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Adventure and ecotourism safety in Queensland: Operator experiences and practice

Bentley, T.A.C., C.; Page, S. J. 2010, Tourism Management Vol 31 side 563-571.

This study identifies the client injury experience and safety management practices of Queensland adventure and ecotourism operators, and to compare these findings with those from recent New Zealand surveys. The effectiveness of an on-line survey for collecting safety information from operators is evaluated in relation to the future development of an industry safety monitoring system. Some 60 adventure and ecotourism operators were surveyed, while in-depth interviews were conducted with four further Queensland operators. Survey findings indicated a relatively low level of reported incidents, with slips, trips and falls the most common incident type. Risk factors identified by operators related most frequently to adverse and changeable weather conditions and client skills and behavior, and a notable proportion of operators reported that they did not apply important safety management practices. A model of injury control is presented to assist operators in their risk management practice. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd..

A decade of injury monitoring in the New Zealand adventure tourism sector: A summary risk analysis

Bentley, T.A.P., S. J. 2008, Tourism Management Vol 29 side 857-869.

Adventure tourism safety has received relatively little research attention despite the level of risk inherent in many adventure activities. In New Zealand, an absence of surveillance or monitoring of injury in the adventure sector has had important implications for the management of tourist safety. A series of studies conducted by the authors between 1996 and 2006 have sought to address this knowledge gap, with the aim of identifying the extent and nature of adventure tourism injury using a range of primary and secondary data sources. The paper reports on findings from a summary risk analysis of these studies, including evidence for the scale of the adventure tourism injury problem, and ranking of degree of risk for a range of factors for safety in adventure tourism participation. A conceptual model to assist risk management in the adventure sector is presented, and implications of findings for management and the adventure sector are discussed. © 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved..

Adventure tourism and adventure sports injury: The New Zealand experience

Bentley, T.A.P., S. J.; Macky, K. A. 2007, Applied Ergonomics Vol 38 side 791-796.

The primary aims of this study were to establish a client injury baseline for the New Zealand adventure tourism and adventure sport sector, and to examine patterns and trends in claims for injury during participation in adventure activities. Content analysis of narrative text data for compensated injuries occurring in a place for recreation and sport over a 12-month period produced over 15,000 cases involving adventure tourism and adventure sport. As found in previous studies in New Zealand, highest claim counts were observed for activities that are often undertaken independently, rather than commercially. Horse riding, tramping, surfing and mountain biking were found to have highest claim counts, while hang gliding/paragliding/parasailing and jet boating injuries had highest claim costs, suggesting greatest injury severity. Highest claim incidence was observed for horse riding, with female claimants over-represented for this activity. Younger male claimants comprised the largest proportion of adventure injuries, and falls were the most common injury mechanism. © 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved..

Culture of risk in Himalayan mountaineering

Boutroy, E. 2006, Cultiver le danger dans l'alpinisme himalayen Vol 36 side 591-601.

Risk is not the explicit objective of Himalayan mountaineering, but its basic motivation. The description of Himalayan expeditions shows the real dangerousness of mountaineering at high altitude. But climbers' voluntary involvement in an activity practiced in such a perilous environment is essentially worthwhile in that it is recognized, qualified and experienced by them in as various as singular ways. Play with risk may be considered, not without some ambiguity, as a normalized element of Himalayist culture : a common value to climbers, a relatively codified sport test, a means of social valorization and of overstepping ordinary norms. © Presses Universitaires de France..

Adventure tourism products: Price, duration, size, skill, remoteness

Buckley, R. 2007, Tourism Management Vol 28 side 1428-1433.

To test whether commercial tourism products in different adventure activity sectors have different functional characteristics, I took part in tours offered by 75 operators worldwide and analysed price per person per day, duration, prior skill requirements, remoteness, group size and client-to-guide ratios. There is an enormous range of variation. Some activities overlap but some are clearly distinguishable, on commercial as well as operational criteria. Products can be arranged on a scale from low volume, high difficulty, high price to high volume, low difficulty and low price. There are recognisable signatures for some subsectors, but not all. © 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved..

Communications in adventure tour products: Health and safety in rafting and kayaking

Buckley, R. 2010, Annals of Tourism Research Vol 37 side 315-332.

Critical incidents involving communications on health and safety issues amongst staff and clients are examined from 388. days of participant observations in 63 non-motorised waterborne adventure tours in 19 countries. Good communications were critical in maintaining client satisfaction and rescuing them from life-threatening dangers; poor communications put participants at unnecessary risk or led to dissatisfaction. Communications codes, carriers and cultural contexts were all essential aspects. Communications are an important component of adventure tourism products, and deserve further research attention. Adventure tourism provides opportunities to test communications theories under adverse circumstances. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd..

Rush as a key motivation in skilled adventure tourism: Resolving the risk recreation paradox

Buckley, R. 2012, Tourism Management Vol 33 side 961-970.

At least 14 different motivations for adventure tourism and recreation, some internal and some external, have been identified in ∼50 previous studies. Skilled adventure practitioners refer to ineffable experiences, comprehensible only to other participants and containing a strong emotional component. These are also reflected in the popular literature of adventure tourism. This contribution draws on >2000 person-days of ethnographic and autoethnographic experience to formalise this particular category of experience as rush. To the practitioner, rush is a single tangible experience. To the analyst, it may be seen as the simultaneous experience of flow and thrill. Experiences which provide rush are often risky, but it is rush rather than risk which provides the attraction. Rush is addictive and never guaranteed, but the chance of rush is sufficient motivation to buy adventure tours. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd..

Constraints to Outdoor Recreation: Exploring the Effects of Disabilities on Perceptions and Participation

Burns, R.C.G., Alan R. 2007, Journal of Leisure Research Vol 39 side 156-181.

Understanding the constraints of persons with disabilities has long been a concern of natural resource managers, particularly since the inception of the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990. This study examines National Forest visitation and perceived constraints of recreationists in relation to the presence of a person with a disability in one's household. Data were collected through telephone surveys of the general population in three western states. The respondents were segmented into groups based on disability status (personal or within household) and whether the disability hampers their recreation in National Forests. Results showed that 40% of respondents living in a household that included a person with a disability were not constrained by the presence of a person with a disability regarding their National Forest visitation. Being constrained from National Forest use was largely a function of the importance attached to key disability-related constraints. Regression analysis showed that the presence of a disability, age, and other demographic factors influenced these constraints. The existence of a personal disability was a much greater constraint to outdoor recreation visitation than the presence of a person with a disability in one's household. [PUBLICATION ABSTRACT].

Fear and adventure tourism in Brazil

Carnicelli-Filho, S.S., G. M.; Tahara, A. K. 2010, Tourism Management Vol 31 side 953-956.

The search for new non-routine emotions and sensations has become a decisive factor in taking part in adventure tourism. As Barros and Dines (2000) have pointed out, Brazil's natural resources are abundant and have been widely used to promote the nation's tourism. Empirical literature describes fear as one of the main emotions in adventure activities, and for this reason a questionnaire was designed to examine the presence of fear before and after three adventure activities (parachuting, white-water rafting, and rock-climbing). This study not only aimed to consolidate fear as a fundamental emotion in performing such activities but also to stimulate interest for further studies in this area. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd..

Playing with risk? Participant perceptions of risk and management implications in adventure tourism

Cater, C.I. 2006, Tourism Management Vol 27 side 317-325.

Adventure tourism is a rapidly expanding tourism market segment. It is suggested that adventure travel and its related expenditure contribute $220 billion annually to the US economy alone (http://www.adventuretravel.com/seminar_home.htm). However, recent high-profile tragedies in adventure tourism might suggest that participation does not come without its risks. Existing literature would suggest that the pursuit of these risks is a central attraction of these activities. However, drawing on research conducted in the self-styled 'Adventure Capital of the World', Queenstown in New Zealand, the author suggests that this is a simplistic view of adventurous motivation. The research shows that rather than demanding actual risks, participants engaging in commercial adventurous activity primarily seek fear and thrills. The most successful adventure tourism operators are those that have reduced their actual risk levels whilst effectively commodifying the thrills within. Thus the responsibility of the commercial operator to minimise the opportunity for loss to as low a level as possible is not only an ethical one, but also ensures long-term business sustainability. © 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved..

Nature, wild animals and tourism: An experiential view

Curtin, S. 2005, Journal of Ecotourism Vol 4 side .

An experiential view of wildlife tourism concerns the emotional, psychological and physical benefits of taking a wildlife holiday, and provides a different and important understanding of a significant and growing market. Key authors in this field of tourism studies agree that the nature of the tourist experience is a major research priority for the ultimate sustainable management of wildlife-based tourism attractions and destinations. What are the common attributes of a wildlife tourism experience? How does such an experience contribute to the overall psychological well-being of the visitor and what implications might this have for wildlife and wildlife operators? The purpose of this paper is to review the experiential aspects of wildlife tourism consumption that have been revealed to date. It highlights the ethnocentric and anthropomorphic attraction of animals; the human desire to interact with and interpret animal behaviour, and how urbanisation has had a profound affect on our psychological and physical relationship with nature. Particular attention is given to the notions of place, existential space, authenticity and anthropomorphosis. Understanding such concepts in relation to wildlife tourism implies a new phenomenological framework for research to further explore the experiences of wildlife tourists. © 2005 S. Curtin..

What makes for memorable wildlife encounters? Revelations from 'serious' wildlife tourists

Curtin, S. , Journal of Ecotourism Vol 9 side 149-168.

A meaningful understanding of the constituents of a memorable wildlife encounter is required to underpin wildlife tour operators' and destinations' marketing, product development and management strategies based on the premise that consumers' future expectations and behaviours are often based on memories of prior experiences. To this end, this paper presents the results of a qualitative study based on the stories and experiences of 'serious' wildlife tourists. When asked to describe their most memorable wildlife encounters, participants gave a wide range of responses which depended upon a number of key factors such as the charisma of the species, spontaneity, seeing something for the first time, the degree of close proximity, embodied experiences and species congregated in large numbers. On tour, 'wildlife moments' can vary in duration from lasting only a matter of seconds to long undisturbed views of wildlife. They can also come in close succession making the importance of what is being seen lost in the moment; it is only later that the true meaning becomes 'hard-wired'. Surprisingly, unforgettable wildlife experiences are not necessarily made up of the exotic. Highlights can also include endemic birds and animals which visit participants' wildlife-friendly gardens. © 2010 Taylor & Francis..

British Wildlife Tourism Operators: Current Issues and Typologies

Curtin, S.W., K. 2005, Current Issues in Tourism Vol 8 side 455-478.

The UK wildlife outbound tourism sector is a relatively uncharted area of academic study both in terms of demand and supply. The purpose of this paper is first, to move towards a typology of British wildlife tour operators and their favoured destinations, and secondly, to introduce the relationship between satisfying the consumer and sustainable product/destination management. A systematic review of wildlife tourism brochures and in-depth interviews with key stakeholders indicate a gradual shift from a specialised market offering high involvement in a particular species (usually birds) to a more general market looking for an interesting, but pleasant and relaxing holiday based around a general interest in nature and the environment. Both markets coexist in a complex product and tourist spectrum with neither market being entirely inclusive. Instead there is a degree of movement between one and the other which has led to operators offering a wider range of products to suit the hard-core expert and the novice enthusiast. However, product development and satisfying the consumer implies some difficult management dilemmas such as the use of tape recordings, food provisioning and the constant search for new destinations to offer experienced tourists something different..

The emperor's new adventure: Public secrecy and the paradox of adventure tourism

Fletcher, R. 2010, Journal of Contemporary Ethnography Vol 39 side .

This study suggests that successful commercial adventure tourism requires the construction of a "public secret"-something commonly known but not articulated-whereby tourists are able to maintain the contradictory perceptions that they are simultaneously safe and at risk. Previous research has observed that adventure tourism appears to embody a paradox in its attempt to deliver a planned, controlled version of an activity usually defined as dangerous and unpredictable. In order to explain how adventure tourism can succeed despite this paradox, researchers suggested that providers emphasize one aspect of the paradox (risk or safety) while concealing the other. By contrast, the author contends that providers attempt to sell both risk and safety simultaneously, a situation sustained by the fact that the inconsistency between these images, while openly displayed, remains veiled by public secrecy. The author illustrates this analysis through ethnographic research undertaken on whitewater rafting trips in California and Chile. © The Author(s) 2010..

Canyoning adventure recreation in the Blue Mountains World Heritage Area (Australia): The canyoners and canyoning trends over the last decade

Hardiman, N.B., S. 2011, Tourism Management Vol 32 side 1324-1331.

There is limited information on most adventure recreation activities, often including even who partake and trends in the popularity of the activity. The adventure recreation sport of 'canyoning' grew rapidly in the Greater Blue Mountains World Heritage Area (Australia) in the 1990s. Canyoners are typically male, aged in their 30 s, educated, and their preference is to canyon in small groups with friends and families. However the popularity of this adventure sport has waned. Surveys between 2000 and 2002 showed that while canyoner numbers were similar in 2000 and 2001, they declined in 2002. In 2010 the numbers of canyoners were similar to 2002 visitation levels, approximately 40% below 2000 levels. The trend did not appear to be due to increased interest in active/extreme sports (e.g., mountain biking). Bushwalking (hiking) was the preferred alternative recreational activity for over 20% of canyoners at all experience levels. The trends observed between 2000 and 2010 parallel the overall number of tourists to the region, and the commercial canyoning activity. We conclude that at current and projected levels of canyoning, there is not an immediate threat to the canyon environment. © 2011..

Turning national parks into tourist attractions: Nature orientation and quest for facilities

Haukeland, J.V.G., B.; Veisten, K. , Scandinavian Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Vol 10 side 248-271.

This paper presents an exploratory analysis of foreign tourists' quests for facilities in Norwegian national parks, related to their expressed nature orientation. The analysis was based on a survey among German, Dutch and Danish tourists during the summer season of 2008. Exploratory factor analysis was applied to identify underlying dimensions from indicator questions related to nature orientations and to quest for facilities inside and outside the national parks. The indicator questions were primarily inspired by Nils Uddenberg's classification of modern Swedes' nature orientations. We found a significant, although fairly weak, relationship between nature orientation and quest for facilities, applying multivariate regression modelling. The strongest relationship was found for the quest for larger management measures - "Infrastructure & services" - supported by nature orientations labelled Challenge or Sightseeing, while these were disapproved of by the traditional outdoor Recreation orientation. The wish for "Tracks and signposts" was also upheld by nature orientations Challenge and Sightseeing. A segment of the tourists, based on cluster analysis, indicated that one third requested development of "Infrastructure & services", but this segment demanded all kinds of facility developments. The results indicate national park development potentials, clarifying which developments are contended, and diversifying the demand from three major nationalities visiting Norway. © 2010 Taylor & Francis..

Reflections on beliefs and practices from New Zealand outdoor educators: Consistencies and conflicts

Hill, A. 2010, Australian Journal of Outdoor Education Vol 14 side 30-40.

This article draws from a research project in 2007 with a small group of New Zealand outdoor educators. The purpose of the project was to examine teacher beliefs about outdoor education and explore the complex relationships between beliefs, values, and self-perceptions of pedagogical practice. Of specific interest was how theories of consistency and inconsistency (Fang, 1996) related to teachers' experiences. Findings revealed themes where there was consistency between teachers' beliefs and their practices, particularly environmental awareness and care, personal and social development, social action, skill development, and curriculum enrichment. Three themes highlighted inconsistency or conflict between teacher beliefs and educational systems and institutions. These included: tensions between values and practice, resource constraints, and assessment and curriculum pressures of secondary schools. [PUBLICATION ABSTRACT].

Sustaining adventure in New Zealand outdoor education: Perspectives from renowned New Zealand outdoor adventurers on the contested cultural understanding of adventure

Kane, M.J.T., Hazel 2007, Australian Journal of Outdoor Education Vol 11 side 29-40.

New Zealand is renowned as a place of adventure. This representation is enhanced by individuals who have gained world recognition in outdoor leisure pursuits. These adventurers ability to sustain their adventure identities has considerable impact on their lives but also on the sustainability and validity of adventure as an educational avenue. Guided by the ideas of sociologist Pierre Bourdieu, this paper examines and interprets renowned New Zealand adventurers' perspectives of adventure. Analysis of autobiographic adventure texts, memoirs, web pages, externally authored articles in print media and where possible individual interviews focuses on the context, traits, skills and values associated with adventure experience. The adventure narratives in these accounts are predominantly an individual experience focused on personal challenge, control and decision making. The adventure identities are presented as or portray themselves as role models of an adventure experience that is critical to social development and human sustainability. They all share a positive perspective of the educational benefits of adventure experience, but have divergent ideas on what should be understood as adventure. Their 'true' adventure is in conflict with the popular representations, such as bungy jumping thrill, reality TV stunts or survival epics. [PUBLICATION ABSTRACT].

An exploratory study of types of special interest tour preferences and preference demographic variables analysis

Ming-Jian, S.M.-C., Chen 2008, International Journal of Culture, Tourism and Hospitality Research Vol 2 side 271-284.

The paper research objectives are: to investigate into the classification of special interest tour preferences in terms of their types and to compare whether consumers with different demographic attributes result in discrepancies in special interest tour preferences. Those collected questionnaires that had incomplete answers and that had a significant response tendency or were left blank with no answers were eliminated. The required statistical methods are explained thus: this study conducts analysis on special interest tour preferences by factor analysis to distinguish between the categories of special interest tour preferences; this study adopts correlation analysis to examine the ratio scale of the study's demographic variables, including age and education level; this study adopts one-way ANOVA to examine the variables of categorical or nominal scale, such as gender, marital status, and occupation. After collecting the questionnaire data, factor analysis is used to conduct classification of the types and a total of four types emerged: recreation type, nature/ecology type, physical adventure type, historical/artistic activity type. Furthermore, in the verification of the demographic variables of each type preferences: age and nature-eco type preferences constitute a significant positive correlation, and age has also formed a significant negative correlation with physical adventure type; gender differences result in a significant difference in recreation type preferences and a significant difference in physical adventure type preferences; marital status has a significant variation regarding physical adventure preferences. Special interest tours are gradually on the rise and the previous literature is still lacking a systematic method for investigative analysis. Accordingly, conducting a systematic categorization of special interest tour preferences and to examining the background of the consumers of each type of special interest tour preference is essential. The necessity for special interest tours to conform to consumer interests, and the existence of special interests, require that those in the travel industry conduct market segmentation, prior to designing travel itineraries, so as to have an understanding of the target market. Furthermore, the types of special interest tour preference this study provides can offer the basis for discussion of relevant issues for those travel business industry operators in the industry and future researchers. [PUBLICATION ABSTRACT].

Scoping the nature and extent of adventure tourism operations in Scotland: How safe are they?

Page, S.J.B., T. A.; Walker, L. 2005, Tourism Management Vol 26 side 381-397.

This paper reports the findings of the first interdisciplinary study of Scotland's adventure tourism sector which is now promoted as one of the new drawcards for domestic and overseas visitors by the National Tourism Organisation - VisitScotland. An analysis of a national survey of adventure activity operators highlights the development of this sector, the characteristics of operators, the way their businesses have been developed and the significance of independently owned and managed small firms in this sector. The survey also examined the characteristics of visitors and markets using adventure tourism products provided by these businesses and the safety issues which these operators faced in managing these types of activities. Based on data collected and application of research techniques from safety management, the injury rates among participants in these activities are reviewed. The growth potential and possible obstacles to this nascent industry sector in Scotland are also examined. © 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved..

Tourist safety in New Zealand and Scotland

Page, S.J.B., T.; Walker, L. 2005, Annals of Tourism Research Vol 32 side 150-166.

This paper develops a comparative research methodology to examine the safety experiences of adventure operators in two destinations: New Zealand and Scotland. The paper argues that a comparative methodology assists in understanding the process of development and change in tourism at different geographical scales. The probability of adventure tourists in each destination experiencing injuries can be deduced from this survey data based on a postal questionnaire used in New Zealand and Scotland. The similarities and differences in the experiences establish the basis for further research in other countries to highlight common injury experiences and mechanisms to reduce such events, and to enhance tourist well-being. © 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved..

Mountaineering adventure tourists: A conceptual framework for research

Pomfret, G. 2006, Tourism Management Vol 27 side 113-123.

Mountaineering has emerged as a popular form of adventure tourism, yet there is scant research that develops an understanding of its participants. This paper contributes to a theoretical understanding of mountaineer adventure tourists by evaluating previous work on mountaineering, mountaineers, adventure, recreation and tourism. It uses this to develop a conceptual framework to examine mountaineer adventure tourists, the key influences on their participation in mountaineering and their actual experiences during involvement. In this framework a number of influences encourage participation. Push elements (Ann. Tourism Res. 4(4) (1977) 184), including risk (J. Leisure Res. 17(3) (1985) 241; Leisure Today 49(4) (1978) 7; J. Phys. Educ. Recreation 19(4) (1978) 27) and mastery (KYKLOS 52(3) (1999) 315), are influential. Pull elements (Ann. Tourism Res. 4(4) (1977) 184), including the natural mountain environment and mountain conditions are also significant. Other influences are personality attributes such as sensation seeking (Sensational Seeking: Beyond the Optimal Level of Arousal, Erlbaum, Hillsdale, NJ, 1979) and lifestyle factors, including previous mountaineering experience (J. Leisure Res. 17(3) (1985) 241). These components combine to influence people's perception of adventure. During participation, mountaineer adventure tourists experience contrasting emotions, a core element of adventure (Adventure Tourism: The New Frontier, Butterworth-Heinemann, London, 2003). They can also experience flow (The Psychology of Happiness, Rider, 1992) and peak experience (The Farther Reaches of Human Nature, Penguin, Baltimore, MD, 1976). How tourists experience mountaineering, and the emotional states encountered throughout this activity, result from the combined influences that originally encouraged them to participate. The framework differs from previous studies on mountaineering (e.g. Int. J. Sports Psychol. 27 (1996) 308; J. Leisure Res. 17(3) (1985) 241; Pers. Indiv. Differ. 25(6) (1998) 1063; KYKLOS 52(3) (1999) 315) in that it recognises the inter-relatedness of the influences on mountaineering participation, acknowledges the convergence of tourism and recreation in an adventure setting, and emphasises the importance of investigating mountaineers during their actual participation. Discussion of the framework's value to mountaineering tourism providers is presented, and suggestions are made for further study in this under-researched field. © 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved..

Segmenting special interest visitors to a destination region based on the volume of their expenditures: An application to rail-trail users

Spencer, D.M. 2010, Journal of Vacation Marketing Vol 16 side 83-95.

Various general tourist markets have been successfully segmented based on the volume of tourists' expenditures in destination areas. However, the approach has been rarely employed in more narrowly defined 'special interest' tourist markets. This study tested the viability of expenditure-based segmentation in the case of a special interest market comprised of visitors to a rail-trail in the Black Hills of South Dakota, USA. Nonresident visitors were classified as light, medium, and heavy spenders based on their total expenditures in the region. Although heavy spenders comprised only 33% of the Trail's market, their spending accounted for 65% of the expenditures of the market as a whole. Compared to their counterparts, heavy spenders were more likely to have been mountain biking aficionados, to have had higher incomes, and to have had longer lengths of stay and greater involvement with recreation in the study region. Findings suggest how heavy spenders can be successfully reached, attracted, and served. © The Author(s) 2010..

Why Hiking? Rationality and Reflexivity Within Three Categories of Meaning Construction

Svarstad, H. 2010, Journal of Leisure Research Vol 42 side 91-110.

Hiking is a popular leisure activity among people in many industrialised countries. In the case of Norway, a large part of the population goes hiking through forests, mountains and cultural landscapes. What meaning do these hikers attach to their activity? An analysis has been made of letters received from 84 hikers who write about how and why they enjoy their hiking trips. Employing a grounded theory approach, three categories of meaning constructions were identified: a recreation category, a category of the simple outdoors discourse, and a belonging category. In all of these, the hikers see their trips and their further lives in relation to constitutive aspects of modern society. Concepts of rationality and reflexivity were found useful for the interpretation of the meaning contents of each of the categories. [PUBLICATION ABSTRACT].

Tourist preferences: Influence of unconscious needs

Tran, X.R., L. 2006, Annals of Tourism Research Vol 33 side 424-441.

This study examines the relationships among tourists' unconscious needs for achievement, affiliation and power and their preferences for adventure, cultural, and eco-related tourism. Study data were collected from students at the University of Utah via an online questionnaire. The unconscious needs were scored from their stories created based on thematic apperception test pictures. The tourist preferences were measured through six packages. The relationships among the needs and preferences were examined through canonical variate analysis. Two significant relationships were detected: One between the need for achievement and the preference for adventure tourism; and the other between the need for affiliation and the preference for cultural tourism. © 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved..

Conceptualizing special interest tourism - Frameworks for analysis

Trauer, B. 2006, Tourism Management Vol 27 side 183-200.

To advance understanding of Special Interest Tourism (SIT), this paper will explore the complexities of this phenomenon in the early 21st century. First, a look at what is "out there", both from a supply and demand perspective, will serve to paint a broad picture at macro-level. The paper will present a discussion of the SIT phenomenon at the macro-level within a triangular relationship of supply, demand and media. Then, a more specific look at SIT attempts to clarify the ambiguity of the term. Finally, a look at micro-level from the consumer's perspective will introduce the concepts of enduring and situational involvement, and the nature of the product. Proposed frameworks are presented to provide structure and possible directions for future research and as a means of progressing conceptual development. © 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved..

Moving on an effortless journey: Paddling, river-places and outdoor education

Wattchow, B. 2008, Australian Journal of Outdoor Education Vol 12 side .

In an earlier paper I discussed the major findings of a recent research study into participants' experiences of rivers through outdoor education programs that utilised paddling activities as a means of participation and travel (Wattchow, 2007). I concluded that recollections of their river experiences were dominated by the technical requirements of the activity and the cultural expectations for encountering a universalised wild river, and that such responses were problematic for the development of place-responsiveness. This paper presents and discusses additional findings of the research that suggest greater possibilities for a place-based approach to the encounter of rivers through outdoor education paddling programs. Most participants in the research responded favourably, in terms of place, to calm sections of rivers where they felt little threat to their physical well-being. Participants' responses to these encounters continued to suggest a complex mix of cultural ideas from the Romantic wild river (as discussed in the earlier paper) to include the ideal of nature as a refuge from civilisation. However, there were also participant statements that were interpreted as indicative of an intimate, sensory and an embodied response to the river place itself. I conclude the paper by presenting a series of suggestions for a river-place responsive pedagogy in outdoor education. [PUBLICATION ABSTRACT].

Close to the "Edge": Critical issues for adventure tourism operators

Williams, P.S., G. 2005, Asia Pacific Journal of Tourism Research Vol 10 side 247-261.

In recent years, there has been explosive growth in adventure tourism, with large numbers of consumers seeking novel, challenging and exciting adventure experiences while on holiday. Specialized adventure operators have emerged to cater for this demand, with a diverse range of commercialized activities now available. Adventure tourism demand is predicted to grow at around 15% per year (Burak, 1998), and as demand grows, adventure travel companies are urging consumers to go higher, harder, stronger and longer to gain the "ultimate" experience. Unfortunately, despite this growing demand, symbiotically there are large numbers of new companies joining the adventure industry and this is putting pressure on resources. As a result, competitive market pressures are forcing adventure tourism operators to cut corners in order to remain financially viable, and issues such as sustainability of natural resources come to the fore. It is contended in this paper that many adventure tour companies are operating "close to the edge" in terms of their operating practices, indicating a short-term perspective for the industry. Adventure tour operators need to address the critical issues of: protecting the natural environment; protecting tourists from potential risks; and protecting long-term market share through better understanding adventure customers' needs and wants. If adventure tourism operators address these issues now, it will help to provide a long-term and sustainable future for this sector of the tourism industry..


Williams, P.S., G. N. 2009, Annals of Tourism Research Vol 36 side 413-438.

The growth in demand for adventure tourism has been significant in recent years. This study applied an existing marketing framework and empirically examined the relationships between value, satisfaction, and behavioural intentions in an adventure tourism context. Four hundred and two respondents provided their perceptions of the value for an adventure tour in Australia. Customer value was conceptualised as a multidimensional construct and indeed three value dimensions had strong, positive influences on customer satisfaction and behavioural intentions in an adventure tourism setting. Value-for-money was prominent, but also emotional value and novelty value were also significant predictors of satisfaction and future intentions. The present study suggests that researchers should take a broader, holistic view of value in a tourism context. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd..

The relationship between white-water rafting experience formation and customer reaction: A flow theory perspective

Wu, C.H.J.L., R. D. 2011, Tourism Management Vol 32 side 317-325.

White-water rafting is an exciting form of water adventure that not only satisfies the need of tourists to interact with nature, but also represents an invigorating recreational experience, thereby explaining why it has become a popular adventure tourism activity in Taiwan. Although a few studies have analyzed multiple tourist tourism experiences, there is still a lack of research adopting the flow experience perspective to understand tourist motivations when participating in rafting activities. Therefore, this study adopts the concept of flow experience to examine the relationships among experience antecedents, flow experience and result variables. The statistical results show that tourist rafting skill, level of challenge of rafting activity and playfulness significantly and positively influence tourist flow experience that, in turn, promotes a positive mood and satisfaction. Moreover, tourist satisfaction significantly and positively influences tourist loyalty. Finally, the research findings and theoretical and managerial implications are discussed. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd..