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Restaurant and food service life cycle assessment and development of a sustainability standard

Baldwin, C.W., Nana; Kapur, Amit 2011, The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment Vol 16 side 40-49.

There is no clear guidance for responsible food service operations to reduce their environmental footprint, so the efforts put forth by a restaurant may not have the environmental impact intended. As a result, Green Seal conducted life cycle assessment research on restaurants and food service operations to define priorities for environmental improvement. This information was then used to develop a sustainability standard and certification (i.e., ecolabel) program. The life cycle assessment study focused on the day-to-day activities of running a restaurant, including direct and indirect contributions. To do this, a restaurant and food service operations model was developed by grouping the operational activities into four subsystems: food procurement, food storage, food preparation and cooking, and service/support. Data was collected from a range of restaurants in the United States. The impact categories examined included respiratory inorganics, acidification/eutrophication, fossil fuels, ecotoxicity, carcinogens, land use, and climate change. Of all the subsystems, food procurement contributed hotspots in all impact categories examined. On the contrary, the food storage subsystem contributed no hotspot in any of the impact categories examined. Normalization of the results confirmed that food procurement was the largest source of environmental impacts. In addition, it was found that the impacts of food services were dominated by land use, respiratory inorganics, and fossil fuels. The impacts could be reduced with various preferable practices. As a result, a sustainability standard for restaurants and food services was developed to include these preferable practices, the Green Seal Standard for Food Services, GS-46. This study presents an overview of the main environmental impacts from the operation of a restaurant or food service. The results provided direction in the development of a sustainability standard and ecolabel program. This standard, the Green Seal Standard for Restaurants and Food Services, GS-46, is a comprehensive framework for operations to make meaningful reductions in their environmental impact. Further, operations that meet the requirements in the GS-46 standard have demonstrated significant reduction in their environmental impact. Finally, it was found that this environmental impact reduction can be done without added cost (e.g., cost neutral, with potential for financial gains). [PUBLICATION ABSTRACT].

The New ISO 9001 and the problem of ceremonial conformity: How have audit methods evolved?

Biazzo, S. 2005, Total Quality Management and Business Excellence Vol 16 side 381-399.

The new edition of the ISO 9001 standard increases the overlap between the elements that characterize certified quality systems and the logic of Total Quality Management. Parallel to the conceptual evolution of the norm there must be an evolution towards the so-called performance/management audit model, in order to increase the ability to unveil ceremonial conformity and thus increase the value of the certifications. The evolution of the logic of audits takes on particular importance in the context of small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs) since these companies tend to implement formal quality systems only when there is significant external pressure to do so, and when they do, their approach to the implementation of the ISO 9001 standard tends to be minimalist. In this article, the development of a tool for assessing conformity audits (made up of a set of 'behavioural indicators' which describe the actions that represent a behaviour that adheres to the logic of performance audit) is described and the results of an empirical study of a sample of 114 SMEs in the Veneto region are presented. The study highlights the uncertain nature of the evolution of conformity assessments and the prevalence of behaviours related to traditional audits in the indicators that best reflect the innovative logic of performance audits. This is an important message for the national accreditation bodies (at present, in Italy, SINCERT) which qualify auditors and try to make the certification system credible. © 2005 Taylor & Francis Group Ltd..

Sustainable tourism certification and state capacity: keep it local, simple, and fuzzy

Bowman, K.S. 2011, International Journal of Culture, Tourism and Hospitality Research Vol 5 side 269-281.

Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to examine the state of sustainable tourism certification in developing countries and to present methodological and practical critiques and improvements. Design/methodology/approach - The study uses methodological refinements of fuzzy logic and comparative analysis based on fieldwork in seven countries. Findings - Sustainable tourism programs should be locally designed with local logos, largely performance-based, and aggregation should be based on fuzzy logic concepts of necessary and jointly sufficient attributes of sustainable tourism. Originality/value - The paper uses political science concepts of state capacity and methodological advances of fuzzy logic to provide keys for successful sustainable tourism certification programs in developing countries. [PUBLICATION ABSTRACT].


Burgin, S.H., Nigel 2010, International Journal of Business Studies Vol 18 side 23-38.

The ongoing importance of the tourism and hospitality small business sector to the economic wellbeing of a country has been widely acknowledged internationally. Such businesses are important contributors to the environmental, social and cultural sustainability of their regions. There is growing pressure for such businesses to pursue sustainable development principles, commonly perceived by the owners to elevate costs and reduce competitiveness. In this review paper we consider the benefits for small businesses in the tourism and hospitality industry to gain eco-accreditation. We conclude that, despite a large number of such schemes, market awareness is typically low but has potential to provide a competitive edge. Small business operators who choose to lead in eco-accreditation would, however, be wise to ensure that they clearly articulate their scheme to potential customers, and target consumers from countries where interest in such schemes is highest. [PUBLICATION ABSTRACT].

Factors affecting service companies' satisfaction with ISO 9000

Calisir, F. 2007, Managing Service Quality Vol 17 side 579-593.

The purpose of this study has been to determine the level of difficulties/obstacles associated with the implementation of ISO 9000, the importance of achieving expected improvements and the level of success in achieving expected improvements. The overall aim is to specifically explore the influence of these factors on service companies' satisfaction with ISO 9000. A survey methodology was used to gather data. Simple t- and Tukey tests, principal components analysis, and multiple regression analysis were used to test the hypotheses of this study. The results suggest that service companies may be more than satisfied with ISO 9000 if they lay greater emphasis on considering alternative approaches to educating the top and medium level managers and receiving support from top management. They also need to focus on enhancing the enterprise's quality in terms of reputation, inter personal relations, and motivation on the part of employees. There are several limitations. First, the fact should not be ignore that these relationships may not apply to all businesses because the data have been collected from service companies. Second, a large percentage of the satisfaction remains unexplained suggesting the need for additional research incorporating potential unmeasured variables in the current study. Educating top and medium level managers must increase in importance as a competitive priority. Personnel must be provided with extensive training particularly in communication and quality skills. Activities aimed at increasing personnel motivation must be given a high priority. This study presents a thorough understanding on a model of service companies' satisfaction with ISO 9000, and how various factors moderate several paths of the model..

Environmental measures for hotels' environmental management systems

Chan, W.W. 2009, International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management Vol 21 side 542-560.

Purpose - Implementation of environmental management systems (EMS) in hotels is gaining popularity world-wide. ISO 14001, which is the only certifying document in the ISO 14000 series, provides guidelines to set up an EMS. However, there is a paucity of information about the actual environmental measures implemented in ISO 14001 certified hotels. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to identify and generalize the environmental measures undertaken by studied hotels and to evaluate the performance of these environmental measures. Design/methodology/approach - Three case studies were carried out to identify the green measures undertaken in ISO 14001-certified hotels. Both qualitative and quantitative data were collected and analyzed. Then, regression analysis was conducted to examine the relationship between monthly utilities input (electricity, gas, fuel oil and water) and activity parameters. Findings - A total of 113 measures were identified, nearly half of which concern energy conservation. Results of multiple regression showed that R2 for different utilities varied. The explanatory power of equation was strong for electricity consumption, moderate for fuel gas consumption, and weak for both gas and water consumption. Practical implications - The identified measures provide hoteliers with a thorough picture about the actual environmental works involved in this internationally recognized EMS. Hotel operators and owners can use these measures as a reference either for applying EMS certification or for developing their own EMS. Originality/value - The paper, which was based on operational experiences from existing hotels, was a collaborative work between hospitality industry practitioners and educators. The paper is also the first of its kind to unveil the comprehensive environmental measures undertaken in city hotels with ISO 14001 certification. [PUBLICATION ABSTRACT].


Furqan, A.S., Ahmad Puad Mat; Hussin, Rosazman 2010, Theoretical and Empirical Researches in Urban Management Vol side 64-74.

Green tourism is defined as environmentally friendly tourism activities with various focuses and meanings. In a broad term, green tourism is about being an environmentally friendly tourist or providing environmentally friendly tourist services. The green tourism concept would be highly appealing to tourism enterprises and operators owing to increasing governmental pressure to improve environmental performance by adopting effective and tangible environmental management techniques. Furthermore, achievement and promotion of internationally recognized environmental awards would be instrumental to the tourism enterprises in marketing their services. As a result, many concerned and responsible parties put forward recommendations for green tourism products to regulate tourism's negative impacts. This conceptual paper attempts to discuss green tourism concept, green tourism certification and its processes as well explain the comparative approaches of green tourism in a few countries. Towards the end, by this green labeling, the industry can legitimately open up new areas for the more discriminating and wider range of the market, and tourists or visitors can enjoy the holiday they want with a clear conscience. [PUBLICATION ABSTRACT].


Golja, T.N., Marinela Krstinic 2010, Management : Journal of Contemporary Management Issues Vol 15 side 107-121.

In today's rapidly changing tourism market, it is getting more and more difficult for a destination to be competitive on the global level. Hotel companies, as well as tour operators have a very important role in creating the tourism product. Tourism companies should be able to create the tourism product whilst operating in a responsible way. With the implementation of a socially responsible business practice, tourism companies contribute to the achievement of sustainable tourism and, consequently, to the achievement of sustainable development. The discussion about the importance of corporate social responsibility (CSR) in the tourism industry makes the very essence of this paper. The aim of the paper is to present and discuss the level of social and environmental sensitivity of managers of the highest category hotels in the Dubrovacko-Neretvanska, Istarska and Primorsko-Goranska counties. Results presented in this paper are based on the research conducted in the summer of 2008. The research was enriched with the analysis of the web sites of the selected companies in order to get an idea of whether the corporate social responsible practice has been somehow underlined. Results have shown that the practice of CSR has still not been widely recognized. [PUBLICATION ABSTRACT].

Quality management initiatives in Irish hotels -- Emerging agendas in a changing environment

Harrington, D.K., Mary 2006, Tourism and Hospitality Research Vol 6 side 267-283.

This paper reports a quantitative study on the implementation of quality programmes in the Irish hotel industry. An extensive survey was carried out of all hotels registered with the Irish Tourism board. The study assesses the level to which Irish hotels use formal quality methodologies to manage quality in their organisations. Analysis of the data indicates that adoption of formal methodologies within the sector is limited. While quality management is focused on involvement, communication, and teamwork, the study suggests that the management of quality in contemporary Irish hospitality organisations is lacking in precisely these dimensions. The paper concludes that training and development for quality is fragmented and intermittent at best. Irish hoteliers while recognising the importance of quality have few specific quality mechanisms in place. [PUBLICATION ABSTRACT].

An integrated and adaptive management model to address the long-term sustainability of tourist interactions with cetaceans

Higham, J.E.S.B., L.; Lusseau, D. 2008, Environmental Conservation Vol 35 side 294-302.

SUMMARY Rapid growth in demand for tourist interactions with cetaceans in the wild constitutes a challenge to management. Short-term animal behaviour changes can have long-term biological consequences for individual animals and populations. This paper reviews the whale-watching management context, describing the interplay of the macro (global), meso (national/regional) and micro-level (local/site specific) policy, planning and management settings. Here, an integrated and adaptive management model based largely upon the delineation and monitoring of limits of acceptable change (LAC) parameters is proposed to address current shortcomings in the long-term sustainable management of whale-watching activities. Although no integrated management framework currently exists, a comprehensive management approach must be developed and applied in the interests of the long-term sustainable management of tourist interactions with cetaceans in the wild. The proposed management model highlights the importance of integrating multiple stakeholder perspectives in a way that is both research-informed and adaptive. Beyond tourist interactions with cetaceans, this management framework could be applied to a wide range of wildlife management contexts. [PUBLICATION ABSTRACT].

Conceptualization and anatomy of green destination brands

Insch, A. 2011, International Journal of Culture, Tourism and Hospitality Research Vol 5 side 282-290.

Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to extend the concept of green brands to destinations and to examine the application and limitations of green destination brands for nations adopting this positioning strategy. Design/methodology/approach - The paper identifies characteristics of green destination brands, drawing on established concepts in corporate branding, destination branding and green marketing. The paper demonstrates the application and limitations of the concept through an in-depth case study analysis of New Zealand's destination brand to explain the possibilities and problems of building green destination brands at a national level. Findings - The findings suggest that a holistic, strategic approach to building a green destination brand which emphasizes and qualifies the green essence of a nation's brand is required to avoid the pitfalls, cynicism and criticisms of greenwashing. Research limitations/implications - The research findings are embedded in the context studied - New Zealand's destination brand. Additional case studies at multiple levels - nations, regions, cities - would offer a rich database to gain a better understanding of the concept and the implications of green destination branding. Practical implications - Barriers to executing a credible green destination brand position are identified and the implications for destination marketing organizations and their stakeholders are discussed. Originality/value - A conceptualization of green destination brands is provided and the application and limitations of the concept are demonstrated through an in-depth case study of a nation that has adopted this positioning strategy. Rather than taking a snapshot research approach, a historical perspective enabled the development of the destination's brand positioning strategy to be captured. [PUBLICATION ABSTRACT].

Factors Influencing SME Compliance with Government Regulation on Use of IT: The Case of South Africa

Kyobe, M. 2009, Journal of Global Information Management Vol 17 side 30-41,43-56,59.

This study investigated the factors influencing SME compliance with regulation on use of IT in South Africa. The researcher argues that these consist of a combination of business, industry, economic, technological, sociological, and psychological factors. The results show that cost of compliance was the main influencing factor and that both rural and urban SMEs make limited effort to develop policies and demonstrate compliance. Furthermore, a discriminant function analysis revealed that rural SMEs can be distinguished from their urban counterparts in terms of their disposition towards IT regulation by five factors. Perception of high compliance costs was the key distinguishing factor followed by lack of awareness, lack of training on compliance and security, perception of unfair regulation and possession of inadequate security controls. The author hopes that this research-based evidence will provide better understanding of SME compliance behaviors and guide the development of appropriate solutions to compliance challenges in these organizations. [PUBLICATION ABSTRACT].

Scoping the nature and extent of adventure tourism operations in Scotland: How safe are they?

Page, S.J.B., T. A.; Walker, L. 2005, Tourism Management Vol 26 side 381-397.

This paper reports the findings of the first interdisciplinary study of Scotland's adventure tourism sector which is now promoted as one of the new drawcards for domestic and overseas visitors by the National Tourism Organisation - VisitScotland. An analysis of a national survey of adventure activity operators highlights the development of this sector, the characteristics of operators, the way their businesses have been developed and the significance of independently owned and managed small firms in this sector. The survey also examined the characteristics of visitors and markets using adventure tourism products provided by these businesses and the safety issues which these operators faced in managing these types of activities. Based on data collected and application of research techniques from safety management, the injury rates among participants in these activities are reviewed. The growth potential and possible obstacles to this nascent industry sector in Scotland are also examined. © 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved..

Tourist safety in New Zealand and Scotland

Page, S.J.B., T.; Walker, L. 2005, Annals of Tourism Research Vol 32 side 150-166.

This paper develops a comparative research methodology to examine the safety experiences of adventure operators in two destinations: New Zealand and Scotland. The paper argues that a comparative methodology assists in understanding the process of development and change in tourism at different geographical scales. The probability of adventure tourists in each destination experiencing injuries can be deduced from this survey data based on a postal questionnaire used in New Zealand and Scotland. The similarities and differences in the experiences establish the basis for further research in other countries to highlight common injury experiences and mechanisms to reduce such events, and to enhance tourist well-being. © 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved..

The complexity of safety in wilderness guiding in Finnish Lapland

Rantala, O.V., J. 2011, Current Issues in Tourism Vol 14 side 581-893.

This article examines how safety is understood and practised by wilderness guides leading nature excursions with international customers in Finnish Lapland. Commercial nature tourism services in Lapland are not considered adventure-oriented since risk-taking is not an integral part of the guided services. The study shows that even though perceived as low-risk activities, risks are present in a significant part of the everyday actions in commercial nature tourism services. Thus, commercial nature tourism forms a rich context to study the sustainability of contemporary safety practices since it forms a specific, guide-dependent sector of the tourism industry. The discussion further underlines the complexity of safety issues within the industry and the importance of holistic approaches. © 2011 Taylor & Francis..

A quasi-experimental method for testing the effectiveness of ecolabel promotion

Reiser, A.S., D. G. 2005, Journal of Sustainable Tourism Vol 13 side 590-616.

Despite the existence of tourism ecolabels for more than 10 years, tourists' decision making is still only marginally influenced by such labels and it appears that sustainability does not feature much in tourists' general consumption behaviour. However, two recent studies found that tourists' attitudes towards the Green Globe 21 (GG21) ecolabel in New Zealand were positive and the surveyed tourists appeared to have a high awareness of sustainability issues. Based on these findings, a quasi-experiment was conducted in the Christchurch Visitor Information Centre (CVIC) (main tourist hub of South Island) to investigate whether tourists' positive attitudes towards ecolabels would result in increased observable interest of GG21 ecolabelled products. The purpose of this paper is to describe the complex quasi-experimental methodology that has been developed in an attempt to get further insight into tourist behaviour related to ecolabelled tourist products. During May and June 2003 the impact of a promotional campaign on tourists' information search behaviour in the CVIC was tested. Observations of tourists and measurement of brochure up-take showed no increased interest in the ecolabel promotion campaign or the GG21 labelled products in the CVIC. The experimental methodology demonstrated that positive attitudes towards ecolabels are an unreliable predictor of responsible environmental tourist behaviour. © 2005 A. Reiser & D.G. Simmons..

Approaches to quality management in the UK: survey evidence and implications

Soltani, E.P.-C., Lai 2007, Benchmarking Vol 14 side 429-454.

This paper seeks to shift the focus to the implications of various quality management systems, as a pervasive feature of modern organisational life, for business excellence. A mail-based survey is conducted among a total of 150 UK-based European Foundation for Quality Management-affiliated organisations. This quantitative methodology sounds appropriate, given that there is a relative dearth of evidence regarding the nature of quality management systems as quality-driven organisations pursue continuous improvement through such systems. Together, International Organisation for Standardisation (ISO) series and other total quality management (TQM) models were seen as helping organisations in the journey towards business excellence. Despite the apparently high level of interest in various forms of quality management systems, however, a major discrepancy was found between the rhetoric of these systems and the reality of their practice. For example, little evidence was found that the surveyed organisations were developing a more strategic approach to managing soft aspects of quality management. The results also highlighted the fact that the approach emerging in many organisations seems to be relatively the antithesis of that of the TQM-driven organisations. A fundamental limitation of this study relates to its research method and the fact that it draws its data from only a mail-based survey. Therefore, additional follow-up research in the form of case studies - qualitative methodology - should be conducted in order to examine more deeply and validate the survey results. Specifically, despite being viewed as potentially a threat to quality management initiatives, indeed, the paper is in many respects a spirited defence of the distinctive contribution and value of ISO 9000 as a basis and stepping-stone for TQM success. This paper updates the earlier work and significantly highlights the move to broaden the aims and process of quality management systems by using international-wide quality management frameworks..

The implementation and performance outcomes of ISO 9000 in service organizations

To, W.M. 2009, The International Journal of Quality & Reliability Management Vol 26 side 646-662.

Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to explore the patterns with which ISO 9000:2000 was implemented in service organizations, and to examine the performance outcomes and contextual factors which are associated with different ISO 9000:2000 implementation patterns. Design/methodology/approach - Based on a literature review of quality management practice, a questionnaire was developed based on quality management principles of ISO 9000:2000 and three propositions. The propositions were tested using responses from managers or executives in 45 service organizations. Findings - Cluster analysis shows that there are two markedly different ISO 9000:2000 implementation patterns among sample organizations. The analysis results also indicate that organizations with different ISO 9000:2000 implementation patterns performed differently in the two outcomes analysed. Research limitations/implications - Managers in service organizations must realize that ISO 9000:2000 is capable of generating a competitive advantage only if top management is fully committed to the program implementation from a strategic perspective. Originality/value - The paper contributes to the literature by offering new insights on the implementation patterns of ISO 9000:2000 in service organizations and their relationships with performance outcomes and contextual factors. [PUBLICATION ABSTRACT].

Signaling intrinsic service quality and value via accreditation and certification

Walker, R.H.J., Lester W. 2009, Managing Service Quality Vol 19 side 85-105.

This paper considers the role that can be played by independent professional accreditation systems and processes in influencing and grounding the intrinsic quality of what is offered by a service provider who has secured this certification. The approach takes the form of personal interviews conducted with senior management personnel within a range of accommodation providers who were responsible for preparing their accreditation submission. More than 80% of respondents agreed that the process of applying for accreditation forced a critical review of all aspects of their operations, and heightened their awareness of things that could prove problematic and ways by which these problems could be effectively countered. Respondents also agreed that the process served to motivate the development and detailed documentation of policies, systems and procedures, which enabled greater consistency in the standard of what is provided. The findings suggest that rigorous accreditation processes help service providers to review and confirm the appropriateness of what may already be in place, to ground the quality of what might need to be put in place, and to improve the standard of what is currently in place. The paper augments what is posited by the service-profit chain framework, shows how a focus on intrinsic quality can help to close the service design and standards gap, and also shows how extrinsic and independent professional accreditation processes can ground and enable the intrinsic quality and standard of what is offered..

The fuchsia destination quality brand: Low on quality assurance, high on knowledge sharing

Woods, M.D., J. 2006, Journal of Quality Assurance in Hospitality and Tourism Vol 7 side 75-98.

Quality has been widely recognised as a source of competitive advantage in tourism (Poon, 1993; Fayos-Sola, 1996; Laws, 2000). Given the shift that has taken place from interfirm competition to interdestination competition (Go and Govers, 2000; Crouch and Ritchie, 1999), a need to focus on the quality management at the destination level has been identified (Laws, 1995 and 2000; Woods, 2003). In an attempt to address this need, a case study of the Fuchsia destination quality brand, West Cork, Ireland, was carried out. The findings revealed that whilst the Fuchsia brand did not appear to function as a powerful signal of quality to the customer, it did provide a support system which fostered an environment conducive to knowledge sharing amongst the tourism service providers applying for brand membership. This was mostly as a result of the policy of compulsory training for brand applicants. The paper reveals the way in which policies and programmes undertaken to overcome reluctance to participate in a destination quality assurance system also helped remove obstacles to knowledge sharing amongst tourism suppliers at the destination. Copyright © by The Haworth Press, Inc. All rights reserved..

Analyzing performance audit reports of destination management organizations' actions and outcomes

Woodside, A.G.S., M. 2009, Journal of Travel and Tourism Marketing Vol 26 side 303-328.

The present article includes a case study that describes and analyzes three performance audit reports over a 3-decade period for one U.S. State government's destination management organization's (DMO) actions and outcomes. This report extends prior studies (Woodside & Sakai 2001, 2003) that support two conclusions: (a) the available independent performance audits of DMOs' actions and outcomes indicate that frequently DMOs perform poorly and fail to meaningfully assess the impacts of their own actions, and (b) the audits themselves are shallow and often fail to provide information on DMOs' actions and outcomes relating to these organizations largest marketing expenditures. The article calls for embracing a strategy shift in designing program evaluations both by government departments responsible for managing destinations' tourism marketing programs and by all government auditing agencies in conducting future management performance audits. The article offers a "tourism performance audit template" as a tool for both strategic planning by destination management organizations and for evaluating DMOs' planning and implementing strategies..

Performance management in service operational settings: a selective literature examination

Yasin, M.M.G., Carlos F. 2010, Benchmarking Vol 17 side 214-231.

This paper aims to examine, the specific literature related to performance measurement in the service sector. In the process, it also aims to classify and examine innovative approaches and models utilized to measure performance in service operational settings. Based on this investigation, the paper seeks to identify relevant benchmarking implications. A database of 141 peer-reviewed publications, published between 1981 and early 2008, was utilized for the purpose of this paper. The published works included contributions from both practioners and scholars. The International Journal of Productivity and Performance Management is found to be the leading journal in terms of contributions to performance measurement in service operational settings. It contributed 25 articles. The bulk of published work appeared in international journals. These contributions were mixed in nature. They included empirical, conceptual, case studies, literatures reviews and interviews. The focus of the articles examined was also mixed. These articles tended to emphasis operational, customer, strategic, supplier, and environmental aspects of service. Based on the findings of this paper, it is concluded that this area of research is in need of more future efforts aimed at solidifying theoretical constructs and practical applications. Findings derived from this investigation have relevant benchmarking implications. In this context, understanding the different approaches to performance measurement as utilized in service organizations is critical to the efforts of these organizations' performance improvement efforts. Understanding the types and scopes of the different approaches and models utilized to measure performance in service operational settings is important in light of the growing significance of the service sector..