying culinary heritage as meal adventures in tourism

Gyimóthy, S.M., R. J. 2009, Journal of Vacation Marketing Vol 15 side 259-273.

This article portrays the changing status and use of a traditional Norwegian meal, Smalahove, in designing tourist experiences. Against all odds, this peculiar relic of Nordic gastronomy (salted, smoked and cooked sheep's head) has become a part of the destination brand of Voss, a small West Norwegian township, renowned for its topographic qualities related to extreme sports. In order to understand the recent success of Smalahove, we studied various culinary experience concepts offered to visitors. Based on data from a mixed-method case study approach, we found that entrepreneurs in the Voss region had developed a new commodification approach to a culinary heritage. Smalahove is marketed not only as a nostalgic and authentic rural dish, but also as a challenging culinary trophy appealing to thrill-seeking consumers. The implications of the Sheep's head case are twofold. First, it represents new commercial potentials for marketing 'extreme' culinary specialties. Second, it is an example of innovative rural destination branding, by which local dishes are not mere idyllic expressions of an agricultural past, but an opportunity to open up potential new avenues for the co-branding of rural destinations and regional food products. © The Authors, 2009..

Meaningful Involvement Opportunities in Ropes Course Programs

Haras, K.B., Camille J.; Witt, Peter A. 2006, Journal of Leisure Research Vol 38 side 339-348,350,353-362.

Ropes course research rarely investigates how program design and delivery contributes to program outcomes. This study used experience sampling and meansend analysis to 1) compare the meaningful involvement opportunities provided by two alternate ropes course design and delivery approaches, Challenge by Choice (CbC) and Inviting Optimum Participation (I-OPt), and 2) describe program design and delivery attributes effecting participant outcomes. The experience sampling data showed a significant main effect for the degree of meaningful involvement during high (belayed) ropes course activities. Follow-up ANOVAs indicated I-OPt programs participants experienced significantly more choice. Means-end analysis revealed I-OPt participants were more likely to mention low activities and group efficacy and less likely to mention anxiety while the reverse was true for CbC participants. [PUBLICATION ABSTRACT].

The guided hike in Banff National Park: A hermeneutical performance

Henning, G.K. 2008, Journal of Sustainable Tourism Vol 16 side 182-196.

Sharpley identifies the need to help the public adopt a new paradigm of sustainable development through learning and understanding. The example of a guided hike in Banff National Park, Canada, that communicates to visitors ideas about sustainable development - and sustainable tourism - is examined in this paper to gain some sense of the world of the hike. The paper is based on a hermeneutical theatrical model derived from the philosophical hermeneutics of Gadamer, which includes play, festival, mimesis, gaze and beauty. Through the use of the model, the paper examines the present day performance of the hike, including the narratives of hikers and those involved in presenting the hike. The examination also includes relevant legislation, history and the setting. The result explores the nature and process of understanding a sustainable development paradigm on a guided hike in a natural protected area. © 2008 G. K. Henning..

A Study of Visitors' Recreational Experience Types in Relationship to Customer Retention in Leisure Farm

Ho, P.-T.T., Hsin-Yu 2010, Journal of Global Business Management Vol 6 side .

The objective of this study is to explore the effects of four realms of experience proposed by Pine and Gilmore (1999) on customer retention. Sontenkan Leisure Farm was selected for the research site. Two hundred and forty valid questionnaires were collected and descriptive statistics, factor analysis and regression analysis were used to analyze the data. The results indicated that: Among four realms of experience proposed by Pine and Gilmore(1999), visitors obtained highest satisfaction with aesthetic experiences, followed by escapist experiences, entertainment experiences and educational experiences. Escapist and aesthetic experiences had a positive effect on revisit intention and entertainment, educational and aesthetic experiences have a positive effect on customer loyalty. [PUBLICATION ABSTRACT].

Dimensions of Cruisers' Experiences, Satisfaction, and Intention to Recommend

Hosany, S.W., Mark 2010, Journal of Travel Research Vol 49 side 351-364.

In the past decade, Pine and Gilmore set out the vision for a new economic era, the experience economy, in which consumers are in search for extraordinary and memorable experiences. Since then, a rich body of research on applications of the experience economy concepts have appeared in the marketing literature. However, academic investigations on the measurement of tourism experiences are very recent. The purpose of this article is twofold: to identify the underlying dimensions of cruisers' experiences and to investigate the relationships among cruisers' experiences, satisfaction, and intention to recommend. Overall, findings of this study enhance the theoretical progress on the experiential concept in tourism and offer important implications for cruise marketers..

How to create attractive and unique customer experiences

Högström, C.R., Marina; Gustafsson, Anders , Marketing Intelligence & Planning Vol 28 side 385-402.

Purpose - The aim of this paper is to understand the differences across various quality dimensions and how these contribute to experienced quality and satisfaction among users. Design/methodology/approach - The study applies the Kano model of attractive quality to a destination (in this case a snowpark). The fact that the Kano model was used means that a quantitative approach was applied. In total 270 respondents responded to the survey instrument, which in turn was based on qualitative interviews. Findings - The research shows the great importance of a destination that offers conditions that support specific goals or desired activities in order to achieve customer satisfaction. It also finds that the physical service environment has a major influence on customer satisfaction. Finally, the physical conditions seem to affect the destination's image to a greater degree than the interactions. Practical implications - In order to create the most attractive offering, managers should focus primarily on the physical service environment. Originality/value - The Kano model is widely discussed and well known. There are, however, very few applications for which the Kano model has been used, especially with regard to hedonistic services, the motivation for this study. The theoretical contribution of this paper is an extension of Brady and Cronin's model of what creates service quality. In this model, the location or place is added as an important construct for explaining the experience..

The theory of attractive quality and experience offerings

Högström, C. 2011, TQM Journal Vol 23 side 111-127.

The aim of this paper is to discuss the use of the theory of attractive quality and the Kano methodology in an experience context in order to understand how different experienced attributes contribute to delight and satisfaction among customers. The study applied theoretical and quantitative approaches in order to examine the theory of attractive quality and the Kano methodology. A total of 270 respondents responded to the survey instrument, which was based on qualitative interviews. The research showed that existing questions and answering alternatives included in the Kano methodology must be adapted to the nature of experiences. The paper contributes in the form of a new evaluation table, having shown that existing tables were invalid in relation to the importance rating and the Must-Be>One-dimensional>Attractive>Indifferent evaluation rule. Finally, the paper also shows how hedonic attributes create delight and utilitarian attributes create satisfaction, which contributes to a holistic offering. Managers should address the fact that simply including an attribute is not sufficient; they must also consider its nature and how it performs and attach to the offering when studying experiences to understand how it contributes to either delight or satisfaction. To date, few studies have addressed or discussed the consequences of applying the theory of attractive quality and the Kano model - including its rules for classification - to experience-based offerings. The present article does this and also offers a theoretical extension of the theory of attractive quality and service marketing in terms of how customers holistically consider value and how Kano survey results should be analysed..

How to create attractive and unique customer experiences

Högström, C.R., Marina; Gustafsson, Anders 2010, Marketing Intelligence & Planning Vol 28 side 385-402.

Purpose - The aim of this paper is to understand the differences across various quality dimensions and how these contribute to experienced quality and satisfaction among users. Design/methodology/approach - The study applies the Kano model of attractive quality to a destination (in this case a snowpark). The fact that the Kano model was used means that a quantitative approach was applied. In total 270 respondents responded to the survey instrument, which in turn was based on qualitative interviews. Findings - The research shows the great importance of a destination that offers conditions that support specific goals or desired activities in order to achieve customer satisfaction. It also finds that the physical service environment has a major influence on customer satisfaction. Finally, the physical conditions seem to affect the destination's image to a greater degree than the interactions. Practical implications - In order to create the most attractive offering, managers should focus primarily on the physical service environment. Originality/value - The Kano model is widely discussed and well known. There are, however, very few applications for which the Kano model has been used, especially with regard to hedonistic services, the motivation for this study. The theoretical contribution of this paper is an extension of Brady and Cronin's model of what creates service quality. In this model, the location or place is added as an important construct for explaining the experience..

Designing and delivering compelling experiences

Kale, S.H.P., Robin D.; Zlatevska, Natalina 2010, International Journal of Event and Festival Management Vol 1 side 148-159.

Purpose - Joseph Pine and Jim Gilmore coined the term "experience economy" to describe a paradigm shift in consumption. To survive in this new economy, businesses must provide customers with memorable consumption experiences. The purpose of this paper is to suggest eight ingredients that need to be incorporated into a compelling experience. Commercial experience providers, not-for-profit organizations, and political entities stand to benefit by integrating these elements in the experiences they provide to their targeted constituencies. Design/methodology/approach - A qualitative phenomenological case study approach is employed using the 2008 Democratic National Convention as the referent for dissemination of a compelling experience. Findings - Eight attributes were distilled that together constitute an unforgettable experience: planning, resourcing, targeting, anticipating, enabling, empathizing, framing, and engaging. Practical implications - All experience providers desirous of creating compelling customer experiences for their targeted audiences would find it worthwhile to actively incorporate each of these elements in their product. Originality/value - The paper uses a well-planned and well-executed political convention to uncover the building blocks of a compelling consumer experience.[PUBLICATION ABSTRACT].

Development of a scale to measure memorable tourism experiences

Kim, J.H.R., J. R. B.; McCormick, B. , Journal of Travel Research Vol 51 side .

The quality experiences provided to customers, which are indeed memorable, directly determine a business's ability to generate revenue (Pine and Gilmore 1999). However, the extant tourism literature has provided limited explanation of the factors that characterize memorable tourism experiences. Thus, the goal of the present study was to develop a valid and reliable measurement scale that will assist in understanding the concept and in improving the effective management of the memorable experience. Following Churchill's (1979) recommended process, we developed a 24-item memorable tourism experience scale that we believe is applicable to most destination areas. The scale comprises seven domains: hedonism, refreshment, local culture, meaningfulness, knowledge, involvement, and novelty. The data support this dimensional structure of the memorable tourism experience as well as its internal consistency and validity (i.e., content, construct, convergent, and discriminant validity). Theoretical and managerial implications of the study results are discussed in detail. © 2012 SAGE Publications..

Development and testing of the Consumer Experience Index (CEI)

Kim, S.C., JaeMin; Knutson, Bonnie J.; Beck, Jeffrey A. 2011, Managing Service Quality Vol 21 side 112-132.

Purpose - The primary purpose of this paper is to develop a parsimonious Consumer Experience Index (CEI) and then identify and validate the dimensionality of the experience concept. Design/methodology/approach - The study employed a four-step methodology. After conducting a pre-test and pilot test, data were collected from 397 adults via an online survey. A split-sample technique was used for the data analysis. The first-split sample (n=199) was used to conduct the exploratory factor analysis. Reliability, convergent validity, and discriminant validity were evaluated with a second-half split sample (n=198) from confirmatory factor analysis. Findings - Scale-development procedures resulted in a seven-factor model comprised of the following dimensions: environment, benefits, convenience, accessibility, utility, incentive, and trust. Overall, the 26-item CEI is a reliable and valid measure to determine the underlying components of a consumer's experience. Research limitation/implications - This study concentrates on an experience based on the general service delivery system rather than a specific industry or business sector. Applicability of this experience measure should also be evaluated in specific, but diverse, business sectors. By understanding these seven dimensions, management can develop effective marketing strategies for providing memorable experience for consumers. Originality/value - Consumer experience has gone largely unmeasured. Built on the old business axiom that you cannot manage what you cannot measure, this validated CEI tool can provide businesses with an effective new management tool.{PUBLICATION ABSTRACT].

THE MEANING OF TOURISTS' AUTHENTIC EXPERIENCES FOR THE MARKETING OF CULTURAL HERITAGE SITES

Kolar, T.Z., Vesna 2007, Economic and Business Review for Central and South - Eastern Europe Vol 9 side 235-256,283.

This paper investigates the concept of authenticity that represents one of the driving forces of cultural tourism and an important feature of a tourist offer, which makes it interesting for the marketing of cultural heritage sites. An explication of its theoretical background shows that authenticity is an important but problematic concept which is insufficiently explored in the field of tourism marketing. The key goals of the empirical study, which was conducted among visitors to Romanesque sites in four European countries, focused on identifying and explaining the authenticity of their experiences. The results show that the questionnaire applied validly and reliably measured the concept of interest. Key differences in terms of perceived authenticity are found between groups of highly/lowly involved visitors and between domestic and foreign visitors. Perceived authenticity is positively related with the satisfaction and loyalty of visitors. The discussion of the results is followed by an examination of the implications for the marketing of cultural heritage sites. [PUBLICATION ABSTRACT].

Shipscape influence on the leisure cruise experience

Kwortnik, R.J. 2008, International Journal of Culture, Tourism and Hospitality Research Vol 2 side 289-311.

The purpose of this paper is to examine the leisure cruise service environment - the shipscape - and its effects on cruisers' emotions, meaning-making, and onboard behavior. This paper uses qualitative data from 260 cruise customers that were mined from archived online discussion boards. Data were analyzed based on grounded theory and interpretive methods to derive an understanding of shipscape meanings and influences from the cruiser's perspective. The findings extend Bitner's servicescape framework and reveal novel atmospheric and social effects that influence cruise travelers' experience. Given the exploratory research objective and interpretive methodology, generalizability beyond the cruise context is limited. However, research findings suggest not only that ambient shipscape conditions influence cruisers' pleasure, but also that ship layout, décor, size, facilities, and social factors influence the meanings cruisers attach to cruise brands and to the overall cruise experience. This paper explores atmospheric effects on consumer behavior in a context as yet examined by tourism and hospitality scholars..

The purchase of equipment in consumer production of outdoor experiences

Larsen, E.R. 2003, Journal of Consumer Policy Vol 26 side 351-371.

Consumers use combinations of goods to produce experiences. In order to produce outdoor experiences, consumers include environmental amenities as production factors in addition to purchasable instruments such as equipment. While amenities are not marketed, equipment is. Inspecting consumer purchases of the latter may uncover attitudes towards the former. Purchases of equipment are realized money outlays in a market and constitute lower bounds for the willingness to pay for one factor in outdoor experience production. This study investigates income and demographic effects in the demand for outdoor equipment over time in Norway, and examines the proportion of purchasing households for each year. Results show that equipment is a luxury item, and that it becomes more popular over time. The findings are relevant to policymakers in two ways since use of equipment may entail environmental degradation, but purchases of equipment may reflect a willingness to pay for environmental standards. [PUBLICATION ABSTRACT].

Aspects of a psychology of the tourist experience

Larsen, S. 2007, Scandinavian Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Vol 7 side .

Although the literature on experience as such, as well as various concepts pertaining to specific experiences (such as for example landscape experiences or tourist experiences is quite large, this article maintains that some of these conceptions are too ambiguous. Therefore this paper presents a threefold idea of the phenomenon of the tourist experience. Based on a review of tourism literature and general psychological literature it is argued that experiences are influenced by expectancies and events and that they remain or are constructed in the individuals' memory, forming the basis for new preferences and expectancies. Such a cognitive approach to the concept of experience highlights the distinction between the tourist event and its precursors and effects. At the same time this approach highlights the importance of the experiencing subject in constructing a meaningful concept of tourist experiences..

BACKPACKERS AND MAINSTREAMERS Realities and Myths

Larsen, S.O., T.; Brun, W. 2011, Annals of Tourism Research Vol 38 side 690-707.

This paper addresses the issue of the budget traveler (backpacker) as compared to mainstream tourists, highlighting travel motivations, subjective judgments of risk, tourist worries and tourists' self identifications. A total of 1880 tourists to Norway participated in the study, of which 211 were budget travelers. Few motivational differences were found between groups, but budget travelers were less motivated by needs for luxury and relaxation and they judged travel related hazards (including food risk) to be less risky. Their overall travel related worry was similar to other travelers' although they worried less about terror and foreign cultures. Budget travelers also perceived themselves to be less typical tourists than mainstream tourists perceived themselves to be..

Constructing the Nature Experience: A Semiotic Examination of Signs on the Trail

Lekies, K.S.W., B. 2011, American Sociologist Vol 42 side 249-260.

This paper is an exploratory examination of the role of signs perceived along nature trails in parks and wooded settings and the ways in which they shape the nature experience for individuals. Literature was examined to define what it means to experience nature, the values and meanings people place on nature, hikers' expectations, and tourism and park management practices. Sign objects, their underlying meanings, and the interpretation of signs along the trail were examined in the context of the existing theory based on semiotics, particularly the work of Peirce. Through a series of hikes, we found that signs contribute to the satisfaction, dissatisfaction, and meaning making in outdoor environments. Areas for further investigation are discussed. © 2011 Springer Science + Business Media, LLC..

Wine tourism development in emerging Western Australian regions

Liu, Y. 2010, International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management Vol 22 side 245-262.

Purpose - The remarkable growth of wine tourism in recent decades has created opportunities for rural communities to diversify and stimulate development, and for travellers to enjoy an activity that brings together educational and gastronomic experiences. However, still today many areas around the globe with the potential to become quality wine tourism destinations have been ignored in contemporary research. This paper aims to examine winery operators' involvement with wine tourism, and current challenges they face in several emerging Western Australian wine regions. Design/methodology/approach - Semi-structured face-to-face and telephone interviews were used to collect data among 42 participating winery operators. Findings - Respondents acknowledge the great potential for the development of wine tourism and many foresee their own future involvement in hospitality and tourism. However, the fragmented nature of the wine industry in some of the areas studied, financial limitations and geographical distance from large cities or tourist traffic are current barriers limiting further development. Research limitations/implications - With over 300 wineries in Western Australia the number of participating businesses in the study may not substantiate making generalisations of Western Australia's wineries or those of other wine regions. However, the findings of this preliminary study do provide information about efforts and challenges related to "new" wine regions in Western Australia. Practical implications - The existing potential to develop wine tourism in emerging wine regions may in the long term attract quality wine tourists seeking authenticity and uniqueness, the very same elements on which these regions seem to rely. However, to achieve these goals, current barriers need to be addressed by all parties involved: wineries, local tourism bodies and local/state authorities. Originality/value - The study constitutes an effort to extend the very limited existing knowledge on newly developing wine regions in Western Australia. [PUBLICATION ABSTRACT].

Sustainable Mi'kmaw cultural tourism development in Nova Scotia, Canada: examining cultural tourist and Mi'kmaw perspectives

Lynch, M.F.D., P.; Sheehan, L.; Chute, J. 2010, Journal of Sustainable Tourism Vol 18 side 539-556.

This study assessed tourists' motivations and satisfaction in participating in authentic Mi'kmaw tourism activities in Nova Scotia, Canada, as well as the ideas, perceptions and components of sustainable cultural tourism development from the Mi'kmaw perspective. To solicit the tourists' perspective, surveys were administered to tourists visiting the existing Mi'kmaw cultural tourism sites in Nova Scotia, while the Mi'kmaw perspective was obtained through key informant interviews. The results of the survey suggest that tourists visiting the Mi'kmaw cultural tourism sites were highly educated and deeply interested in learning about culture and participating in authentic cultural experiences. Tourists were also highly satisfied with their experience and were interested in participating in aboriginal tourism again. Findings regarding the Mi'kmaw perspective indicate a focus on cultural tourism's ability to educate both tourists and the Mi'kmaw people on the Mi'kmaw culture as well as provide economic opportunities for Mi'kmaw communities. Of greater importance to the Mi'kmaw people is the preservation and protection of the Mi'kmaw culture. Conclusions drawn from the research include recommendations for the future success and sustainability of the Mi'kmaw cultural tourism sector. This study's findings may also inform other Canadian aboriginal communities seeking to develop robust and sustainable cultural tourism in their own settings..

Searching for a New Enterprise: Themed Tourism and the Re-making of One Small Canadian Community

Mair, H. 2009, Tourism Geographies Vol 11 side 462-483.

While many have explored fantasy-based and themed cities, relatively few consider these developments within small communities. This paper investigates the implications for fantasy-themed tourism development in one small community on the Canadian Prairies. Vulcan, Alberta was a product of the agricultural industry but economic hardships have threatened the community, leading to ongoing attempts to 'cash in' on the community's name in connection with the Star Trek television series. Three main features of this case of worldmaking are presented: (1) why and how this image/identity has been brought into the community; (2) how it has been contested and negotiated by visitors and locals; and (3) how this case helps develop our critical understanding of the implications of themed environments. In addition, a critical, interpretivist research methodology is presented as offering valuable insights into the making and re-making of communities through tourism..

The development of a conceptual model of greening in the business events tourism sector

Mair, J.J., L. 2010, Journal of Sustainable Tourism Vol 18 side 77-94.

This paper examines the process of corporate greening, and proposes a general conceptual model of the process, which may be relevant in a number of different corporate sectors. The model includes drivers of greening and barriers to greening and also the organisational context in which greening decisions are taken. In addition, this paper considers the role of media coverage in influencing pro-environmental behaviour amongst organisations. The paper then tests the model in one particular tourism context - that of business events - in order to ascertain the specific nature of the corporate greening process in that context. The paper concludes that the general model may be applied to a number of industry sectors, and the model specific to business events tourism may be used to underpin future research in this area. © 2010 Taylor & Francis..

EXQ: a multiple-item scale for assessing service experience

Maklan, S. 2012, Journal of Service Management Vol 23 side .

Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to conceptualize, construct, refine and empirically validate a multiple-item scale for measuring customers' service experience (EXQ). Design/methodology/approach - The authors present exploratory research developing a conceptualization of service experience based on a two-stage approach: initial item generation through qualitative research, initial purification of these findings through exploratory factor analysis, and validation through the use of confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modeling. Findings - The paper conceptualizes and validates the concept of customer/service experience. In total, 19 items in four dimensions of the EXQ scale were identified: product experience, outcome focus, moments-of-truth and peace-of-mind. These dimensions reflect service experience perceptions. The findings support the conclusion that the service experience has a significant impact on customer satisfaction, loyalty and word-of-mouth intentions. The scale demonstrates good psychometric properties based on the variety of reliability and validity tests utilized and builds upon extant research. Practical implications - The research provides managers with the dimensions of service experience that influence purchase behavior and provides researchers with a sought-after conceptualization of service experience. Originality/value - The authors believe that this is the first empirically founded conceptualization and measurement of the service/customer experience..

Atmospheric experiences that emotionally touch customers

Mehmetoglu, M. 2009, Managing Service Quality Vol 19 side 721-746.

Purpose - This study aims to focus on what types of atmospheric experiences emotionally touch visitors at a winter park. The objective is to describe and explain the relationship between: three atmospheric constructs (ambience, interaction, and design); the construct of joy; and the construct of customer loyalty. Design/methodology/approach - The research data are based on a study of customers visiting a Norwegian winter park, in which 162 visitors participated in the survey. Confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modeling were used to test the measurements and structural properties between atmospheric experiences, joy, and loyalty to winter parks. Findings - The findings reveal that two out of the three constructs of atmospheric experiences are linked to customers' feelings of joy, namely, design and interaction. The atmospheric construct of design had the strongest impact on customers' emotions. Furthermore, the study finds that customers' feelings of joy are highly related to the construct of customer loyalty. Research limitations/implications - The study limits its focus to one type of hedonic service, namely customers visiting a winter park. Although the results from the study offer implications for other winter parks, there is a need for further research in other hedonic services to verify their validity, reliability, and generality. Practical implications - The study emphasizes how important it is that managers of hedonic services consider the significance of the atmospheric construct of design in such a way that it contributes positively to customers' experiences of the service setting. In particular, managers should focus on design in relation to customers' experiences in order to evoke feelings of joy. Originality/value - The study establishes the need to manage customers' atmospheric experiences in winter parks. It also links atmospheric constructs to customers' emotions. [PUBLICATION ABSTRACT].

CULTURAL SYSTEMS AND THE WINE TOURISM PRODUCT

Mitchell, R.C., S.; Albrecht, J. N. 2012, Annals of Tourism Research Vol 39 side 311-335.

Regionally distinct cultural systems are manifest in the landscapes of all cultures. Geographers have begun to explore such cultural systems in an attempt to better understand a range of cultural geographical phenomena, but such an approach has yet to be applied to our understanding of tourism. Using Bonnemaison's cultural systems approach, this paper explores the relationship between rural cultural systems and the production and consumption of wine tourism in two culturally distinct wine regions: Champagne, France, and Margaret River, Western Australia. In so doing, it highlights the importance of situating wine tourism within the wider system of rural land tenure, local mythologies of rurality and the regional wine cultural complex..

Has the experience economy arrived? The views of destination managers in three visitor-dependent areas

Morgan, M.E., Jörgen; Curiel, Javier de Esteban 2009, The International Journal of Tourism Research Vol 11 side 201.

This paper explores the concept of the experience economy as a basis for management and marketing strategies in tourism destination regions. It identifies the key elements of the concept as being a view of consumer behaviour which stress the emotional, aspirational and participative over the functional and rational; an approach to services management through theatrical metaphors of staging, casting and performance; and strategies which see the delivery, or co-creation, of unique and memorable experiences as a source of competitive advantage. It investigates the extent to which these have been accepted and acted upon by destination managers, using case studies from three contrasting visitor-dependent economies. [PUBLICATION ABSTRACT].

The importance of networks in special interest tourism: Case studies of music tourism in Australia

Moscardo, G.M., B.; Murphy, L.; Pearce, P. 2009, International Journal of Tourism Policy Vol 2 side .

Music tourism can be seen as a type of special interest cultural tourism. This paper addresses the role of themed music festivals in regional development. Three diverse and recurring music tourism events in regional Queensland, Australia are studied. The case studies describe the festivals and their impacts and contributions to tourism development in their area. These analyses specifically examine the roles of clusters and networks in the contributions made by these events to regional tourism and associated development. The results of the analyses are used to examine government policies and recommendations are made to support better outcomes for host communities. Copyright © 2009, Inderscience Publishers..

Living stories of the landscape: Perception of place through canoeing in canada's north

Mullins, P.M. 2009, Histoires vivantes de paysages: La perception du lieu en canotant dans le nord du Canada Vol 11 side 233-255.

The paper examines the role of canoe tripping in creating, perceiving and sharing meanings of place and movement. Addressing concerns over the transitory nature of outdoor recreation activities, Ingold's dwelling perspective is used to draw connections between skill development and senses of place and movement. Narratives of place from an extended canoe expedition in northern Canada are presented and analysed in the context of the author's changing understanding of theory and practice. Outdoor recreation research has been criticized for framing landscape as a static backdrop. In response, landscape, environmental conditions and social interactions are shown to be co-influential and woven together through the practice of skilled activities. This approach highlights the importance of socially and ecologically situating human activity. Implications are discussed for those researching, developing and providing adventure tourism and recreation. © 2009 Taylor & Francis..

Celebration of Extreme Playfulness: Ekstremsportveko at Voss

Mykletun, R.J. 2009, Scandinavian Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Vol 9 side 146-176.

This study aims to explore the central success factors behind the growth and prosperity of festivals. In line with resource dependency theory and the model of competitive strategies, it was assumed that successful festivals both adapt to, and influence, their contexts to their own advantage while also providing benefits for their environment. A capital framework was employed to examine the relationships between a successful festival and its context, employing a case study design and multiple methods. The case chosen was Extreme Sports Week, an annual extreme sports festival at Voss, Norway, which has become the largest extreme sports event worldwide during its 10 years of existence. It brings together sports and forms of cultural expression concentrating mainly on new trends in advanced sports activities and street culture music, combined with local food traditions. Factors in its success are the six "capitals" of the region: natural, human, social, cultural, physical, and financial. The festival balances the exploitation of these capitals, although indirectly with respect to natural capital, hence constituting an example of sustainability in festival management. Interestingly, the festival was successful in spite of very limited access to local financial capital. The analysis also revealed that a seventh capital construct - administrative capital - is relevant to the understanding of festival development. However, this form of capital was the only one where investments were perceived as problematic, and the festival repaid far more than the authorities had invested in the event..

Measuring Experience Economy Concepts: Tourism Applications

Oh, H.F., Ann Marie; Jeoung, Miyoung 2007, Journal of Travel Research Vol 46 side 119.

The authors develop a measurement scale tapping Pine and Gilmore's (1999) four realms of experience that is applicable to lodging and, potentially, tourism research across various destinations. Focusing on the bed-and-breakfast industry, the authors conducted preliminary qualitative studies and a subsequent field survey to collect data from bed-and-breakfast owners and guests to develop and test a proposed model of experience economy concepts. The proposed measurement model includes four realms of experience and four theoretically justifiable nomological consequences. The data supported the dimensional structure of the four realms of experience, providing empirical evidence for both face and nomological validities of these realms and a starting point for measuring emerging experience economy concepts and practices within lodging and tourism settings. The authors discuss ways the measurement scale can be further refined for adoption by destination marketers and directions for future research. [PUBLICATION ABSTRACT].

Customer experience management: a critical review of an emerging idea

Palmer, A. 2010, The Journal of Services Marketing Vol 24 side 196-208.

Purpose - This paper aims to critically assess the conceptual validity of customer experience as a construct and propose a model which integrates inter-personal relationships, service quality and brands. Design/methodology/approach - A critical review of literature is structured around the key components of brands, relationships, quality, emotions and perceptions, viewed from a consumer's perspective. Findings - Paradoxes in use of the term customer experience are noted. As a verb, experience describes a process of learning, leading to learned response, but as a noun emphasises novelty and the lack of predictable, learned response. By incorporating emotions and perceptual distortion over time, customer experience overcomes many problems associated with static, partial measures of service quality. Research limitations/implications - Academic coverage of the subject of customer experience remains fragmented. Approaches to its measurement are suggested and their limitations noted. The multi-dimensional, situation-specific nature of customer experience favours qualitative rather than quantitative measurement approaches. Practical implications - The unique nature of customer experience, which is specific to a customer, at a specific time and location, in the context of a specific event, limits its managerial usefulness for planning and control purposes. Many companies have seen customer experience management (CEM) as a successor to customer relationship management (CRM). However, issues of inter-functional integration become an even greater challenge. Originality/value - This paper has provided a critical review of an emerging topic and suggested that despite academic interest in the concept, practical application of customer experience management may be difficult to achieve. [PUBLICATION ABSTRACT].

Problematising 'Festival tourism': Arts festivals and sustainable development in Ireland

Quinn, B. 2006, Journal of Sustainable Tourism Vol 14 side 288-306.

This paper problematises the term 'festival tourism'. It conceptualises festivals as socially sustaining devices and argues that while they frequently function as tourist attractions, their social significance extends far beyond tourism. Using empirical material gathered in two case study arts festivals in Ireland, the paper demonstrates how festivals can contribute to arts development by inter alia creating demand for the arts, enhancing venue infrastructures, encouraging local creativity and animating local involvement. The paper contends that arts festivals, irrespective of their initial objectives almost inevitably develop tourist profiles over time and it proceeds to examine how changing tourism priorities in the two festivals studied impact upon sustainable festival practices. The findings suggest that tourism emerged as a key force promoting festival growth and expansion. It was found to be associated with increased revenue flows but also with increased arts activity on a year-round basis and with an improved venue infrastructure in both places. However, problems were identified with respect to the quality of the relationship forged between the festivals and local populations in the respective places. The paper concludes by arguing that festivals' engagement with tourism needs to be carefully managed in the interests of promoting the socially sustaining function of festivals and of encouraging sustainable approaches to tourism development. © 2006 B. Quinn..

Understanding recreational experience preferences: Application at Fulufjället National Park, Sweden

Raadik, J.C., S. P.; Fredman, P.; Ritter, P.; Newman, P. , Scandinavian Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Vol 10 side 231-247.

This paper investigates the recreational experience preferences (REP) of visitors to Fulufjället National Park, Sweden. Data were derived from a pilot study conducted in the summer of 2005 by Colorado State University on behalf of the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency and the European Tourism Research Institute. A total of 107 Swedish and international visitors were surveyed on-site. Analysis included reliability and exploratory factor analyses to investigate the motivational aspects of visitors to Fulufjället National Park. Aims were to examine motivations of visitors in a Northern European national park using REP items from a North American context and to examine REP's potential for cross-cultural use. Four primary REP dimensions were identified including self-discovery, experience of places, seeking solitude and challenging self. Implications for management and the Scandinavian context are given along with the cultural context of allemansrätten and friluftsliv. © 2010 Taylor & Francis..

The third force in events tourism: Volunteers at the XVII Commonwealth Games

Ralston, R.L., L.; Downward, P. 2005, Journal of Sustainable Tourism Vol 13 side 504-519.

This paper explores the opportunities for developing a third force in sustainable tourism development through recruitment and involvement of volunteers at events. It takes as its focus the example of Manchester and its efforts to engage with volunteers for the XVII Commonwealth Games, held in Manchester, UK in 2002. As part of the Games legacy, Manchester also sought to encourage and develop a pool of potential future volunteers within the North West region of the UK. However, although the findings from a survey of volunteers at the Games suggests that volunteers have strengthened their level of support for the host destination there are many potential barriers to retention of volunteer interest and commitment. The study concludes that volunteers could become more important for events tourism in the North West region of the UK but that there is a case for a volunteer infrastructure that acts as a 'broker' of volunteering opportunities. © 2005 R. Ralston et al..

UNDERSTANDING THE MOTIVATION AND TRAVEL BEHAVIOR OF CYCLE TOURISTS USING INVOLVEMENT PROFILES

Ritchie, B.W.T., A.; Faulks, P. 2010, Journal of Travel & Tourism Marketing Vol 27 side 409-425.

Bicycle tourism is a growing niche tourism market which has potential economic, social, and environmental outcomes for individual participants and host communities. However, there has been a lack of research into heterogeneity of this market and their respective motivations and behavior. This article applies the concept of enduring involvement, in conjunction with tourist motivational theory, to segment and better understand cycle tourist behavior and intentions. A total of 564 completed questionnaires was collected from an online survey of bicycle club members in Australia. Respondents were segmented into five initial clusters by their level of enduring involvement. A number of significant differences were found on their travel motivations, travel behavior, and behavioral intentions, as well as their sociodemographics and cycling behavior. The results lend support to the application of enduring involvement in a tourism context to better understand the behavior of niche markets which include popular leisure pursuits. Recommendations as a result of the findings are made for product development and marketing communication, while future research opportunities are also outlined..

Tourism experience management research: Emergence, evolution and future directions

Ritchie, J.R.B.T., V. W. S.; Ritchie, R. J. B. , International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management Vol 23 side 419-438.

Purpose: The essence of tourism is the development and delivery of travel and visitation experiences. This paper aims to provide a quantitative and qualitative assessment of articles in major tourism journals in order to enhance our understanding of the tourism experience, with a special emphasis on the management issues associated with delivering these experiences to destination visitors. Design/methodology/approach: Several leading tourism journals were evaluated to identify the articles that focused on tourism experiences. Content analysis was used to determine the quantitative extent of the contributions and the qualitative nature of the articles published in each journal. Findings: Despite growth in the total number of articles published by each major journal, there was no substantial increase in experience-related papers. The findings suggest that, despite its fundamental importance, experience-related research remains under-represented in the tourism literature. Research limitations/implications: While this paper focused on the "leading" tourism journals as defined by various studies in the past, other journals and other publications that target a specific niche readership may also have worthwhile contributions to the understanding of tourism experiences and related management issues. Future research should seek to accommodate this in an effort to acknowledge a more comprehensive list of journals and books. Originality/value: This is the first formal study to date that comprehensively addresses the contributions of leading tourism journals to the literature on tourism experiences. Understanding the nature of tourism experiences is of significant value to scholars and practitioners, since providing tourists with high-quality, memorable experiences constitutes the essence of tourism and tourism management. © Emerald Group Publishing Limited..

Understanding travel promotional narratives: The influence of narrative transportation and skepticism

Rozier, S.J. 2009, European Journal of Tourism Research Vol 2 side 123-130.

[...] an examination and understanding of how travelers process promotional travel-related narratives or information sources is lacking in current tourism literature. [...] when examined in the context of tourism, promotional narratives have been largely examined by literary and history scholars from a more critical standpoint where, in short, conclusions have often assumed that the narratives examined possess a certain level of persuasive power..

The realisation of tourism business opportunities adjacent to three national parks in southern Finland: entrepreneurs and local decision-makers matter

Selby, A.P., L.; Huhtala, M. 2011, Forest Policy and Economics Vol 13 side 446-455.

The tourists and recreationists who are attracted to national parks create a basis for the development of nature-based tourism. The paper examines the attitudes of entrepreneurs and local decision-makers towards the development of tourism- and recreational service enterprises adjacent to three small, different-aged national parks in southern Finland: Linnansaari, Seitseminen and Repovesi. Four distinct groups of entrepreneurs could be formed on the basis of their attitudes to business. The most "advanced" group (adapters) were aware of both the demand for tourism services and their enterprises' business resources. The second group (adopters) were resource aware but had ideas for new business ventures rather than knowledge of demand. An "informed satisficer" group exhibited satisficing attitudes (where lifestyle aspirations are placed before business growth and development) but who were well informed and could be related to the adopters. The final group of entrepreneurs were simply satisficers. There was a greater proportion of adapter entrepreneurs adjacent to the oldest park, while entrepreneurs adjacent to the youngest park were predominantly satisficers or informed satisficers. The adopter class of entrepreneurs was most common in the two older national park areas. The majority of local decision-makers in the municipalities adjacent to the national parks preferred to develop tourism together with other sectors of the economy, although industrial alternatives were preferred. The decision-makers fell into three groups with respect to their preferred ways and means of developing tourism-based local enterprise: supporting existing enterprises, lowering the threshold for (new) enterprise, and developing the business infrastructure and funding arrangements. The greatest support for new enterprises was found in the Repovesi area, the district with the greatest proportion of satisficing entrepreneurs. Decision-makers preferred to support existing businesses adjacent to the oldest park, Linnansaari, with its greater proportion of adapter and adopter entrepreneurs and fewer satisficers. Opportunities for business will not be realised if local enterprises fail to perceive or respond to them, or if decision-makers fail to play an active role in encouraging tourism enterprises by means of support schemes or by developing the tourism infrastructure. Regional differences in the development of tourism-related services therefore depend on the attitudes of the key actors and their ability to encompass new economic activities and their associated institutions and discourses. (C) 2011 Published by Elsevier B.V..

Make it memorable: customer experiences in winter amusement parks

Slåtten, T.K., Christian; Connolley, Steven 2011, International Journal of Culture, Tourism and Hospitality Research Vol 5 side 80-91.

Purpose - This empirical study aims to investigate the potential of customer experiences in the tourism industry to influence emotions and thus create positive mental imprints. Design/methodology/approach - This investigation tests a conceptual model for what leaves positive mental imprints and analyzes the results of the survey to test the hypotheses. Further, the rather uncommon setting, a winter amusement park in Norway, helps to increase the external validity. Findings - One interesting discovery with practical implications for management is that both ambience factors - light, sound, and smells - and interaction among customers have significance for customers' positive emotions. Research limitations/implications - There is a need for further research to clarify the distinction between design and ambience factors. Practical implications - Both ambience and interaction between customers are very important for successfully providing positive customer experiences. Originality/value - Responding to the need to focus on the different aspects relating to customer experiences and emotions within the framework of tourism, this study tests an original model in an uncommon setting, thus contributing to the external validity of these claims. [PUBLICATION ABSTRACT].

Reducing risky interactions between tourists and free-ranging dolphins (Tursiops sp.) in an artificial feeding program at Monkey Mia, Western Australia

Smith, H.S., A.; Bradley, S. 2008, Tourism Management Vol 29 side 994-1001.

We studied interactions between tourists and free-ranging bottlenose dolphins in an artificial feeding program at Monkey Mia, Australia. We used logistic regression to identify factors that contributed to the incidence of "risky" (potentially injurious) interactions between tourists and dolphins. Rates of dolphin-to-tourist risky interactions were heightened with longer waiting times before dolphins were fed. We documented differences among provisioned dolphins in their proclivity to engage in risky interactions; however, it was more likely for risky interactions to be initiated by tourists. Our findings suggest several readily implemented management strategies to reduce incidence of risky interactions. Long-term monitoring of tourism based on artificial feeding is essential to identify and rectify detrimental effects of provisioning on dolphins, to ensure the safety and welfare of dolphins and tourists, and to promote sustainability of this potentially harmful tourist activity. (c) 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved..

Tourism experience management research

Sun Tung, V.W. 2011, International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management Vol 23 side 419-438.

Purpose - The essence of tourism is the development and delivery of travel and visitation experiences. This paper aims to provide a quantitative and qualitative assessment of articles in major tourism journals in order to enhance our understanding of the tourism experience, with a special emphasis on the management issues associated with delivering these experiences to destination visitors. Design/methodology/approach - Several leading tourism journals were evaluated to identify the articles that focused on tourism experiences. Content analysis was used to determine the quantitative extent of the contributions and the qualitative nature of the articles published in each journal. Findings - Despite growth in the total number of articles published by each major journal, there was no substantial increase in experience-related papers. The findings suggest that, despite its fundamental importance, experience-related research remains under-represented in the tourism literature. Research limitations/implications - While this paper focused on the "leading" tourism journals as defined by various studies in the past, other journals and other publications that target a specific niche readership may also have worthwhile contributions to the understanding of tourism experiences and related management issues. Future research should seek to accommodate this in an effort to acknowledge a more comprehensive list of journals and books. Originality/value - This is the first formal study to date that comprehensively addresses the contributions of leading tourism journals to the literature on tourism experiences. Understanding the nature of tourism experiences is of significant value to scholars and practitioners, since providing tourists with high-quality, memorable experiences constitutes the essence of tourism and tourism management. [PUBLICATION ABSTRACT].

The role of guides in artistic industries: The special case of the "star system" in the haute-cuisine sector

Surlemont, B.J., Colin 2005, Managing Service Quality Vol 15 side 577-590.

The haute-cuisine industry must cope with two, apparently antagonist demands from customers: providing reliable advice about the choice of restaurant, while concurrently preserving the "magic of discovery" and creativity every haute-cuisine restaurant should provide. This paper has the objective of analysing how the Michelin guide "star system" operates as a "signalling device" in the industry, and handles these two market requirements. The research also explores how secrecy contributes to preserve chefs' creativity for the benefit of customer satisfaction. The research is derived from 20 exploratory field interviews of chefs belonging to the "star system" in France, Switzerland and the UK. Field research and analysis reveal the pressure to minimize type II errors, i.e. of selecting restaurants that do not merit inclusion and, consequently, increase type I errors. This behaviour explains the stability, reliability and consistency of the system. Further research is needed to analyse the extent to which the phenomenon observed in the haute-cuisine industry is manifest in other artistic (i.e. fashion) or hospitality (i.e. hotels) related sectors. There is no unique route to the star system. The best way for chefs to increase the odds to get promoted is to focus on quality, develop their own style and be patient. The policy of the Michelin guide opens the door for competing guides willing to take more risk of type I errors. This exploratory research is the first attempt to analyse the role of gastronomic guides in the haute-cuisine sector..

Why Hiking? Rationality and Reflexivity Within Three Categories of Meaning Construction

Svarstad, H. 2010, Journal of Leisure Research Vol 42 side 91-110.

Hiking is a popular leisure activity among people in many industrialised countries. In the case of Norway, a large part of the population goes hiking through forests, mountains and cultural landscapes. What meaning do these hikers attach to their activity? An analysis has been made of letters received from 84 hikers who write about how and why they enjoy their hiking trips. Employing a grounded theory approach, three categories of meaning constructions were identified: a recreation category, a category of the simple outdoors discourse, and a belonging category. In all of these, the hikers see their trips and their further lives in relation to constitutive aspects of modern society. Concepts of rationality and reflexivity were found useful for the interpretation of the meaning contents of each of the categories. [PUBLICATION ABSTRACT].

Hidden sights Tourism, representation and Lonely Planet Cambodia

Tegelberg, M. 2010, International Journal of Cultural Studies Vol 13 side 491-509.

This article examines discourses of tourist location as articulated in the influential and highly successful travel guide Lonely Planet Cambodia. The aim is to direct attention to discourses and representations in guidebooks and their influential role in emerging tourist markets such as Cambodia by accomplishing two central tasks. First, an investigation of the discursive context within which Cambodia has been framed for more than a century reveals Lonely Planet Cambodia's tendency to reproduce a problematic colonial discourse. Discourse analysis of examples from the guide demonstrates how this particular narrative continues to perpetuate a history of silencing local perspectives. These observations lead to a second line of argumentation. Despite Lonely Planet's stated intention to promote a responsible and socially conscious mode of tourism, this agenda is contradicted by discursive practices that strategically avoid controversial issues. Instead, the guidebook relies on common tourist themes that are primarily concerned with producing an image of Cambodia that appeals to the Western traveller..

Maslow's hierarchy and food tourism in Finland: five cases

Tikkanen, I. 2007, British Food Journal Vol 109 side 721-734.

The purpose of this paper is to explore the sectors of food tourism in Finland by using Maslow's hierarchy of needs in the classification. Previous research on food tourism concentrates on the role of food as an attraction, as a cultural phenomenon, and as an experience. Moreover, food from productional and motivational viewpoints is reviewed briefly. The empirical data consists both of the secondary data and an interview. The findings introduce five sectors of food tourism where the needs and motivations are linked with Maslow's hierarchy of needs. The practical implications are that the food tourism promoters could emphasize the needs and motivations when marketing food tourism services. Sectors of food tourism in Finland classified by the hierarchy of needs are presented, providing practical implications for food tourism promoters and thus offering motivations for food tourism..

Tourist preferences: Influence of unconscious needs

Tran, X.R., L. 2006, Annals of Tourism Research Vol 33 side 424-441.

This study examines the relationships among tourists' unconscious needs for achievement, affiliation and power and their preferences for adventure, cultural, and eco-related tourism. Study data were collected from students at the University of Utah via an online questionnaire. The unconscious needs were scored from their stories created based on thematic apperception test pictures. The tourist preferences were measured through six packages. The relationships among the needs and preferences were examined through canonical variate analysis. Two significant relationships were detected: One between the need for achievement and the preference for adventure tourism; and the other between the need for affiliation and the preference for cultural tourism. © 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved..

Exploring the essence of memorable tourism experiences

Tung, V.W.S.R., J. R. B. 2011, Annals of Tourism Research Vol 38 side 1367-1386.

The concept of the tourism experience has become a focal point for current tourism research and management. While academic studies are increasingly examining tourism as a function of memorable experiences (ME), more research most be done to uncover the essence of what exactly makes certain experiences special, spectacular, and fittingly, memorable. This study sought to explore the essence of MEs based on research from the field of psychology, with a view to understanding the cognitive processes that impede individuals from paying attention to their experiences, as well as the conceptual processes of memory formation and retention. In-depth interviews revealed four key dimensions of MEs: affect, expectations, consequentiality and recollection. Finally, we propose several avenues for future research on MEs. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd..

Sea kayakers at the margins: the liminoid character of contemporary adventures

Varley, P.J. 2011, Leisure Studies Vol 30 side 85-98.

The ethnographic data considered here were gathered over a seven-month period on and around the Isle of Anglesey in North Wales. The data were partly collected during sea kayaking courses at a commercial outdoor centre and also during more informal outings with independent members of a sea kayaking club. Material recorded on accompanied journeys, during participation on group courses and on expeditions was triangulated with notes from semi-structured interviews and spontaneous discussions. The notions of marginal danger and of apparently approaching the 'edge' are key characteristics of the late-modern forms of adventurous leisure. It is proposed that, rather like the strange vertical world of the rock climber or the subterranean one of the potholer, the sea kayakers' environment is an alien, marginal, liminoid world. The ocean is not the natural territory of human beings. The kayakers move from the land to the sea and from comfort to hardship, from security to uncertainty, passivity to commitment and from action governed via ocular experience to total bodily/sensual immersion. Importantly, these shared experiences provide belonging in the ecstatic, temporary, Dionysiac communities who meet in these marginal places and situations in search of adventure and escape. Danger is but a small part of the meaning of such activity; it is the liminoid experience that is of key importance to participants..

Understanding nature-based tourist experiences: An ontological analysis

Vespestad, M.K.L., F. 2011, Current Issues in Tourism Vol 14 side 563-580.

The purpose of this article is to discuss and elaborate on contemporary research on nature-based tourism experiences. Recent studies on nature-based tourism and experiences are analysed within an ontological framework, with a focus on the view of tourists and their experiences, the nature phenomena, role of the presenter, and consequences of tourist presentations. We argue that four main perspectives can be derived based on the interpretation of recent tourism literature. In these texts, nature based tourist experiences can be described in terms of the following categories: (1) the genuine, (2) entertainment, (3) state of being, and (4) socio-cultural community. We discuss the features of each view and possible implications for understanding and managing nature-based tourism products and presentations. © 2011 Taylor & Francis..