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The persistence of the sun and sand tourism model

2005, Tourism Management Vol 26 side 219-231.

The Balearic Islands are one of the world's leading markets for sun and sand tourism. As an example of mass tourism with high environmental costs, they have been condemned by some authors as entering a final phase of decline. In this paper, the Balearic tourist market is analysed, posing three hypotheses: (1) During recent years certain characteristics of sun and sand tourism have changed, but the tourists' behaviour and needs are far removed from "new tourism" stereotypes. (2) As a sun and sand holiday destination, the Balearic Islands have undergone a considerable restructuring process directed at offering improved quality, and it is, in fact, a competitive destination. (3) The model's persistence, in the long term, must be based on the adaptation of the sun and sand tourism model within the framework of sustainable development. © 2003 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved..

Energy use and leisure consumption in Norway: An analysis and reduction strategy

Aall, C. 2011, Journal of Sustainable Tourism Vol 19 side 729-745.

This article discusses the environmental impacts of leisure activities. Calculations are presented for the time-use, money expenditure and energy use involved in leisure services and goods consumed by Norwegians in 2001. The paper draws upon a two-year project financed by the Research Council of Norway. Leisure consumption represented around 23% of the total energy use within private and public consumption in Norway. The energy intensity of leisure consumption, measured in energy use per amount of expenditure, was 20% lower than that of everyday household consumption but 380% times higher than that of public consumption. Surveys show that around half of Norwegian leisure time is spent at home, with considerable use of electronic goods, but that the major energy users are holidays, outdoor recreation and second homes. Growing mobility in leisure patterns is a dominating problem. Leisure consumption is growing rapidly and energy-intensive forms of leisure consumption are growing fastest. A 10-point strategy for reducing the environmental impacts of leisure consumption is presented, including strategies for changing leisure production, changing patterns of leisure consumption, changing the volume of leisure consumption and utilising leisure as an educational arena. © 2011 Taylor & Francis..

Environmental supply chain management in tourism: The case of large tour operators

Adriana, B. 2009, Journal of Cleaner Production Vol 17 side 1385-1392.

Extensive tourism developments and signals of the negative effects on destinations have put sustainability at the core of the business agenda. However, the fragmented structure of the tourism sector remains a key challenge for achieving consensus and developing coherent sustainable tourism strategies. Although supply chain strategies seem logically suitable for the interconnected nature of the tourism industry, there is limited discussion in tourism research about their adoption. In order to advance the knowledge of how sustainable tourism can become more of common practice, this article explores the adoption of environmental supply chain management (ESCM) by eight large tour operators. The results of the investigations show that in the absence of regulatory pressures and cost saving benefits, the adoption of ESCM is triggered by public pressures and its implementation is limited by organizational factors and strategic myopia. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved..

Tourism and hospitality small and medium enterprises and environmental sustainability

Alonso, A.D.O., A. 2010, Management Research Review Vol 33 side 818-826.

Purpose: While environmental sustainability is increasingly gaining relevance, it appears to have been ignored in certain areas, such as in research on water usage of small and medium enterprises (SMEs) in the hospitality and tourism industries. The purpose of this paper is to examine this dimension from the perspective of the operators. Design/methodology/approach: Semi-structured face-to-face and telephone interviews were conducted with ten managers/operators in the Swan Valley region of Western Australia. Findings: Strong manager/operator awareness of the impact of their actions on the environment was demonstrated. Also salient was the factors impinging on implementation of environmental initiatives. Business demands or added costs also present challenges in fully materializing an operator's environmentally sustainable practices, particularly concerning water consumption in service areas, such as in toilets, which represents a large proportion of total water usage. Research limitations/implications: The limited number of participants does not allow for making generalizations of environmentally sustainable practices among SMEs in the hospitality and tourism sector. However, this exploratory study provides insights into an area that has received very limited attention in academic research. Practical implications: As environmental issues may increasingly become more serious, the engagement of managers, operators, the wider business community and other bodies at different levels is critical. In this regard, the study provides several implications for these stakeholders. Originality/value: Very few studies have attempted to investigate environmental issues among small hospitality and tourism enterprises. This paper not only seeks to close knowledge gaps in an under-researched area but also to open the door for future studies in the area. © Emerald Group Publishing Limited..

Mediterranean tourism: Exploring the future with the tourism climatic index

Amelung, B.V., D. 2006, Journal of Sustainable Tourism Vol 14 side 349-366.

This paper examines future climate change scenarios for the Mediterranean region using the Tourism Climatic Index. Currently, an estimated 100 million tourists visit the Mediterranean region annually, largely because of its favourable climate. Experiments with climate change scenarios suggest likely changes, with the Mediterranean becoming too hot in summer, with northern Europe having a more attractive climate, and with the Mediterranean becoming a more pleasant destination in spring and autumn. These spatial and temporal changes in climatic attractiveness could have major impacts on the sustainability of tourism development. Preliminary results for the case study of the Balearic Islands suggest that changes are likely to be detrimental from an economic and social point of view, and neutral or favourable from a resource management and biodiversity perspective. © 2006 B. Amelung & D. Viner..

Tourists' perceptions of environmentally responsible innovations at tourism businesses

Andereck, K.L. 2009, Journal of Sustainable Tourism Vol 17 side 489-499.

This paper investigates tourists' perceptions of environmentally responsible practices by tourism businesses by analyzing the attitudes of tourists toward "green" innovations in tourist places. It was hypothesized that tourists who were more strongly motivated by nature-oriented experiences would perceive environmentally responsible practices as more valuable than tourists less motivated by nature-oriented experiences. The study is based on a survey of individuals who visited the Arizona Welcome Center in northeastern Arizona and the Chamber of Commerce offices in Holbrook and Springerville, Arizona. As expected, visitors with a stronger nature orientation had more positive views of environmentally responsible practices by tourism businesses than tourists not nature-oriented. They felt such innovations are important and valuable. © 2009 Taylor & Francis..

Integrated resort development: The case of Cavo Sidero, Crete

Andriotis, K. 2008, Journal of Sustainable Tourism Vol 16 side 428-444.

Many governments have encouraged integrated resort development in an attempt to improve the well-being of the local population by generating jobs and increasing income, and because of the easier control of tourism activities within their boundaries. However, most research reports various adverse environmental and social impacts. Because of the difficulty of assessing the impacts that may result from the construction of integrated resorts, the majority of research has been conducted after their construction. This study is an impact assessment carried out prior to a large-scale development that examines whether an integrated resort proposed for development at Cavo Sidero, Crete, will result in positive impacts for the destination and the local community, and it investigates whether any conflicting interests have arisen within stakeholder groups. Through primary research examining various stakeholder groups it is revealed that economic impacts are perceived as mostly positive, while social and environmental impacts, in many cases, are viewed as negative, and that conflicting interests have arisen between different stakeholder groups. © 2008 Taylor & Francis..

Toward a product-based typology for nature-based tourism: A conceptual framework

Arnegger, J.W., M.; Job, H. 2010, Journal of Sustainable Tourism Vol 18 side 915-928.

The traditional view of nature-based tourists as a relatively homogeneous group has been questioned, and several scholars have suggested various segmentation typologies. This paper discussesmarket and industry changes and notes key trends, as Fordist tourist products have been replaced by post-Fordist and neo-Fordist products, with both Mc-Donaldization and McDisneyization developments. A range of visitor-based typologies are reviewed, and the conflict between capturing the diversity of today's nature-based tourists while offering management bodies simple tools to segment visitors, identify core groups and improve their marketing is noted. In an attempt to overcome this conflict, the paper presents a conceptual framework which focuses on nature-based tourism products instead of tourist types, therefore incorporating aspects of both the demand and supply sides of the nature-based tourism industry market. A two-dimensional matrix is suggested, linking four basic travel motivations (nature conservation, nature experience, sports/adventure and hedonistic) to four different types of tourist products (independent, à la carte, customized and standardized), giving a total typology of 16 different types. The matrix should help protected area managers to better understand tourist needs, suggest management measures and help to create more sustainable forms of tourism. Empirical testing is suggested as a next step. © 2010 Taylor & Francis..

Comparing voluntary policy instruments for sustainable tourism: The experience of the Spanish hotel sector

Ayuso, S. 2007, Journal of Sustainable Tourism Vol 15 side 144-159.

This paper presents a comprehensive analysis of the voluntary policy instruments most commonly applied by the hotel sector: codes of conduct, best environmental practices, ecolabels, environmental management systems (EMSs) and environmental performance indicators. Based on a qualitative study of Spanish hotel companies that have applied one or more of these voluntary tools, each instrument is reviewed and analysed with regard to incentives and obstacles experienced during its practical implementation. In the comparative assessment of all the tools studied, formal certification systems such as ecolabels and EMSs appear to be the most effective instruments. At a conceptual level, ecolabels and EMSs are the tools with the broadest scope and the only ones that guarantee an improvement of the company's environmental (and sustainable) performance. At the practical level, the present research shows that, although both of these instruments involve higher costs and complexity than the other tools studied, they offer a wider range of tangible and intangible benefits. © 2007 S. Ayuso..

Estimation of tourism-induced electricity consumption: The case study of Balearics Islands, Spain

Bakhat, M.R., J. 2011, Energy Economics Vol 33 side 437-444.

Tourism has started to be acknowledged as a significant contributor to the increase in environmental externalities, especially to climate change. Various studies have started to estimate and compute the role of the different tourism sectors' contributions to greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. These estimations have been made from a sectoral perspective, assessing the contribution of air transport, the accommodation sector, or other tourism-related economic sectors. However, in order to evaluate the impact of this sector on energy use the approaches used in the literature consider tourism in its disaggregated way. This paper assesses the electricity demand pattern and investigates the aggregated contribution of tourism to electricity consumption using the case study of the Balearic Islands (Spain). Using a conventional daily electricity demand model, including data for daily stocks of tourists the impact of the different population growth rate scenarios on electricity loads is also investigated. The results show that, in terms of electricity consumption, tourism cannot be considered a very energy-intensive sector. © 2010 Elsevier B.V..

The third criterion of ecotourism: Are ecotourists more concerned about sustainability than other tourists?

Beaumont, N. 2011, Journal of Ecotourism Vol 10 side 135-148.

Ecotourism can be defined by three core criteria: nature, learning and sustainability. The ecotourist market has been segmented by the nature and learning criteria only. It has been assumed that ecotourists are environmentally concerned and therefore sustainability is a factor in their decision-making. However, little empirical research has confirmed this assumption. This study surveyed 243 respondents participating in an ecotourism experience in Australia. It identified ecotourists according to the nature and learning criteria as per previous segmentation studies. Pro-environmental attitudes were measured as an indication of their support for sustainability. Results revealed no significant differences in pro-environmental attitudes between those identified as ecotourists and those considered non-ecotourists. While demand exists for nature and learning experiences, compliance with the sustainability criterion seems to be no more a factor in ecotourist decision-making than for mainstream tourists. Implications are that market segmentation research should consider all relevant criteria when segmenting a market for a particular product to ensure supply matches demand. However, demand for certain products can be created by innovative marketing practices. This would enable the ecotourism industry to respond to the market's demand for nature and learning, but also influence the behaviour and structure of the market with regard to sustainability. © 2011 Taylor & Francis..

Local tourism governance: A comparison of three network approaches

Beaumont, N.D., D. 2010, Journal of Sustainable Tourism Vol 18 side .

There is an absence of knowledge about the advantages and disadvantages of different local tourism governance approaches. Consequently, experimenting with different modes of local tourism governance is increasingly common. This paper addresses this knowledge gap by investigating the ways in which three different local tourism governance networks operate, and the effects of this governance on local tourism policy. The three local tourism networks examined are a council-led network governance structure, a participant-led community network governance structure and a local tourism organisation (LTO)-led industry network governance structure. The study found that these governance arrangements were underpinned by four key trade-offs and that these tended to shape the effectiveness of local tourism governance. The significance of this paper is that it opens up discussion about local tourism governance, highlights the advantages and disadvantages of different approaches and reflects on their relevance to sustainable tourism management. The findings can inform local councils interested in improving their local organisation of tourism, and spur further research. © 2010 Taylor & Francis..

Measuring national carbon dioxide emissions from tourism as a key step towards achieving sustainable tourism

Becken, S.P., M. 2006, Journal of Sustainable Tourism Vol 14 side 323-338.

Most tourism-related activities require energy directly in the form of fossil fuels or indirectly in the form of electricity often generated from petroleum, coal or gas. This consumption leads to the emission of greenhouse gases, mainly carbon dioxide. Tourism is not a traditional sector in the System of National Accounts and as a result no country possesses comprehensive national statistics on the energy demand or emissions specifically resulting from tourism. This paper suggests two approaches for accounting for carbon dioxide emissions from tourism: a bottom-up analysis involving industry and tourist analyses, and a top-down analysis using environmental accounting. Using the case study of New Zealand, we demonstrate that both approaches result in similar estimates of the degree to which tourism contributes to national carbon dioxide emissions. The bottom-up analysis provides detailed information on energy end-uses and the main drivers of carbon dioxide emissions. These results can be used for the development of targeted industry-based greenhouse gas reduction strategies. The top-down analysis allows assessment of tourism as a sector within the wider economy, for example with the purpose of comparing tourism's eco-efficiency with other sectors, or the impact of macroeconomic instruments such as carbon charges. © 2006 S. Becken & M. Patterson..

Sustainable management of an alpine national park: handling the two-edged effect of tourism

Behrens, D.A.B.-f., Birgit; Getzner, Michael 2009, Central European Journal of Operations Research Vol 17 side 233-253.

Attracting visitors to an alpine national park can open up additional sources of funding for species conservation. However, tourism also brings ecologically negative impacts to the park and, in particular, to endangered species. In this paper, we discuss the handling of this two-edged effect of nature-based tourism within the context of a national park's management decision. We develop a stylized model which frames the interaction of a representative largely unknown species, its habitat, and park visitors in an alpine ecosystem. In applying this to the protection of a rock partridge population in the Hohe Tauern National Park (Austria), we illustrate that a combined visitor and species protection policy can maximize steady state net benefits from tourism and conservation, while ensuring that the endangered species reaches its conservation target in the long run. Thus, even for a small, largely unknown species such as the rock partridge, and not only for popular species like the golden eagle, it is possible to endogenously generate a conservation budget by attracting visitors. [PUBLICATION ABSTRACT].

Valuation of tropical forest services and mechanisms to finance their conservation and sustainable use: A case study of Tapantí National Park, Costa Rica

Bernard, F.d.G., R. S.; Campos, J. J. 2009, Forest Policy and Economics Vol 11 side 174-183.

The Tapanti National Park in Costa Rica comprises a precious but vulnerable tropical rain forest area. The monetary values of ecosystem services that are provided by this park are estimated in order to assess the mechanisms to finance the park's conservation and sustainable use. The main ecosystem services provided by the park are water supply (for drinking and electricity generation), maintenance of biodiversity and opportunities for recreation and tourism. Based on interviews with over 300 stakeholders, the study identified the main beneficiaries of these ecosystem services. The monetary benefits of the three services combined were estimated at approx. US$2.5 million/year, equivalent to an average of US$43/year for the total park area (58.323 ha). Compared to other, similar areas, the recreation values are relatively low (approx. 0.6 million US$/year) while the water-supply service is very high: approx. 1.7 million US$/year for hydro-electricity and approx. 0.2 million US$/year for drinking water. Both the low recreation and high water supply values can be correlated with the high rainfall of over 6500 mm/year. To develop payment-mechanisms for the conservation and sustainable use of Tapantí National Park, the main stakeholders were asked about their willingness to pay for the maintenance of the services they benefited from. Different financing mechanisms have been explored, such as taxes, user fees, individual and corporate donations, friends' schemes, and voluntary contractual arrangements. In general, most of the stakeholders were willing to pay for the ecosystem services they received. These potential payments amounted to at least 400,000 US$/year, which excludes the hydro-electricity beneficiary. Even without payments from the hydro-electricity company, this amount suffices to cover the current (245,000 US$) and urgently needed additional budget (100,000 US$) for the National Park management. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved..

Wildlife tourism and natural sciences knowledge: Challenges and critical factors

Bertella, G. , Scandinavian Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Vol 11 side 97-114.

This paper investigates the challenges and critical factors for the development and management of a form of wildlife tourism that is based on an active and practice-near role of natural sciences knowledge, and that, ultimately, can contribute to sustainability. Based on the study of a specific firm located in northern Norway which has developed a scientific form of wildlife tourism, the main challenges are identified in the limited access to competent and dedicated human capital and the difficulties related to networking, especially in the local area. The case study suggests that the factors that contribute positively to the attractiveness of wildlife tourism are also the ones that tend to affect its development negatively. The peripheral location makes the tourist product exotic, but at the same time it makes the recruitment of qualified co-workers particularly challenging. Similarly, the peculiarities of the individual firm contribute to the uniqueness of the tourist product, but they can isolate the individual firm from the other actors of the local context. Based on the findings, policy implications and directions for further research are identified. © 2011 Taylor & Francis..

Measuring responsibility: An appraisal of a Scottish National Park's sustainable tourism indicators

Blackstock, K.L.W., V.; McCrum, G.; Scott, A.; Hunter, C. 2008, Journal of Sustainable Tourism Vol 16 side 276-297.

Descriptions of the ambivalent role that tourism plays in sustaining fragile environments, communities and cultures are well rehearsed in the tourism literature. Tourism indicators are increasingly seen as a way to measure and monitor impacts (both positive and negative) in order to practice adaptive management. Responsible tourism focuses on the choices made by visitors and their hosts, emphasising changing behaviour in order to change tourism outcomes. Thus, responsible tourism provides a particular lens by which to consider how to improve the sustainability of tourism. This paper explores whether a draft sustainable tourism indicator set for one of Scotland's new National Parks measures responsible behaviour (by both tourists and the host communities) and responsible tourism practices. Therefore, the analysis focuses on issues of responsibility for what, by whom and whether the tourism strategy in question will result in responsible tourism. The paper reports our findings and reflects on how the lens of responsible tourism might provide a useful perspective from which to appraise tourism indicators in the future. © 2008 K. L. Blackstock et al..

European Hoteliers' Environmental Attitudes: Greening the Business

Bohdanowicz, P. 2005, Cornell Hospitality Quarterly Vol 46 side 188-204.

Although many hotels rely on the natural environment to attract guests, a survey of European hoteliers finds that environmental stewardship has taken a backseat to other operational concerns in many cases. Nevertheless, the surveyed hoteliers recognized that the hotel industry would do well to be more environmentally conscious. Managers in chain-affiliated hotels were generally more likely to pay attention to environmental issues than were independent operators, many of whom run small properties. The respondents noted that few hotel guests demand that hotels maintain environmental programs. [PUBLICATION ABSTRACT].

Using a tourism importance-performance typology to investigate environmental sustainability on a global level

Bojanic, D. 2011, Journal of Sustainable Tourism Vol 19 side 989-1003.

A major issue surrounding the tourism industry is the trade-off between the positive and negative impacts of increased visitation. Countries welcome tourism's positive effects on their economy but fear tourism's impact on culture and environment. There is also debate about tourism's effectiveness in reducing poverty and sharing economic benefits across residents. In this study, 120 countries were grouped on the basis of the relative importance of tourism to their economies and their relative performance in terms of international tourism receipts per capita. Then, the profiles for the categories derived from this tourism importance-performance typology were examined, and their environmental performance compared across categories using indicators that measure environmental health and ecosystem vitality. The majority of countries fell into the categories with a consistent level of importance and performance (i.e. low importance/low performance and high importance/high performance). Overall, the countries in the two high performance categories (i.e. low importance/high performance and high importance/high performance) fared better in terms of environmental health and ecosystem vitality. The results are presented in detail and the policy implications for tourism managers are discussed. © 2011 Taylor & Francis..

Governance, the state and sustainable tourism: A political economy approach

Bramwell, B. 2011, Journal of Sustainable Tourism Vol 19 side 459-477.

Collective actions are often needed to promote the objectives of sustainable tourism in destinations.Governance is the basis of these collective actions. This paper contends that research on the governance of tourism and sustainability would benefit from greater use of social theory. It shows how one social theory, a strategic-relational political economy approach, can offer insights into state interventions affecting tourism and sustainability in destinations. The paper uses a literature review and case studies incorporating ideas from this approach to understand the state's influences on tourism and sustainability. Case studies are taken from Germany, China, Malta, Turkey and the UK. Arange of distinctive perspectives and themes associated with this approach are assessed. They include the approach's holistic, relational and dialectical perspective, its focus on the state's roles in regulating the economic and political systems, its concern with the interactions between agency and structure, and the adaptation of state activities at different spatial scales and at different times, together with the concepts of path dependence and path creation. These perspectives and themes are directions for future research on governance, the state and sustainable tourism. © 2011 Taylor & Francis..

Stage and path dependence approaches to the evolution of a national park tourism partnership

Bramwell, B.C., V. 2009, Journal of Sustainable Tourism Vol 17 side 191-206.

This paper examines two approaches to the study of the evolution of tourism partnerships over time: a stage approach and a combined path dependence and path creation approach. They represent alternative frameworks to explain temporal trends in partnership management and activities. Previous applications of the stage approach to tourism partnerships have emphasized common phases in the evolution of their organizational arrangements and management activities. Path dependence and path creation ideas have not been used previously to understand tourism partnerships. The path dependence approach highlights continuities and changes between past and current practices in the organization of partnerships and in their activities. It helps establish if partnerships fundamentally alter the policy environment and practical outcomes, and thus if they are path-creating and innovative, and it also assists in explaining the influences on these processes. The two approaches are used to evaluate a partnership established to reduce conflicts around tourism and conservation in a British national park. The case study illustrates the valuable but different insights that the stage and path dependence approaches offer for research on partnership working..

Crises, sustainable tourism and achieving critical understanding

Bramwell, B.L., B. 2011, Journal of Sustainable Tourism Vol 19 side .

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Sustainable tourism and the evolving roles of government planning

Bramwell, B.L., B. 2010, Journal of Sustainable Tourism Vol 18 side .

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Critical research on the governance of tourism and sustainability

Bramwell, B.L., B. 2011, Journal of Sustainable Tourism Vol 19 side 411-421.

Tailored and effective governance is a key requirement for implementing sustainable tourism: it can enhance democratic processes, provide direction and offer the means to make practical progress. This introduction explains how the papers in this collection provide critical assessments of the theory and practice of tourism governance and sustainability. It argues that theoretical frameworks are crucial to research on the subject as they affect the issues examined and the policy recommendations made. Several papers in the collection focus on relevant theoretical frameworks and concepts, while others consider governance at different geographical scales and the interconnections between those scales. The temporal dimensions of governance are also explored because sustainable development relates to long time horizons. Governance is also considered in relation to trade-offs, policy failures, learning processes, adaptive management, the public sphere and the principle of subsidiarity. © 2011 Taylor & Francis..

Economic cycles, times of change and sustainable tourism

Bramwell, B.L., B. 2009, Journal of Sustainable Tourism Vol 17 side .

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Golf-centered development in coastal Mediterranean Europe: A soft sustainability test

Briassoulis, H. 2007, Journal of Sustainable Tourism Vol 15 side 441-462.

Since the late 1980s, upmarket tourist and residential golf resorts, golf-centered development (GCD) henceforth, are spreading in the environmentally sensitive and already stressed coastal Mediterranean Europe. This paper examines, on a Mediterranean- wide level, whether and under what conditions GCD is (or might be) a sustainable local and regional development option. After reviewing the main features of GCD in coastal Mediterranean Europe, it conducts a soft sustainability test using a set of criteria that reflect the overarching quest to maintain the present and future integrity of local and regional socio-ecological systems. The criteria are assessed using primary and secondary information for coastal Mediterranean Europe complemented with international evidence where appropriate. The findings indicate that the principal criteria of resource maintenance and use efficiency, livelihood sufficiency and opportunity and intra- and intergenerational equity as well as the necessary conditions to achieve them may not always be satisfactorily met. A summative evaluation, guided by Aristotelian phronesis in balancing multiple goals under conditions of uncertainty, suggests that GCD engenders considerable risks to sustainable local and regional development in coastal Mediterranean Europe. Siting GCD should be embedded within cautious strategic regional planning that is multifunctional, collaborative and adaptive. In closing, the paper indicates future research directions. © 2007 H. Briassoulis..

Tourism, cultural diversity and sustainable development: The tourism dialogue at the Barcelona Forum 2004

Buckley, R. 2005, Journal of Ecotourism Vol 4 side 62-64.

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Natural capital and the advocacy of ecotourism as sustainable development

Butcher, J. 2006, Journal of Sustainable Tourism Vol 14 side 529-544.

This paper critically considers the role of the concept of natural capital (a term originating in the field of ecological economics) in the advocacy of ecotourism as sustainable tourism in the rural developing world. Natural capital is defined, and the sense in which it is employed to underpin the claim that ecotourism can constitute exemplary sustainable development is examined. In order to achieve the latter, the paper draws upon five case studies featuring NGOs that have been at the forefront of developing and commenting upon ecotourism as a strategy for integrating conservation and development. The paper concludes that, despite important differences within the advocacy of ecotourism as sustainable development, there is a shared 'strong sustainability' approach to the issue - one that assumes a very limited capacity for natural capital to be substituted by human created capital. Moreover, it is argued that this approach to sustainability is itself limited and limiting with regard to the prospects for development in some of the poorest areas on the planet. © 2006 J. Butcher..

Rain forest entrepreneurs: Cashing in on conservation

Carr, T.A.P., Heather L.; Ramaswamy, Sunder 1993, Environment Vol 35 side .

To help solve the problem of rainforest destruction in Latin America, several businesses are taking steps to preserve the vast resources of these regions. A clothing manufacturer, a pharmaceutical firm and an ecotourism company have proved that sustainable development can indeed be profitable..

Zoo tourism: Biodiversity conservation through tourism

Catibog-Sinha, C. 2008, Journal of Ecotourism Vol 7 side 160-178.

Zoos endeavour to meet their conservation role through captive breeding, education, research, animal welfare, environmental enrichment, reintroduction, and support for in situ conservation of species and their habitats. Zoo tourism can be a tool in promoting biodiversity conservation, especially through education and interpretation. This paper discusses the challenges and constraints faced by zoos in meeting their conservation role while at the same time providing opportunities for the public to learn more about and enjoy nature, albeit in artificial conditions. A case study of the captive breeding programmes that are implemented in the Philippines in collaboration with certain leading zoos overseas is also presented. It examines the potential contribution of tourism in sustaining these programmes. Zoos' ability to balance the need to remain economically viable and to play a major role in biodiversity conservation is a major challenge that requires sustained public support and collaboration with other zoos including relevant research and academic institutions. More research is needed to determine the contribution of zoos and captive breeding centres as tourism attraction/destinatoin towards the promotion of conservation ethos and sustainable zoo tourism practice. © 2008 Taylor & Francis..

Tourism organizations and land trusts: A sustainable approach to natural resource conservation?

Chancellor, C.N., W.; Farmer, J.; Coe, E. 2011, Journal of Sustainable Tourism Vol 19 side 863-875.

This study explores current and potential collaboration efforts between land trusts (LTs) and tourism entities in the USA. LTs and tourism entities have convergent needs and goals regarding natural resource protection, possibly making them suitable partners. Sustainable tourism development needs natural resource protection; land trusts have proved economically viable and effective methods for protecting natural areas. While some case studies have described collaboration efforts by selected LTs and tourism entities, this mixed methods exploratory study is based upon survey data from 279 local and regional LTs operating across the USA. The study is grounded in both the Primary Environmental Care (PEC) conceptual model and Jafari's Background Tourism Elements concept, providing clarity on current and potential collaboration efforts between LTs and tourism entities. The survey showed that tourism-related characteristics, especially scenic qualities, were acceptable to land trusts, and that tourism was the most mentioned industry within LT areas. Only 39% of LTs currently work with tourism entities; however, only 4% of LTs report opposition from tourism entities to their conservation work. LT managers were strongly in favor of future collaboration with tourism interests. All five of the key components required for the PEC model were found. © 2011 Taylor & Francis Francis..

Is tourism with a low impact on climate possible?

Chenoweth, J. 2009, Worldwide Hospitality and Tourism Themes Vol 1 side 274-287.

The purpose of this paper is to examine the impact of a range of different travel and tourism options, and quantifies the carbon-dioxide emissions resulting from international vacations, breaking down emissions categories into those resulting from transport, accommodation and recreation. The paper uses summary data to review a range of possible vacation scenarios and examines their relative carbon-dioxide emissions in order to compare the relative climatic impact of different forms of tourism and vacation options. The paper concludes that intercontinental flights and cruise ship travel are particularly carbon-intensive, which suggests that these two forms of tourism will be particularly vulnerable to any policy initiative to curb or price carbon emissions. Ends by considering whether climatically responsible international tourism is possible, and outlines some low-carbon options. The paper relates data on carbon emissions to the implications for tourism arising from climate change..

Proposing a sustainable marketing framework for heritage tourism

Chhabra, D. 2009, Journal of Sustainable Tourism Vol 17 side 303-320.

This study tests a sustainable marketing protocol for heritage tourism institutions. The marketing plans of 24 museums across the United States are examined to grasp the empirical reality of the proposed model. The model is crafted along strategic marketing criteria, including measures such as environment analysis, level of local community involvement, partnership, and maintenance of traditional preservation-based objectives of the museums. A gap between the philosophical underpinnings of the proposed model and the existing marketing strategies is found. It is noted that the contemporary museum ethos in many regions of the United States is centered on short term plans and current survival. Additionally, regardless of locations, funding and short-termism dictate the core elements of all marketing plans. Overall, the results indicate that dedicated efforts and more awareness are needed to sustain the core purpose of contemporary museums. Using an applied approach, this study offers a unique and realistic perspective to a conceptually drawn framework. The results enhance the marketing literature, offer suggestions on how museum marketing plans could include sustainable elements and become part of a sustainable heritage tourism paradigm.© 2009 Taylor & Francis..

Resident attitudes toward sustainable community tourism

Choi, H.C.M., I. 2010, Journal of Sustainable Tourism Vol 18 side 575-594.

This study examined, using social exchange theory, a range of variables involved in determining resident attitudes toward tourism development and the adoption of sustainable tourism. After a comprehensive review of the literature on the role of residents in tourism development, and of the use of social exchange theory, 430 completed questionnaires obtained in a Texas town involved in tourism were analyzed. A structural equation model was utilized to understand the effects of selected components of sustainability on the attitudes of the respondents about future tourism development and to test hypothesized causal relationships among the variables. The findings revealed that three major components of sustainable tourism, namely long-term planning, full community participation and environmental sustainability within tourism, are critically related to support for tourism and to the positive and negative impacts of tourism. The paper uses the findings to suggest critical implications that local governments need to consider when developing tourism. © 2010 Taylor & Francis..

Tourism as a tool for poverty alleviation: A critical analysis of 'pro-poor tourism' and implications for sustainability

Chok, S.M., J.; Warren, C. 2007, Current Issues in Tourism Vol 10 side 144-165.

Forecasts of high tourism growth in developing nations, where widespread poverty exists, has led to considerable interest in tourism as a tool for poverty alleviation. Powerful bureaucratic and business alliances have been forged to expand this programme. International development agencies are also turning to tourism as a way of alleviating poverty. This is sometimes termed 'pro-poor tourism' (PPT). Distinguished from other forms of 'alternative tourisms' such as ecotourism and community-based tourism, the stakeholders involved in this enterprise are no less divided. Ideological divisions manifest themselves in the political struggle over how tourism in developing countries should unfold. This paper identifies the different sustainability positions of prominent pro-poor tourism stakeholders and considers the implications for meeting pro-poor and sustainability objectives. Generally, tourism is too often regarded a panacea without an attendant recognition that, like any other industrial activity, tourism is highly political. As a global industry, tourism operates within a neo-liberal market economy which presents severe challenges to meeting pro-poor and sustainable development objectives. This paper therefore recommends a fundamental re-evaluation of tourism's pro-poor potential in the absence of significant commitment to directly address structural inequities which exacerbate poverty and constrain pro-poor attempts. © 2007 S. Chok et al..

Planning for sustainable ecotourism: The case for research ecotourism in developing country destinations

Clifton, J.B., A. 2006, Journal of Sustainable Tourism Vol 14 side 238-254.

Research ecotourism is a relatively new component of activities within the ecotourism industry, providing research opportunities for visitors focusing on aspects of the natural environment which are principally located in developing countries. This paper is directed towards identifying the nature and causes of socio-cultural impacts of this strand of ecotourism using a case study from Indonesia. The positive nature of socio-cultural impacts perceived by host communities alongside the irregular nature of economic benefits to host communities is analogous with the altruistic surplus theory of individual recognition of communal benefits. Certain characteristics of research ecotourists are identified as contributing towards host reactions towards visitors which reinforce the contention that this is a desirable form of ecotourism in similar locations. © 2006 J. Clifton & A. Benson..

Towards an integrated image-based typology of volunteer tourism organisations

Coghlan, A. 2007, Journal of Sustainable Tourism Vol 15 side 267-287.

This paper focuses on volunteer tourism organisations that offer conservation expeditions, where volunteer tourists can assist in scientific research or ecological restoration. It seeks to identify organisational. images and suggest how these images affect the expectations of volunteer tourists. Using the promotional material of volunteer tourism organisations, the contents of organisations' mission statements, promotional photographs and volunteer testimonies were analysed. Potential volunteer tourists were also asked to perform a multiple sorting procedure on the organisations' brochures to assess their images of volunteer tourism organisations. From the results, four groups of volunteer tourism organisations were identified and labelled 'conservation research expeditions', 'holiday conservation expeditions','adventure conservation expeditions' and 'community holiday expeditions'. It is proposed that organisations need to be aware of their perceived images in order to match their volunteers' expectations and needs, manage tourists' expectations and ensure the success of their volunteer tourism expeditions. © 2007 A. Coghlan..

Applying a transformative learning framework to volunteer tourism

Coghlan, A.G., M. 2011, Journal of Sustainable Tourism Vol 19 side 713-728.

This paper applies the educational theory of transformative learning to reconceptualising the practices of volunteer tourism. The theory of transformative learning posits a 10-step process to experience a radical shift in consciousness that dramatically and irreversibly alters howparticipants see their place in theworld.Volunteer tourism has commonly been seen as a formof alternative tourism that provides a cathartic experience for the volunteer tourists and benefits to the hosting organisation and the natural and/or social environment of the project. Existing research suggests that these outcomes have not, as yet, been achieved by current practices in this sector. In referring to the theory of transformative learning we note that some, but not all, of the 10 steps have been applied and that we might therefore expect volunteer tourism to fall short of its promises. We conclude that the theory of transformative learning offers a useful framework for volunteer tourism, providing insights into the need to create opportunities for participants to complete the transformative process. We suggest that volunteer tourism organisations redesign their activities to include the remaining steps of transformative learning to improve their product for both the tourists and the sustainability outcomes of the projects. © 2011 Taylor & Francis..

Information and empowerment: The keys to achieving sustainable tourism

Cole, S. 2006, Journal of Sustainable Tourism Vol 14 side 629-644.

Sustainable tourism is a sub-branch of sustainable development that was put on the world agenda with the publication of the Bruntland report. The report focused on environmental issues and the natural environment has remained a central theme. Socio-cultural issues have been overshadowed or marginalised. Community participation, although considered essential in sustainable tourism, is a concept subject to much interpretation. Based on longitudinal action research this case study, from Eastern Indonesia, provides theoretical coverage and practical ideas of how community participation can be moved from the passive, rhetorical end of the participation scale towards empowerment. Tourism has the potential to empower communities and the sustainable tourism agenda needs to focus on how to bring this about. As the case study illustrates, understanding tourists and tourism processes is the first stage to empowering the local community to make informed and appropriate decisions about their tourism development. Considerable investments are required in communication and trust building between the actors in tourism. This paper examines how action research, focus groups and the creation of a tourism forum can be concrete, first steps towards achieving sustainable tourism development in the 21st century. © 2006 S. Cole..

From whaling to whale watching: examining sustainability and cultural rhetoric

Cunningham, P.A.H., Edward H.; Wearing, Stephen L. 2012, Journal of Sustainable Tourism Vol 20 side 143.

This paper explores whaling and whale watching to determine the viability of their divergent practices -- and explains why they coexist in some cases. Whale watching is often viewed as an ecotourism product and presented as an activity that is fast growing, holds potential for local regeneration, promotes conservation and sustainable practice and is ecological and profitable. Whaling is currently under considerable scrutiny and relies on economic and increasingly cultural rhetoric to support its viability. Contrary to some statements, it is rarely a long-established practice. The paper uses Japan and Iceland as examples to examine the sustainability frameworks and political rhetoric surrounding these activities, and asks whether whale watching might offer an alternative economy for the whaling/fishing communities in an era of conflict over sustainable resource use. The paper finds that whale watching participation grew from 9 million tourists in 2001 to 13 million in 2008, with revenues rising from $1 billion to $2.1 billion per annum over that period. Whaling relies heavily on state and private subsidies. We also find, however, that whaling and whale watching can co-exist, that both use sustainability-based rhetoric, but that global trends in public opinion and taste favour whale watching over whaling. [PUBLICATION ABSTRACT].

Sustainable transport, market segmentation and tourism: The Looe Valley Branch Line Railway, Cornwall, UK

Dallen, J. 2007, Journal of Sustainable Tourism Vol 15 side 180-199.

This paper uses cluster analysis, a form of a posteriori market segmentation, to understand the attitudes of tourists and the local community towards using the Looe Valley Branch Railway Line. The research revealed five segments of users distinguished by their attitudes towards using the train. Following this, the paper discusses the implications of the survey findings for attracting more people to use the Looe Valley Line. It sets its findings in the context of the sustainable tourism aims of reducing transport congestion and emissions, as well as recent work on assessing the scope for sustainable transport development in the leisure and tourism markets. © 2007 J. Dallen..

Accessible tourism and sustainability: A discussion and case study

Darcy, S.C., B.; Pegg, S. 2010, Journal of Sustainable Tourism Vol 18 side 515-537.

This paper explores the concept of accessible tourism and its links with triple-bottom-line (TBL) sustainability. Accessible tourism is reviewed through some of its central features including dimensions of access, universal design and the nexus between ageing and disability. The TBL is then examined to better understand the financial, environmental and social considerations that arise from accessible tourism. The research design used in this explorative research incorporated a case study approach, where a business case study instrument was developed. Methods included a Delphi group, review of management information systems, in-depth interviews with key informants, observation and participant observation. The study results revealed that rather than accessible tourism being a single construct, it forms one critical dimension of a series of interrelated, overlapping and interdependent business arrangements that extend beyond the business entity through a series of social networks within the destination region. It is argued that to properly satisfy the accessible tourism market, a more sophisticated understanding of accessible destination experiences is needed by tourism operators. The case study illustrates the considerable size and multi-niche markets served by accessible tourism destinations, the good fit between accessible tourism and TBL sustainable tourism, and the need for further research. © 2010 Taylor & Francis..

Climate change, marine tourism, and sustatnability in the Canadian arctic: Contributions from systems and complexity approaches

Dawson, J.M., P. T.; Slocombe, D. S. 2007, Tourism in Marine Environments Vol 4 side 69-83.

The climate-sensitive tourism industry, including Arctic marine tourism, is expected to be significantly impacted by climate change. The multifaceted impacts of climate change at multiple scales warrant a theoretical framework that is able to effectively examine complex and integrated relationships. The complex ties between culture, economy, and environment in the Arctic also mean a systems perspective on tourism-related change and sustainability seems highly appropriate. This article outlines some systems approaches to Arctic marine tourism. Key contributions of a systems framework include reconceptualizing Butler's Tourism Area Life Cycle, providing a framework for describing and understanding the tourism-climate change system, including identifying change influences and dynamics at varied spatial and temporal scales, and informing sustainability planning and assessment. Copyright © 2007 Cognizant Comm. Corp..

The carbon cost of polar bear viewing tourism in Churchill, Canada

Dawson, J.S., E. J.; Lemelin, H.; Scott, D. 2010, Journal of Sustainable Tourism Vol 18 side 319-336.

This paper examines the paradoxical issues surrounding long-distance tourism to view polar bears, a form of tourism which is disproportionately (on a per capita basis) responsible for greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions that are negatively affecting survival chances of the species. It also notes that the phenomenon of "last chance tourism" is influencing more tourists to visit the region. The paper describes and explains the evidence that climate change is causing a substantial reduction in sea ice, vital for Arctic wildlife species survival, particularly mega fauna, such as polar bears. Churchill, Canada is one of the few places where tourists can easily view polar bears. A total of 334 on-site tourist surveys and 18 in-depth interviews were conducted to help evaluate tourist perceptions of climate change and to estimate their GHG emissions related to polar bear viewing tourism. Polar bear viewing tourists perceive climate change to be negatively impacting polar bears but do not necessarily understand how they themselves contribute to GHG emissions, or understand offsetting possibilities. The polar bear viewing industry is estimated to contribute 20, 892 t/CO2 per season. Mitigation strategies, including reduction and offsetting programs are outlined. © 2010 Taylor & Francis..

Local transport and social representations: Challenging the assumptions for sustainable tourism

Dickinson, J.E.D., J. A. 2006, Journal of Sustainable Tourism Vol 14 side 192-208.

The dilemma of how to manage tourism related traffic at rural destinations in the UK is examined using a social representation perspective. In transport initiatives, alternatives to the car typically gain low use levels and their perceived success is poor, while measures to limit car access and use are negatively perceived by the public. Traditional transport planning is based on analysis of objective data, such as road capacity, and measures of individual attitudes that predict how people will respond to a transport initiative. However, studies show that people do not behave in predictable patterns related to their attitudes. Travel is a social and cultural phenomenon and the social and cultural assumptions that underlie reported attitudes to transport have not been investigated. This paper poses a challenge to the assumptions of current research and proposes an approach that explores the multiplicity of social realities that underpin our attitudes towards transport, tourism and subsequent behaviour. A review of initiatives and transport research in this field examines how representations of transport and tourism are created, evolved and accepted into people's thinking about transport. Directions and approaches for future research are proposed together with directions for sustainable transport at destinations. © 2006 J.E. Dickinson & J.A. Dickinson..

Identifying tourists with smaller environmental footprints

Dolnicar, S. 2010, Journal of Sustainable Tourism Vol 18 side 717-734.

This paper identifies which information about tourists serves as the best predictor of their pro-environmental behavior at home and on vacation. If a small set of predictors can be identified, the tourism industry would be able to use them to focus attention on attracting tourists with smaller environmental footprints. Results from a survey asking respondents about pro-environmental behavior in their role as residents and tourists indicate that environmental concern, altruism, feeling morally obliged to behave in an environmentally friendly manner, age and regional identity are the best predictors of the segment of people who behave in an environmentally friendly way at home. Income levels and moral obligation best predict membership of the segment of environmentally friendly tourists. The two segments overlap; differences between them are due to the fact that, at home, people can create the infrastructure they require to behave in an environmentally friendly way. On vacation they need to adjust to the infrastructure provided, which can act as a barrier to pro-environmental behavior. Results have direct practical implications, highlighting the value of demand-side approaches to environmentally sustainable tourism for protected areas, both urban and rural, such as focusing on those market segments that have the highest intrinsic inclination to protect the environment. © 2010 Taylor & Francis..

Environment-friendly tourists: What Do we really know about them?

Dolnicar, S.C., G. I.; Long, P. 2008, Journal of Sustainable Tourism Vol 16 side 197-210.

Sustainable tourism and ecotourism have now been researched in depth for some years. This paper highlights that researchers still have only a limited understanding of what tourist behaviour can be considered as sustainable, and little consensus about who environment-friendly tourists (EFTs) actually are. This study reviews theoretical and empirical studies by tourism researchers, and explores work done on environment-friendly behaviour in other disciplines. Results indicate that operationalisations of EFTs are inconsistent and, at times, do not ensure that EFTs are actually studied, thus jeopardising the quality of cumulative knowledge on this critical issue. There is little insight into who EFTs are. Suggestions for future work are made, which would develop more reliable and generalisable insights into EFT profiles. © 2008 S. Dolnicar et al..

Managing local tourism: Building sustainable tourism management practices across local government divides

Dredge, D.F., E. J.; Whitford, M. 2011, Tourism and Hospitality Research Vol 11 side 101-116.

Increasingly, the challenge for local government in managing tourism is not in preparing plans and policies or undertaking new initiatives but in collaborating across internal organisational silos and across artifi cial administrative boundaries to provide a more integrated approach. The Managing Local Government Master Class was a programme designed to develop a ' joined-up ' integrated approach to local government tourism management. This article outlines the Master Class approach within the increasingly complex context facing Australian local governments, anddiscusses two applications in Northern Rivers, NSW and Perth ' s Eastern Metropolitan Region. It was found that while the Master Class offers a mechanism to increase collaboration and leverage the benefi ts of working more effectively within and across councils, there remain political and administrative impediments to improved collaboration. © SAGE Publications, 2011..

Event tourism governance and the public sphere

Dredge, D.W., Michelle 2011, Journal of Sustainable Tourism Vol 19 side 479.

Political and sociological shifts have profoundly affected state, business and civil society relationships. This paper explores governance as a new form of public-private policymaking wherein stakeholders deliberate on and take action to achieve common goals. It examines how different public spheres facilitate (or not) sustainability debates, and specifically facilitate (or not) discussion about sustainable tourism. Using a case study of the 2009 Australian World Rally Championship, the paper explores the development of the public sphere. Tuckman's group development process -- forming, storming, norming and performing -- is employed as a lens to understand these processes. Key findings include: the way the public sphere is constituted has a major influence on the dialogue that takes place; citizens are currently reactive, rather than strategic and creative in their engagement; the "third way" project, seeking to empower communities, requires government commitment; there is a blurring of public-private interests; control of knowledge and expertise within the public sphere is largely controlled by corporate and state interests; fast action to secure events prevents debate and engagement; and a discursive public sphere is essential for transparent and accountable governance, and sustainable development, and to move beyond government by powerful corporate interests and extra-local rule systems. [PUBLICATION ABSTRACT].

Seven steps towards sustainability: Tourism in the context of new knowledge

Farrell, B.T.-W., L. 2005, Journal of Sustainable Tourism Vol 13 side 109-122.

This paper is about tourism and change. It examines changes that have taken place in politics, policy, development, conservation, human-environmental relations, and the convergence of these areas over the past 30 years, especially during the past decade. As the result of international cooperative scholarship, some old concepts of how the world works are shown to be giving way to a new focus. It discusses how, instead of managing tourism through attempting to maintain stability, new thought guided by close observations of reality, depicts a world full of uncertainty that is constantly changing and evolving, and where enhancing resilience to disturbance replaces the former focus on achieving stability. This is not a universal paradigm shift, but it is a shift nevertheless. It shows how a new world-view is gradually supplanting the old, and it suggests that this view and its leaders, cannot be ignored. The paper presents readers with seven introductory steps on the road to greater understanding of sustainable tourism in the context of complex system dynamics, in the hope of enabling a more effective transition to sustainability. © 2005 B. Farrell & L. Twining-Ward..

Moral and empirical dimensions of human-animal interactions in ecotourism: Deepening an otherwise shallow pool of debate

Fennell, D.N., A. 2010, Journal of Ecotourism Vol 9 side 239-255.

Although ecotourism is often theorised as a hard path and ecocentric, in the last decade such travel has softened to accommodate heightened demand in a growing number of regions, and the inclusion of other more consumptive types of activities. In light of these changes, we focus on the moral debate surrounding human-animal interactions in ecotourism, with particular attention to recreational angling and empirical studies on fish sentience. Based on these two parallel bodies of knowledge, we present a framework of Human Priorities and Actions in Recreational Interactions with Fish. This framework is a useful practical tool able to position the type of interaction (i.e. recreational angling) based on its consumptiveness and need, but also according to the broader context of a particular worldview (i.e. human-based versus nature-based) in association with four ethical characteristics. © 2010 Taylor & Francis..

The community model and sustainability in tourist destinations: The case of the dolomites

Franch, M.M., U.; Inverardi, P. L. N.; Buffa, F.; Marzani, P. 2005, Tourism Review International Vol 9 side 33-46.

The aim of this article is to highlight the impact of mass ski tourism on the environment in the Dolomites (Italian Alps), where in winter the principal activities are snow sports. In implementing this development model the Dolomite region has achieved important results in terms of numbers of tourists and economic development for entire localities. Nonetheless, some weaknesses in this model have come to light in terms of environmental, economic, and social sustainability. The eTourism research group (University of Trento, Italy) has carried out two field projects with a view to understanding: 1) the importance of the variable "quality of environment" for the winter tourist when deciding on a destination, and similarly 2) how the major actors on the supply side approach local environmental issues. The results were used to formulate hypotheses regarding possible alternatives to the mass ski model of development for new or developing destinations within the region..

A study of impacts - Cruise tourism and the South West of England

Gibson, P.B., M. 2006, Journal of Travel and Tourism Marketing Vol 20 side 63-77.

This study draws upon research carried out in 2003, which had the primary purpose of examining the perceived social impacts associated with increased levels of cruise tourism for a major port of call in the South West of England. A survey approach was employed focusing on the town of Falmouth in Cornwall. Data were collected from residents using email and face-to-face street surveys. The results suggest that there is a predominantly positive view of cruise tourism in Falmouth, in respect of perceived impacts. In addition, there is clear recognition within the research population that growth has resulted in an increase in job opportunities, produced financial benefits and led to the development of increased tourist attractions and facilities. There was little to no evidence in the results of negative impacts, including such events as increased levels of crime and overcrowding that are often associated with increased tourism to a destination. The results provide interesting prompts for further research. © by The Haworth Press, Inc. All rights reserved..

Market Integration and Ecosystem Degradation: Is Sustainable Tourism Development in Rural Communities a Contradiction in Terms?

Gossling, S. 2003, Environment, Development and Sustainability Vol 5 side 383-400.

Neoclassic economic theory suggests global market integration as a strategy to reduce poverty. In line with this paradigm, an increasing number of developing countries have focused on tourism to generate foreign exchange earnings and to meet rising workforce pressure. Coastlines in particular, have been at the forefront of tourist infrastructure development. The article describes tourism development in the village of Kiwengwa on the east coast of Unguja Island (Zanzibar), Tanzania. It is shown that changes caused by tourism are far more complex than economic theory suggests. Economically, tourism has substantially increased local income, but it has also led to a focus on individual benefit and dissolving kinship relationships, encouraged the abandonment of traditional resource-use strategies, contributed to the commoditization of local natural resources, and spread the idea that these resources can be replaced with imports. Overall, tourism has fundamentally disrupted the local socio-economic system and led to a self-reinforcing cycle of ecosystem degradation. Tourism development is nevertheless perceived as positive and sustainable, because (i) changes are complex and damage becomes perceptible only in the medium- or long-term future, (ii) the tourist industry tends to shift its impacts to remote areas, i.e. a supplying periphery, (iii) the village has become a center of resource allocation itself, with imports compensating for the losses in local ecosystem capacity. As a development option imposed by the transnational tourist industry, tourism leads to the creation of new centers (i.e. the former periphery) while simultaneously creating new peripheries. In a finite world with a limited hinterland for such a continuous expansion, this cannot be sustainable. [PUBLICATION ABSTRACT].

Carbon neutral destinations: A conceptual analysis

Gossling, S. 2009, Journal of Sustainable Tourism Vol 17 side 17-37.

This paper provides a critical review of the concept of "carbon neutrality" for tourism destinations within the framework of the UNWTO's Davos Declaration, a document ascribing responsibilities to various actors in the tourism industry to engage in greenhouse gas emission reductions. The paper assesses the planning frameworks of countries engaging with the concept, discusses the measures that can be taken to achieve "carbon neutrality", along with an evaluation of some of the theoretical and practical implications. An increasing number of destinations now plan to become "carbon neutral", often as a response strategy to pressure on the tourism industry to reduce its emissions of greenhouse gases. They aim to mitigate their contribution to global warming, and to develop their tourism industries by enhancing their image as being environmentally pristine and sustainable..

Sustainable tourism: learning from Indian religious traditions

Gupta, V. 1999, International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management Vol 11 side 91-95.

Religious pilgrimages have taken place for many hundreds of years without causing the negative environmental, cultural and social impacts associated with tourism. Common features of pilgrimages are: not an excessive burden on the environment; beneficial to local communities; occur at certain times of year only; people carry their own baggage and purchase food, etc. locally; pilgrims are quiet and law-abiding; killing animals or taking from nature is taboo. Some lessons can be learned from these for modern tourism..

The Helsingborg statement on sustainable tourism

Gössling, S.H., M.; Lane, B.; Weaver, D. 2008, Journal of Sustainable Tourism Vol 16 side 122-124.

In September 2007 an international group of 35 experts on sustainable tourism met in Helsingborg, Sweden. They reviewed past progress in the subject and ways forward in the 21st century circumstances of climate change and rapidly increasing travel demand. They sought to develop an international research agenda on sustainable tourism as well as highlighting positive actions that could be adopted by government and industry. This statement summarises key points from the meeting. © 2008 S. Gössling et al..

'It does not harm the environment!' An analysis of industry discourses on tourism, air travel and the environment

Gössling, S.P., P. 2007, Journal of Sustainable Tourism Vol 15 side 402-417.

While a substantial part of the population in Europe seems well informed about the phenomenon of climate change, uncertainty seems to prevail in terms of its seriousness, its consequences for society and action that needs to be taken in order to prevent 'dangerous interference with the climate system'. Many people seem to believe that there is no scientific consensus about climate change and that individual behavioural change is irrelevant in the face of uncertainty. Such a 'psychology of denial' seems particularly strong in the context of air travel, the fastest growing transport sector. This paper seeks to understand this phenomenon by analysing the discourses surrounding air travel. Four major industry discourses are identified: air travel is energy efficient and accounts only for marginal emissions of CO2; air travel is economically and socially too important to be restricted; fuel use is constantly minimized and new technology will solve the problem, and air travel is treated unfairly in comparison to other means of transport. The validity of these claims is evaluated based on data and material presented in the scientific literature. Results show that there are substantial gaps between the discourses and the reality of aviation's environmental performance, which might partially explain the controversial understanding of air travel and its environmental consequences among the public. © 2007 S. Gössling & P. Peeters..

Linking visitor impact research to visitor impact monitoring in protected areas

Hadwen, W.L.H., W.; Pickering, C. M. 2008, Journal of Ecotourism Vol 7 side 87-93.

Growing demand for natural area recreation and tourism has seen a rise in visitor numbers to protected areas. In response, there has been an increase in research into visitor impacts. There has also been increased interest in establishing and maintaining visitor impacts monitoring programmes. Here, we evaluate the relationship between recreation ecology research and visitor impact monitoring and discuss how the aims and scope of these two activities often differ. We highlight that recreation ecologists design observational and experimental treatments to test causal relationships between a particular load or stress and environmental indicator(s) of interest. Some of these studies identify thresholds of concern, with the intention that managers can use thresholds of indicator response in their monitoring programmes. However, agencies interested in monitoring visitor impacts often do not need to establish causality, but rather detect change in the indicator of interest. Therefore, simplified protocols which can be easily conducted by agency staff in the field at regular and operationally appropriate time intervals can be used. We present a visitor assessment flow chart that demonstrates how research and monitoring objectives can interact and contribute to the cost-effective management of heavily visited sites within protected areas. © 2008 W.L. Hadwen et al..

Marine Tourism Impacts on the Great Barrier Reef

Harriott, V.J. 2004, Tourism in Marine Environments Vol 1 side 29-40.

About 1.6 million tourists visit the Great Barrier Reef (GBR) each year. Tourism on the reef and adjacent coast is worth over Aus$4 billion per year and employs over 47,000 people. While sustainable tourism is a goal of management of the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park, tourism has some negative environmental and social impacts on the reef and coastal environment. Australian residents who were surveyed ranked the impacts of reef tourism highly as a threat to the GBR. In contrast, a sample of people with professional experience in reef environmental issues ranked reef tourism as a much smaller threat than other widespread impacts such as coral bleaching, agricultural runoff, and fishing. This study reviews the impact of the major components of marine tourism on the GBR and tourism management, and concludes that reef tourism produces generally localized impacts and is intensively managed on the GBR relative to other reef uses. Industry and management agencies have included education of reef visitors and tourism staff as part of a planned framework for sustainable tourism and recreation, and this education program should include promotion of a greater understanding of reef environmental issues..

Tourism stakeholders' perceptions of national park management in Norway

Haukeland, J.V. 2011, Journal of Sustainable Tourism Vol 19 side 133-153.

Local tourism firms represent an important stakeholder interest in national parks. The present study examines these stakeholders' perceptions of management processes and their assessments of the resulting management plans and operations. This research is based on qualitative interviews with representatives of tourism businesses in two different national park settings in Norway - Rondane National Park and Jotunheimen National Park. The findings illustrate that despite their general support for the national park status, the local tourism stakeholders interviewed had experienced only minor involvement in the management planning process, and had had very little influence in the final management decisions. They believed that opportunities for business operations were lacking due to excessive management restrictions, and that managers lacked competence with regard to business management and tourism development issues. In addition, they thought that management authorities should more explicitly include sustainable tourism development in their visions and goals. Based on the findings, it is assumed that there is potential for local tourism operators to take greater responsibility in planning processes and management operations. It is concluded that measures should be taken to foster durable social links and trustworthy planning partnerships between responsible managers and local tourism stakeholders in the two national parks. © 2011 Taylor & Francis..

An integrated and adaptive management model to address the long-term sustainability of tourist interactions with cetaceans

Higham, J.E.S.B., L.; Lusseau, D. 2008, Environmental Conservation Vol 35 side 294-302.

SUMMARY Rapid growth in demand for tourist interactions with cetaceans in the wild constitutes a challenge to management. Short-term animal behaviour changes can have long-term biological consequences for individual animals and populations. This paper reviews the whale-watching management context, describing the interplay of the macro (global), meso (national/regional) and micro-level (local/site specific) policy, planning and management settings. Here, an integrated and adaptive management model based largely upon the delineation and monitoring of limits of acceptable change (LAC) parameters is proposed to address current shortcomings in the long-term sustainable management of whale-watching activities. Although no integrated management framework currently exists, a comprehensive management approach must be developed and applied in the interests of the long-term sustainable management of tourist interactions with cetaceans in the wild. The proposed management model highlights the importance of integrating multiple stakeholder perspectives in a way that is both research-informed and adaptive. Beyond tourist interactions with cetaceans, this management framework could be applied to a wide range of wildlife management contexts. [PUBLICATION ABSTRACT].

Slaughtering the goose that lays the golden egg: Are whaling and whale-watching mutually exclusive?

Higham, J.E.S.L., D. 2008, Current Issues in Tourism Vol 11 side 63-74.

Tourism interests usually coexist in a delicate balance with other human interests (e.g. residential development and recreational interests) and activities (e.g. fishing, forestry and mining). Such interests and activities may be compatible or incompatible with tourism to varying degrees. Where incompatibility arises it must be carefully managed through compromise, spatial segregation or exclusivity. Conflicting interests between whale-watching and whaling is one topical such case. Events in recent years, such as the Icelandic government's decision to resume scientific whaling in 2003 have drawn considerable attention to this issue. This is a matter that received some attention at the meeting of the International Whaling Commission (IWC) in July 2006. In response to recent debate, this paper highlights the need for a better understanding of tourist views on issues of relevance to whale-watching, noting a number of increasingly topical questions that remain unanswered at present. In doing so it calls for empirical research into the values and views of tourists, actual and latent, on whaling and wider issues of animal welfare. Insights into precisely where tourists stand on issues relating to the whaling/whale-watching debate, and how that may bear upon demand for whale-watching in different national and regional contexts, has become a heightened priority in light of recent events. © 2008 J.E.S. Higham & D. Lusseau..

Environmental impacts of rural second home tourism - Case lake district in Finland

Hiltunen, M.J. 2007, Scandinavian Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Vol 7 side 243-265.

Second homes are widespread in the Finnish countryside and represent a significant part of domestic tourism. In this paper impacts of rural second home tourism on natural environment and landscape are discussed mainly from a non-anthropocentric point of view and from the perspective of ecological sustainability. Both negative and positive impacts of second home tourism on nature, climate and landscape are distinguished Environmental impacts caused by housing and living, shoreline building and physical mobility related to second home tourism are highlighted. It is argued that mobility related to second home tourism and year-round use of second homes are likely to increase in the near future and consequently pose negative environmental impacts. The argument is based on current societal trends and on results of a questionnaire survey conducted amongst second-home owners living in the metropolitan region of Helsinki and possessing second homes in eastern Finnish Lake District. There is today a large political will to enhance second home tourism in Finland, which is seen crucial for revitalizing the declining countryside. Contradictions between rural development policy on one hand, and environmental protection on the other, are critically discussed and ecological sustainability of second home tourism explored..

Investigating the sustainability of cruise tourism: A case study of Key West

Hritz, N.C., A. K. 2008, Journal of Sustainable Tourism Vol 16 side 168-181.

This qualitative research examines cruise ship tourism through a case study of Key West, Florida, exploring its perceived benefits and drawbacks. It outlines the growth of the industry, the issues raised by that growth, and uses the land-use tourism model developed by Vera Rebollo and Ivars Baidal (2003) to probe those issues. The results illustrate how mature cruise tourism destinations such as Key West fear continued growth and loss of sustainability, but have mixed emotions about future quantitative and qualitative growth. © 2008 N. Hritz & A. K. Cecil..

Spatial patterns and economic contributions of mining and tourism in biodiversity hotspots: A case study in China

Huang, G.Z., W.; Ali, S. 2011, Ecological Economics Vol 70 side 1492-1498.

Mining activities and tourism are both growing fast in biodiversity intense areas globally. However, the dynamic and interactions between mining and tourism when they both occur in biodiversity hotspots, and how they together may impact the economy and environment in these biodiversity rich areas, remain unclear. This paper examined how the two industries interact in terms of their economic contributions and spatial patterns in a biodiversity hotspot, Yunnan, China. We used correlation analyses to measure the relationships between mining activities, tourism visits and local gross domestic productions. We also employed a distance-based technique to investigate the nature of any dependency between mining and tourism sites. Results showed that mining activities tend to be in relatively fluent areas while tourism tends to occur in less developed areas. Our results showed that the location of tourism and mining sites are likely to be close to one another but the two industries usually perform better economically when they are apart from each other. These findings can provide insights on how mining and tourism together may impact the economy and environment in biodiversity rich areas, and provide important information for managers and planners on balancing mining and tourism development in these areas. © 2011 Elsevier B.V..

Conceptualization and anatomy of green destination brands

Insch, A. 2011, International Journal of Culture, Tourism and Hospitality Research Vol 5 side 282-290.

Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to extend the concept of green brands to destinations and to examine the application and limitations of green destination brands for nations adopting this positioning strategy. Design/methodology/approach - The paper identifies characteristics of green destination brands, drawing on established concepts in corporate branding, destination branding and green marketing. The paper demonstrates the application and limitations of the concept through an in-depth case study analysis of New Zealand's destination brand to explain the possibilities and problems of building green destination brands at a national level. Findings - The findings suggest that a holistic, strategic approach to building a green destination brand which emphasizes and qualifies the green essence of a nation's brand is required to avoid the pitfalls, cynicism and criticisms of greenwashing. Research limitations/implications - The research findings are embedded in the context studied - New Zealand's destination brand. Additional case studies at multiple levels - nations, regions, cities - would offer a rich database to gain a better understanding of the concept and the implications of green destination branding. Practical implications - Barriers to executing a credible green destination brand position are identified and the implications for destination marketing organizations and their stakeholders are discussed. Originality/value - A conceptualization of green destination brands is provided and the application and limitations of the concept are demonstrated through an in-depth case study of a nation that has adopted this positioning strategy. Rather than taking a snapshot research approach, a historical perspective enabled the development of the destination's brand positioning strategy to be captured. [PUBLICATION ABSTRACT].

Implementing Landscape Fragmentation as an Indicator in the Swiss Monitoring System of Sustainable Development (Monet)

Jaeger, J.A.G.B., R.; Schwick, C.; Müller, K.; Steinmeier, C.; Ewald, K. C.; Ghazoul, J. 2008, Journal of Environmental Management Vol 88 side 737-751.

There is an increasing need and interest in including indicators of landscape fragmentation in monitoring systems of sustainable landscape management. Landscape fragmentation due to transportation infrastructure and urban development threatens human and environmental well-being by noise and pollution from traffic, reducing the size and viability of wildlife populations, facilitating the spread of invasive species, and impairing the scenic and recreational qualities of the landscape. This paper provides the rationale, method, and data for including landscape fragmentation in monitoring systems, using as an example the Swiss Monitoring System of Sustainable Development (Monet). We defined and compared four levels of fragmentation analysis, or fragmentation geometries (FGs), each based on different fragmenting elements, e.g., only anthropogenic, or combinations of anthropogenic and natural elements. As each FG has specific strengths and weaknesses, the most appropriate choice of FG depends on the context and objectives of a study. We present data on the current degree of landscape fragmentation for the five ecoregions and 26 cantons in Switzerland for all four FGs. Our results show that the degree of landscape fragmentation as quantified by the effective mesh size method is strongly supported by the postulates and indicator selection criteria of Monet, and we identify the most suitable FG focusing on the land area below 2100 m (e.g., excluding lakes) and allowing for an equitable comparison of fragmentation degrees among regions that differ in area covered by lakes and high mountains. For a more detailed analysis of landscape fragmentation in the context of environmental impact assessments and strategic environmental assessments, a combination of all four FGs may provide a more informative tool than any single FG. © 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved..

Collaboration theory and tourism practice in protected areas: Stakeholders, structuring and sustainability

Jamal, T.S., A. 2009, Journal of Sustainable Tourism Vol 17 side 169-189.

A growing body of research is emerging on tourism and partnerships in protected areas, but conceptual development remains fragmented. This paper tackles this challenge by focusing on three aspects important for sustainability: (1) complexity (nested systems of biophysical environments, tourism and park management structures, community-resident systems, local-global systems and use-conservation gap; (2) scale, structure and scope of collaborations (including community involvement and control) and (3) challenges of implementation and long term structuring (for sustainability and success). Some related questions are: How does the tourism system fit with the protected area system? Who represents "Nature" in negotiations over conservation and use? How can plans and programmes be effectively enacted at the local level for long term success? A theoretical discussion plus an example of community-based collaboration for conservation and economic development in Bolivia (Chalalan Ecolodge) are provided to explore these questions. Chalalan shows an evolving partnership between local and international stakeholders toward local control, and also a complex relationship between local-traditional and scientific knowledge, and cultural change..

Impacts and conflicts surrounding Dracula Park, Romania: The role of sustainable tourism principles

Jamal, T.T., A. 2005, Journal of Sustainable Tourism Vol 13 side 440-455.

Sustainable tourism principles are applied to a historical case study of tourism-related impacts and conflicts over Dracula Park and its proposed location in Sighisoara (Romania). Analysis of this large theme park project reveals a highly political landscape, with complex interdependencies attributable to a diversity of stakeholders and issues ranging in scale and scope from the local to the global. Cultural impacts are a significant problem with the proposed park. Local civic action, as well as other domestic and international NGOs, played key roles in opposing the proposed location adjacent to the medieval town and World Heritage site of Sighisoara. The study shows the benefit of integrating broader, global principles such as the Global Code of Ethics (World Tourism Organisation, 1997) with local-level principles to guide project development, evaluation and destination sustainability. In particular, the conflicts surrounding this project point to the importance of developing process principles that can facilitate cultural sustainability, by enabling those who stand to be most impacted by tourism to participate directly in development decision-making. © 2005 T. Jamal & A. Tanase..

Sustainable tourism development in Canada: practical challenges

Jayawardena, C. 2003, International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management Vol 15 side 408-412.

The School of Hospitality and Tourism Management of Ryerson University, Toronto hosted the 2002 World-wide Hospitality and Tourism Trends (WHATT) Roundtable discussion of Canada. The discussion focused mainly on the practical challenges and the role of educational institutions in sustainable tourism development in Canada. In addition to two joint chairs and the leading discussant, seven industry practitioners and seven academics from the hospitality and tourism sector discussed the definitions of "sustainable tourism development" and debated the key development issues in Canadian tourism and related research needs. The meeting agreed that there was a lack of applied research on Canadian tourism. The meeting therefore identified a few achievable action points and this article ends by reporting on nine related outcomes within a year after the first WHATT roundtable in Canada. [PUBLICATION ABSTRACT].

Social mediation in remote developing world tourism locations - the significance of social ties between local guides and host communities in sustainable tourism development

Jensen, Ø. 2010, Journal of Sustainable Tourism Vol 18 side 615-633.

This article discusses the role of the local, or regional, guide as a social mediator between a host society and tourists, as a means of sustainable tourism development in developing world locations. The debate illustrates how previous studies have neglected this social aspect of mediation by tourist guides and partly absorbed it into the concept of cultural mediation. Empirical illustrations are offered from the context of small tourist group visitations to local villages in rural areas of Madagascar, where collective social norms still play an important role. A qualitative approach based on personal interviews with guides and on field trip experience and observation is employed. Empirical findings indicate that the inclination of the host society to welcome accompanied tourists is facilitated by the capacity of local guides to develop relatively strong social ties with the host society. It is suggested that the increased use of local guides with good social relationships with the local communities as against the mere employment of non- local accompanying guides working for centrally located tour operators can enrich the mutual experience quality in the encounter between visitors and hosts and support local sustainable development by enhanced local involvement. Implications for sustainable tourism practice are discussed. © 2010 Taylor & Francis..

Providing ecotourism excursions for cruise passengers

Johnson, D. 2006, Journal of Sustainable Tourism Vol 14 side 43-54.

The aim of this paper is to argue that destinations can do more to offer coastal ecotourism experiences for cruise passengers, and in doing so they may secure a more sustainable product. An analysis of shore-side excursions currently available to P&O passengers in the Caribbean is presented. Excursions are classified against textbook tourism-type definitions. Time constraints imposed by cruise operators and an emphasis on selling rather than education are suggested as key factors that mean the limited number of existing ecotourism excursions were categorised as 'soft' rather than 'hard' ecotourism. Solutions demand concerted effort from all parties. Flexibility from cruise operators; political will and product development from destinations, and investment of time and energy from the tourists themselves. Ultimately, ecotourism excursions must embrace brand management, creating and delivering well-defined promises, so that cruise passengers can make intelligence-led decisions. In the Caribbean this requires a paradigm shift by the cruise operators in order to establish a meaningful and effective dialogue with groups such as the Caribbean Tourism Organisation. © 2006 D. Johnson..

The environmental management systems and contemporary tourism development

Jovicic, D. 2011, Tourismos Vol 6 side 377-391.

This paper discusses the role of the Environmental Management Systems (EMS) applied to the tourism sector. Among contemporary instruments, being used to encourage the movements of tourist companies towards sustainability, an important role have voluntary/market instruments. That is why this paper analyses the principles, tasks, good practice experiences advantages, disadvantages and perspectives of EMS. Special attention is devoted to the ISO 14000 standards, representing the most important international regulations for environmental management. The above standards are the base for implementation of EMS within tourism, and make it possible for companies to direct the course of their actions towards a full agreement with the international criteria. Although application of environmental management in tourism is a relatively recent phenomenon, the potentialities of the EMS are huge and they can significantly contribute to putting tourism on a sustainable path. © University of the Aegean..

BEST Education Network Think Tank V: Managing risk and crisis for sustainable tourism: Research and innovation

Jurowski, C. 2006, Journal of Sustainable Tourism Vol 14 side 100-101.

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B.E.S.T. Think Tank IV: Mass sustainable tourism: Challenges and opportunities

Jurowski, C. 2005, Journal of Sustainable Tourism Vol 13 side 296-304.

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Resident attitudes towards mountain second-home tourism development in Norway: The effects of environmental attitudes

Kaltenborn, B.P.A., O.; Nellemann, C.; Bjerke, T.; Thrane, C. 2008, Journal of Sustainable Tourism Vol 16 side 664-680.

Rural tourism, especially through second-home development is increasing rapidly in much of Europe, the USA and Canada offering new economic opportunities for local communities, but also challenges related to environmental impacts and differing perceptions within communities about appropriate development paths. This study examines associations between the environmental attitudes of residents and attitudes towards second-home development in two regions in Southern Norway, with community attachment and economic dependency as additional predictors. Ecocentrism was found to have a strong negative effect on attitudes towards tourism development, while, in contrast to previous findings, community attachment did not have significant effects. Economic dependency is significantly related to attitudes towards development, both ecocentrism and economic dependency are mediated by other variables, such as expected impacts and benefits. The findings are important in planning to reduce potential conflicts. © 2008 Taylor & Francis..

Consulting communities: Using audience response system (ARS) technology to assess community preferences for sustainable recreation and tourism development

Keske, C.S., S. 2010, Journal of Sustainable Tourism Vol 18 side 951-970.

Audience response system (ARS) technology (also known as "clickers") has emerged as an educational tool that promotes active learning. This paper describes how ARS works and how it can also be used in research to assess community preferences for tourism development. A case study that used ARS technology shows how stakeholder preferences for extraction, heritage tourism and recreation within two rural mountain economies in the US west were effectively assessed. The use of ARS was backed by situation assessment procedures to determine appropriate stimulus questions probing trade-offs, perceived costs/benefits and cultural fit. A detailed series of key results measured community preferences and were made available to guide policymaking and future empirical survey work. Public meeting arrangements, publicity, structure and moderation for the ARS work is described and discussed. Evaluation of the use of ARS technology showed high levels of participant satisfaction with both the technology and the situation assessment procedures, and the emergence of potential tourism development actions. © 2010 Taylor & Francis..

Community-based tourism: A factor-cluster segmentation approach

Kibicho, W. 2008, Journal of Sustainable Tourism Vol 16 side 211-231.

Using a case study of the Kimana Wildlife Sanctuary in Kenya, this paper empirically investigates factors critical to successful community-based tourism development. Factor analysis of 17 survey items produced five key factors: inclusion of stakeholders, recognition of individual and mutual benefits, appointment of legitimate convenor, formulation of aims and objectives, and perception that decisions arrived at will be implemented. Hierarchical cluster analysis demonstrates a simultaneous presence of three different segments within the local community, revealing that 'operatives' are interested in participation in the project's activities, 'opinion leaders' are concerned with the community's benefits from the project while 'official leaders' value the success of the project. © 2008 W. Kibicho..

Ski Industry Response to Global Warming

Kirschner, L.A.K., Alysa M. 2007, Natural Resources & Environment Vol 22 side 53-55.

Whereas the ski and snowboard industry has often been cited for its environmental impacts, including those related to tourism-induced traffic pollution, urban sprawl into formerly undeveloped mountainous regions, and the clearing of habitats for ski lifts and runs, the industry is beginning to take a pro-environmental approach with a particular focus on controlling the production of GHGs that contribute to climate change. According to the OECD Report, the winter tourism industry can and is responding to the changing climatic conditions through such adaptive measures as landscaping techniques to maintain snow (and minimize threshold amounts required to open slopes), use of white plastic sheets to limit glacial melt, diversification of tourism revenues, movement of ski areas to higher elevations and northern facing slopes, and increased reliance on enhanced snowmaking techniques..

Framework model to assess leisure and tourism sustainability

Klein-Vielhauer, S. 2009, Journal of Cleaner Production Vol 17 side 447-454.

Throughout the world, leisure and tourism have long since gained major importance for individuals, businesses and the public sector. Sustainability demands equity not only for one generation, but also between current and future generations. Research should provide more balanced insight into ongoing economic, environmental, social and cultural processes, and thus for appropriate future action. This article presents an innovative comprehensive framework model for assessing impacts arising from leisure and tourism in defined large areas and relevant to society as a whole. The model is centred on leisure activities undertaken near or far from the usual home. Selected examples relate to Germany. © 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved..

Limits to growth: Tourism and regional labor migration

Konan, D.E. 2011, Economic Modelling Vol 28 side 473-481.

The paper provides a methodology for considering the carrying capacity and limits to growth of a labor-constrained mature tourism destination. A computable general equilibrium model is used to examine the impacts of visitor expenditure growth and labor migration on Hawai'i's economy. Impacts on regional income, welfare, prices, sector-level output, and gross state product are considered under alternative migration scenarios. Labor market constraints impose limits to growth in real visitor expenditures. Labor market growth with constrained visitor demand generates falling per capita household welfare. © 2010 Elsevier B.V..

Social learning and sustainable tourism development; local quality conventions in tourism: A Greek case study

Koutsouris, A. 2009, Journal of Sustainable Tourism Vol 17 side 567-581.

This paper presents the trajectory of an innovative organisational scheme, the Local Quality Convention (LQC), concerning sustainable tourism development in the Lake Plastiras area, a less favoured area in Central Greece. It outlines the development issues of the area, the main actors, their views and practices and describes the creation, progress and emerging problems of the LQC scheme. Research reveals contradicting approaches to sustainable tourism development which, in turn, influenced the LQC's evolution. The findings are critically discussed in the light of the Social Learning (SL) approach to social change and sustainable development. According to SL it is only through interactive (participative), concerted action that stakeholders are able to co-construct an issue and its solutions. Given the dominance of "conventional" tourism in Greece as well as the top-down formation and implementation of policies, the importance of the long term facilitation of local stakeholders to achieve sustainable tourism development is demonstrated, along with other related lessons for planners and managers. © 2009 Taylor & Francis..

Advancing conceptual understanding of partnerships between protected area agencies and the tourism industry: a postdisciplinary and multi-theoretical approach

Laing, J.H.L., D.; Moore, S. A.; Wegner, A.; Weiler, B. 2009, Journal of Sustainable Tourism Vol 17 side 207-229.

This paper reviews a range of theoretical approaches to partnerships working between protected area agencies and the tourism industry. While partnerships are a hallmark of contemporary thinking about protected area management, research to date leaves considerable scope for development, application and testing of theory. The paper draws eight theoretical approaches from the literature with potential application to a study of the contributors to partnership success. It progresses a postdisciplinary approach to partnership research. A 72-item questionnaire was derived from the theoretical perspectives and completed by 100 partners. Analysis identified features perceived as potentially contributing to a successful partnership as well as the key outcomes of a successful partnership. The findings indicate the prominence of institutional analysis and development, social capital, environmental dispute resolution and network theories in explaining partnership success. Given the centrality of partnerships in protected area tourism and ongoing societal interest in the sustainability of such areas, this paper provides vital insights to further multi-theoretical, postdisciplinary research, and to the successful management of partnerships..

Managing for sustainable tourism: A review of six culturalWorld Heritage Sites

Landorf, C. 2009, Journal of Sustainable Tourism Vol 17 side 53-70.

This paper considers the relationship between heritage tourism and sustainable development, with special reference to World Heritage Sites (WHSs). It notes that while WHS status is not necessarily linked to tourism growth, all WHSs must now develop and implement a management plan to mitigate tourism impacts and sustain site significance. The paper explores the concept of sustainable heritage tourism and identifies two key principles of sustainable practice - a planning process that is long term and holistic, and multiple stakeholder participation in that planning process. Qualitative content analysis is used to determine the extent to which these principles have been integrated into the tourism planning process at six WHSs. The study found that a formal goal-oriented planning process was in evidence at all six sites. However, the process lacked a comprehensive and holistic approach to the wider issues of sustainable development, and genuine engagement with local community stakeholders..

Implementing sustainable tourism in Scotland: An interview

Lane, B. 2009, Journal of Sustainable Tourism Vol 17 side 747-752.

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Environmental justice and environmental equity in tourism: Missing links to sustainability

Lee, S.J., T. 2008, Journal of Ecotourism Vol 7 side 44-67.

This paper argues for incorporating an environmental justice framework into sustainable tourism and ecotourism. Such a framework provides important directions and guidance for addressing injustices related to human-environmental relationships, particularly with respect to disadvantaged, low-income and minority communities. Issue areas include environmental equity, environmental discrimination and environmental racism. Drawing from the environmental justice literature, this paper first clarifies key concepts associated with environmental justice. This is followed by an examination of issues in tourism development that clearly relate to environmental justice (even though the term itself may not have been used). An analytical framework for addressing environmental justice and equity in tourism studies is proposed, incorporating environmental justice concepts and dimensions of procedural and distributive justice. Several theoretical areas that offer potential for developing this bridge between tourism and environmental justice are presented. The discussion opens new avenues for better incorporating justice and equity into ecotourism and sustainable tourism development and research. © 2008 S. Lee & T. Jamal..

The missing component in the 'greening' of tourism: The environmental performance of the self-catering accommodation sector

Leslie, D. 2007, International Journal of Hospitality Management Vol 26 side 310-322.

The self-catering accommodation sector has witnessed substantial growth for well over 20 years due to a range of factors, including increases in second home and holiday home ownership and property investment. During this time, debate has arisen over the impact of such 'holiday homes' on local communities and rural economies. However, today they are also a substantial element of tourism supply in the self-catering accommodation category in many rural areas, which has largely been ignored and particularly so in the context of the 'greening' of tourism and environmental performance (EP) of tourism enterprises. This article aims to address this paucity of attention. First, the background to the 'greening' of tourism and tourism enterprises is established and the significance of this to self-catering accommodation. Subsequently, the main findings of a survey into the EP of self-catering accommodation undertaken in the Lake District National Park are discussed. © 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved..

Ecologically sustainable tourism management

Lim, C.M., M. 2005, Environmental Modelling and Software Vol 20 side 1431-1438.

One of the primary challenges facing ecotourism management is to establish a profitable and ecologically sustainable industry, while simultaneously achieving a satisfying experience for visitors and raising standards of living in the host community. This paper analyses the management practices and challenges faced by two ecotourism attractions on the Gold Coast and Brisbane in Queensland, Australia, namely Couran Cove Island Resort and Boondall Wetlands Reserve. As an ecotourism-based resort on one of the world's few naturally-occurring sand islands, Couran Cove is active in implementing a range of initiatives for sustainable environmental management. This is particularly important as Couran Cove is home to a wide variety of plant communities and one of the largest remnants of the rare Livistona rainforest on the Gold Coast. The Boondall Wetlands Reserve is internationally recognized as an important feeding and resting habitat for migratory wading birds from Alaska, China, Japan, Mongolia and Siberia. © 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved..

The entrepreneurship factor in sustainable tourism development

Lordkipanidze, M.B., H.; Backman, M. 2005, Journal of Cleaner Production Vol 13 side 787-798.

Entrepreneurship is considered a central force of economic development, as it generates growth and serves as a vehicle for innovation and change. Tourism is one of the economic sectors in which a great degree of involvement is needed by the entrepreneurial sector: diversification of tourism products and services is needed to cope with increased demand for new types of tourism needs. These include opportunities for more sustainable tourism. The Söderslätt region of Sweden, which is used as a case study, is a newborn tourist destination with lots of natural and cultural characteristics. It is also one of the most agriculture intensive areas in Sweden where a potential for rural entrepreneurship development can be identified. However, the entrepreneurial culture and climate was poor in the region. This is due to the social pressure that is characteristic for this rural community. This paper shows the results of a SWOT analysis of Söderslätt tourism entrepreneurship development, which gives an overview of their current entrepreneurial situation. The case of a family-based enterprise, "Healthy Pig Farm" is presented as an example of a successful, innovative entrepreneur in farm tourism. Moreover, based on the findings and analyses, several recommendations are proposed to overcome obstacles for sustainable entrepreneurship development in rural tourist areas. © 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved..

Sustainable tourism research: An analysis of papers published in the Journal of Sustainable Tourism

Lu, J.N., S. K. 2009, Journal of Sustainable Tourism Vol 17 side .

This paper reviews a content analysis of papers published in the Journal of Sustainable Tourism, the only journal exclusively devoted to sustainable tourism research over the past 15 years (1993-2007). Based on a detailed examination of the contents, a database was developed which consists of information about (1) volume/number/year; (2) study areas; (3) forms of tourism; (4) subject themes; (5) research perspectives; (6) concept and measurement and (7) methodology. A series of trends describing the growth of sustainable tourism research has been identified. The findings present the journal's contribution to theoretical debates, methodological sophistication and practical implications in sustainable tourism development. Future directions for sustainable tourism research are also discussed..

Sustainable Mi'kmaw cultural tourism development in Nova Scotia, Canada: Examining cultural tourist and Mi'kmaw perspectives

Lynch, M.F.D., P.; Sheehan, L.; Chute, J. 2010, Journal of Sustainable Tourism Vol 18 side 539-556.

This study assessed tourists' motivations and satisfaction in participating in authentic Mi'kmaw tourism activities inNova Scotia, Canada, as well as the ideas, perceptions and components of sustainable cultural tourism development from the Mi'kmaw perspective. To solicit the tourists' perspective, surveys were administered to tourists visiting the existing Mi'kmaw cultural tourism sites in Nova Scotia, while the Mi'kmaw perspective was obtained through key informant interviews. The results of the survey suggest that tourists visiting the Mi'kmaw cultural tourism sites were highly educated and deeply interested in learning about culture and participating in authentic cultural experiences. Tourists were also highly satisfied with their experience and were interested in participating in aboriginal tourism again. Findings regarding the Mi'kmaw perspective indicate a focus on cultural tourism's ability to educate both tourists and the Mi'kmaw people on the Mi'kmaw culture as well as provide economic opportunities for Mi'kmaw communities. Of greater importance to the Mi'kmaw people is the preservation and protection of the Mi'kmaw culture. Conclusions drawn from the research include recommendations for the future success and sustainability of the Mi'kmaw cultural tourism sector. This study's findings may also inform other Canadian aboriginal communities seeking to develop robust and sustainable cultural tourism in their own settings. © 2010 Taylor & Francis..

Going green: Motivations for environmental commitment in the airline industry. A case study of Scandinavian Airlines

Lynes, J.K.D., D. 2006, Journal of Sustainable Tourism Vol 14 side 116-138.

Many commentators have examined the airline industry's impacts on the environment but not the internal management processes used to develop company environmental policies. This paper argues that environmental management tools need to take into consideration the complex, value-laden setting in which corporate environmental policy-making occurs if such tools are to be socially and politically legitimated. A case study of Scandinavian Airlines (SAS) examines an airline's decision-motivations for environmental commitment. An in-depth analysis of the drivers identified by both Scandinavian Airlines and related industry officials shows that attitudes, values and beliefs generated both internally and externally have a critical impact on the airline's environmental policy-making. Although there are numerous influences that drive SAS's level of environmental commitment, three 'motivators' are found particularly noteworthy. Firstly, this research demonstrates that eco-efficiencies, in various forms, are a strong motive at SAS. Secondly, Scandinavian culture also plays an influential role in the value SAS puts on the environment at a strategic level. Thirdly, it was found that internal leadership, in the form of environmental champions in senior management positions, played a key role in the positive outcomes of the airline's environmental performance. Given the current growth in benchmarking and eco-labelling activity across tourism, this research enhances understandings about what motivates airlines to develop environmental policy in this increasingly competitive and volatile sector. © 2006 J.K. Lynes & D. Dredge..

Developing woodlands for tourism: Concepts, connections and challenges

Martin, S. 2008, Journal of Sustainable Tourism Vol 16 side 386-407.

Driven by potential economic benefits for rural communities, tourism has become an increasingly central focus of sustainable woodland management in Great Britain. Knowledge of the values and uses of woodlands for tourism, and the impacts of woodland management on tourism is, however, limited. This paper outlines qualitative research in three study areas which used in-depth interviews and discussion groups to engage with tourism providers to explore these issues. It argues that woodlands are an important constituent of 'countryside capital', with woodlands' imagery and accessibility, and their natural and man-made resources used directly and indirectly by tourism enterprises. A landscape-scale approach to tourism planning and development is advocated to ensure a more holistic use of woodlands for tourism. Critical issues are identified as being strategy and integration, local engagement, sharing of information, resources, costs and benefits between stakeholders, and policies and practices to stimulate innovation and growth. © 2008 Taylor & Francis..

The problems and prospects of sustainable tourism development in the Okavango Delta, Botswana

Mbaiwa, J.E. 2005, Journal of Sustainable Tourism Vol 13 side 203-227.

The objective of this paper is to assess the problems and prospects of sustainable tourism development in developing countries with special reference to the Okavango Delta, Botswana. Using both secondary and primary data sources, this paper points out that tourism in developing countries does not always adhere to the principles of sustainable tourism development. In the Okavango Delta, the tourism industry is designed to meet the interests of tourists from developed countries and is dominated by foreign safari companies. The tourism industry in the Okavango Delta does not significantly take into consideration the sociocultural, economic and environmental needs of the host economy. It is characterised by: The marginalisation of local companies and investors; leakages and repatriation of tourism revenue from Botswana to developed countries; the failure of tourism to promote rural development and poverty alleviation; and, the failure to observe local environmental regulations to conserve the Okavango Delta as a natural ecosystem. This paper argues that, despite these problems, such destinations have the potential to contribute to sustainable tourism development. This requires a planning process that satisfies the needs of tourists and tour operators while being sensitive to the sociocultural, economic and environmental needs of host countries and destinations. © 2005 J.E. Mbaiwa..

The effects of tourism development on rural livelihoods in the Okavango Delta, Botswana

Mbaiwa, J.E.S., A. L. 2010, Journal of Sustainable Tourism Vol 18 side 635-656.

The Community-Based Natural Resource Management (CBNRM) program in Botswana aims to achieve biodiversity conservation and rural development in rich biodiversity areas like the Okavango Delta. CBNRM assumes that if rural communities derive benefits from natural resources, they will be obliged to use such resources sustainably. Using the sustainable livelihoods framework, this study analyzes the effects of tourism development through CBNRM on rural livelihoods at Khwai, Sankoyo and Mababe in the Okavango Delta, Botswana, using primary and secondary data sources. Results of long-term surveys and in-depth interviews indicate that the three communities have forgone traditional livelihood activities such as hunting and gathering, livestock and crop farming to participate in tourism through CBNRM. Livelihoods in these villages have been improved as a result. Basic needs such as shelter, employment and income and social services like water supply systems, transportation, scholarships and payment of funeral expenses are now provided to community members and funded with income from CBNRM. Social capital has been built up in order to agree, manage and develop the CBNRM process. These results show that tourism development in these villages is achieving its goal of improved livelihoods, contradicting claims that community development projects are failing to achieve rural development. © 2010 Taylor & Francis..

Constructing partnerships for protected area tourism planning in an era of change and messiness

McCool, S.F. 2009, Journal of Sustainable Tourism Vol 17 side 133-148.

Management of sustainable tourism in protected areas requires trade-offs between two goals: (1) protection of the key values that form the basis for preservation and (2) allowing access to visitors to enjoy and appreciate those values. These trade-offs occur within a context of lack of societal agreement on goals and lack of scientific agreement on the relationships between causes and effects; two conditions needed to identify and implement effective tourism management actions. While much tourism protected area planning has been dominated by a rational-comprehensive model, this approach is increasingly unsuccessful. In such "messy" contexts, partnerships are important tools in constructing the public interest, because they can provide the consensus and learning needed to develop and implement informed actions. Such partnerships do not just happen, they must be carefully engineered. Protected area tourism planning partnerships are characterized by certain attributes: representativeness, a sense of ownership, a learning focus and attention to relationships. However, these attributes are not easily attained, for they are facilitated by several contextual factors and processes such as trust, political and economic power and equitable access to knowledge..

A cultural encounter through volunteer tourism: Towards the ideals of sustainable tourism?

McIntosh, A.J.Z., A. 2007, Journal of Sustainable Tourism Vol 15 side 541-556.

International volunteering is increasingly recognised as a form of alternative tourism. However, the nature of the 'alternative' experience gained, and the ensuing narrative between host and volunteer, remains under-explored in published research, especially in volunteer tourism research within a cultural context in a developed nation. This paper examines the nexus between volunteer tourism and cultural tourism in the search for alternative and sustainable experiences through tourism. Qualitative research using in-depth interviews, diaries and participant observation was conducted to examine the pre-, during and post-trip experiences of 12 Australian visitors undertaking organised volunteer activities in an indigenous Maori community in the North Island of New Zealand during January 2005. Members of the indigenous Maori community were also interviewed to provide an important host perspective. Findings suggest that the nature of the interaction and cultural experiences gained were perceived as mutually beneficial and seemingly different from those gained from traditional cultural products. In particular, the volunteers experienced an alternative Maori cultural product and engaged in a different narrative with their Maori hosts through their volunteer work, one rich in authentic cultural content, genuine and reflective of modern Maori life in New Zealand society. © 2007 A. J. McIntosh & A. Zahra..

the big picture: TOURISM & SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

McIntyre, K. 2011, International Trade Forum Vol side .

Since the 1950s, tourism has experienced continued expansion and diversification, becoming one of the largest and fastest growing economic sectors in the world. As an export category, tourism currently ranks fourth globally after fuels, chemicals and automotive products. According to figures by the World Trade Organization (WTO) and UN Conference on Trade and Development, the development of tourism has been identified as an important factor for at least 10 LDCs that will reach WTO graduation (the economic advancement of developing countries through industrialization, export development and rising living standards) thresholds over the next decade. According to the World Tourism Organization, demand for tourism services fell abruptly in mid-2008 but returned to growth in the last quarter of 2009 and continued to grow throughout 2010 and into the first quarter of 2011. The high-yield, low-impact ecotourism sector is perfectly suited to LDCs because they don't have the infrastructure required to manage mass-market tourism..

Accurately identifying and comparing sustainable tourists, nature-based tourists, and ecotourists on the basis of their environmental concerns

Mehmetoglu, M. 2010, International Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Administration Vol 11 side 171-199.

The current study, using a confirmatory factor analysis, developed a multi-item scale consisting of 3 dimensions that exhibited necessary reliability and validity. Based on this Nature-Based, Eco- and Sustainable Tourists (NES)-scale, and by utilizing a cluster analysis, the study identifies 4 distinct segments among a sample of the Norwegian population: nature-based tourists, ecotourists, sustainable tourists, and mass tourists. The analysis shows that while the ecotourists make up the largest segment, the mass tourists represent the smallest segment. Using Analysis of Variance (ANOVA), the resulting 4 segments are later compared on the basis of their environmental concerns. The findings suggest that the ecotourists are the most environmentally concerned whereas the mass tourists are the least environmentally concerned. Finally, based upon the overall findings of the study, a new inductive model is developed. This model highlights the interaction between different types of alternative tourists and mass tourists, by showing, inter alia, that nature-based tourism has over the years become a form of mass tourism. Theoretical and practical implications of the study are also discussed. © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC..

Policy learning and policy failure in sustainable tourism governance: From first- and second-order to third-order change?

Michael Hall, C. 2011, Journal of Sustainable Tourism Vol 19 side 649-671.

Sustainable tourism presents a paradox. At one level sustainable tourism is a success given the concept's diffusion among industry, government, academics and policy actors. Yet, it is simultaneously a policy failure given the continued growth in the environmental impacts of tourism in absolute terms. This paper analyses sustainable tourism, and the governance systems for sustainable tourism, via the concepts of policy learning and failure. The tractability of sustainable tourism policy problems is identified. Policy learning is discussed in instrumental, conceptual/paradigmatic and political learning/strategic terms. Although policy failure should encourage learning with respect to sustainable tourism this has only related to first- and second-order change which focus on changes to indicators and settings rather than the dominant policy paradigm. This is despite the dominant paradigm of "balanced" sustainable development that promotes economic growth failing on a number of indicators. A reason for this may be the unwillingness of key actors in tourism policy networks to acknowledge policy failure. The paper concludes that although exogenous factors such as a crisis event may lead to policy paradigmatic change, there is insufficient evidence that such a shift in sustainable tourism policy will necessarily occur given the entrenched dominance of the existing paradigm. © 2011 Taylor & Francis..

Sustainable airline strategy using portfolio theory: A case study of remote islands in Japan

Minato, N.M., R. 2011, Journal of Air Transport Management Vol 17 side 195-198.

The thin and fluctuated market generally characterizing air transport to remote islands involves greater business risks for airlines. But air transport often plays an important role in the life and economy of such islands. This paper applies portfolio theory to explore how it can reduce business risks to air transport in this context. The concept of Tourism β is introduced to represent the risk associated with each island market relative to overall tourist demand in the region looking as at 31 airports on remote islands in Japan. The results showed that a well-diversified portfolio of multiple remote islands could reduce the score commercial risks for carriers. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd..

Wildlife tourism as a common pool resource issue: Enabling conditions for sustainability governance

Moore, S.A.R., K. 2010, Journal of Sustainable Tourism Vol 18 side 831-844.

Wildlife tourism is potentially a common pool resource (CPR) issue when the following are applicable: it is difficult to exclude tourists; their experiences are affected by others' activities; and adverse impacts on the wildlife occur. CPRs are typified by non-excludability and subtractability. Relatively few efforts have been made to consider tourism in this way or to use the concept of CPR in tourism management schemes. This paper (1) explores the possibility of wildlife tourism being a CPR issue, (2) derives a list of enabling conditions required for the sustainability of such resources and (3) determines the applicability of the conditions through a case study. Having described the potential for wildlife tourism to be a CPR issue, the enabling conditions explored in the rest of the paper follow: the characteristics of the tourism resource system and its user groups, the associated institutional arrangements and the external environment. The application of CPR thinking to the case study, whale shark tourism in Ningaloo Marine Park,Western Australia, revealed the contribution of institutional arrangements, particularly those associated with the State Government, to sustainable management. The use of the enabling conditions as a tool for managing wildlife tourism is discussed. © 2010 Taylor & Francis..

Sustainable tourism achievement through tourism firms marketing-mix

Muhcinǎ, S.P., V. 2008, Amfiteatru Economic Vol 10 side 277-282.

Conceiving their marketing-mix, the tourism firms' majority goes from market' demands and their own possibilities, based on products' characteristics. In sustainable tourism approach, the elements of marketing-mix assembly have different level of importance, considering the destination product' characteristics. The product must include some specific features that allow to be considered a good choice for sophisticated tourists and its price must reflect his high quality and the environmental care's policies. On the other hand, this product is made and sold by certain tour-operators and tourism intermediaries which have a significant importance in sustainable tourism through there's product design and quality. In the same time, the promotional policy is important because the tools that are used can inform people, can motivate tourists and influence the customers choice to buy a this sustainable destination product. In this paper, we are proposing to underline how the components of a tourism firm' marketing-mix can contribute on achieving the sustainable tourism..

Greenways: A sustainable leisure experience concept for both communities and tourists

Mundet, L.C., G. 2010, Journal of Sustainable Tourism Vol 18 side 657-674.

This paper reviews the development of greenways/car-free trails as an alternative en- vironmentally friendly communication system and assesses their strengths and weak- nesses. It gives the results of a questionnaire survey of 1261 users along a 106-km greenway in Spain linking the Pyrenees with the Mediterranean Sea. Unlike previous studies, sampling was random and unequal probabilities of selection were properly ac- counted for. The results show a complex range of user profiles, tourist and non-tourist, their perceptions of the trail and some of the direct and indirect impacts of the greenway on the communities through which it passes. Management recommendations flowing from the survey are presented with the aim of increasing the use of accommodation services and businesses in the towns and villages near the greenway and helping create a more sustainable tourism system. The paper illustrates the potential importance of greenways in a future low-carbon tourism strategy adapting to climate change. © 2010 Taylor & Francis..

Backpacker tourism: Sustainable and purposeful? Investigating the overlap between backpacker tourism and volunteer tourism motivations

Ooi, N.L., J. H. 2010, Journal of Sustainable Tourism Vol 18 side 191-206.

Alternative tourism, particularly backpacker and volunteer tourism, has developed significantly in recent times. This rapid development has contributed to criticism of potential negative effects, notably of the environmental, cultural, economic and social impacts associated with backpacker tourism. Volunteer tourism, by contrast, has been seen in positive terms as more sustainable, combining altruistic motivations with the travel concept. This paper explores backpacker interest in volunteer tourism and identifies overlaps in motivations between the two forms of tourism; 249 self-administered questionnaires were collected from backpackers within backpacker hostels in central Melbourne, Australia. The findings of this study suggest that a motivational overlap exists between backpacker and volunteer tourists, indicating potential for the creation of volunteer tourism products catering specifically for the backpacker market. This may encourage more sustainable tourism experiences within the burgeoning backpacker market, thus addressing some of the negative criticism of the latter. This paper also discusses the implications of these findings for the marketing and development of volunteer tourism products for both the backpacker and volunteer tourism markets. © 2010 Taylor & Francis..

An assessment of convention tourism's potential contribution to environmentally sustainable growth

Park, E.B., S. 2010, Journal of Sustainable Tourism Vol 18 side 95-113.

The tourism literature contains substantial discussions on how increasing numbers of attendees and conventions at a destination contributes to the local economy, but there is limited research on the environmental impact of the concomitant increases in air and other travel, and other activity increases in energy and other resource use. This research assesses the current environmental position of the convention industry in the United States and formulates suggestions for future direction in regard to "green" concepts by examining and comparing the perceptions, attitudes, and behavioral intentions of three groups of convention stakeholders: convention attendees, meeting planners, and convention suppliers. This empirical study recognizes the critical problem of inade-quate understanding of the environmental impact of convention activities and the lack of knowledge regarding ecological convention practices. It shows that the perception of environmental impact among the three groups varies depending on which environmentally friendly practices are available to each group. It discusses the background to - and the implications of - the emotional formation of decisions and self-motivation based on positive attitudes and the strong intention to adopt green management practices agreed to by convention stakeholders. © 2010 Taylor & Francis..

Understanding success factors for ensuring sustainability in ecotourism development in southern Africa

Parker, S.K., A. 2005, Journal of Ecotourism Vol 4 side 32-46.

Developing an ecotourism enterprise is a complex and difficult undertaking for an entrepreneur. In addition to a thorough understanding of market principles and business fundamentals, the entrepreneur must build strong, lasting and equitable partnerships with local communities, protect the environment, and operate in sometimes adverse national and local conditions. In evaluating the potential sustainability of an ecotourism project the entrepreneur must understand the critical success factors for the project. This paper provides a methodology of evaluation for the three major categories of critical success factors: (1) environmental (environmental quality, site boundaries, water and opportunity costs), (2) community (community partnerships, community definition, community dialogue, and poverty and social inclusion) and (3) economic (national political environment, adequate legal systems and security, infrastructure and government policy). By investigating and rating these success factors and understanding their affect on the potential of an ecotourism project, the entrepreneur can effectively compare the potential of different projects. This article attempts to create a framework for understanding the ecotourism success factors taking the example of southern African countries. © 2005 S. Parker & A. Khare..

Stakeholder engagement and environmental protection: A new framework for small ecotourism operators

Parker, S.K., A. 2006, International Journal of Environment, Workplace and Employment Vol 2 side 206-225.

Small, sustainable enterprises involved in ecotourism, cultural tourism, organic farming and sustainable forestry are reliant on natural capital for their viability. Identifying and engaging stakeholders are two issues central to enterprise sustainability. Many small enterprises do not undertake stakeholder engagement due to perceptions of high costs incurred and organisational ignorance of stakeholder engagement theory. Engaging stakeholders creates many benefits, including environmental protection, a social license to operate, opportunities for local community involvement, increased information and knowledge flows and conflict mitigation. But there are some risks to engagement as well: uncovering problems that an organisation may prefer to avoid, raising issues of power and equity, revealing conflict and implementing changes mandated to the organisation's operations all present challenges to the enterprise. This paper revises existing stakeholder engagement methodologies to provide small enterprises with an affordable and viable framework for engaging stakeholders. Copyright © 2006 Inderscience Enterprises Ltd..

A Fractal Approach to Sustainable Networks

Pavlovich, K. 2009, Emergence : Complexity and Organization Vol 11 side 49-60.

This paper qualitatively illustrates how and why interdependence becomes significant in building coherent and sustainable network systems based upon human flourishing. Ethnographic case data of an icon tourism destination is provided to examine the structure, process and patterns that are essential for understanding network organization. The notion of fractals has been applied to more deeply understand the multi- dimensionality of networks. Through the fractal characteristic self- similarity, the data revealed aspects of volume-filling, reciprocity and enfoldment that were central to the transforming power of network organization. [PUBLICATION ABSTRACT].

Reducing the ecological footprint of inbound tourism and transport to Amsterdam

Peeters, P.S., F. 2006, Journal of Sustainable Tourism Vol 14 side 157-171.

The environmental pressure of inbound tourism of both day-visitors and tourists to Amsterdam was analysed using the ecological footprint (EF) concept. The impacts of accommodation, activities, local transport and transport from the normal place of residence to Amsterdam were all included in the study. The total EF of inbound tourism to Amsterdam was 1.42 million hectares. Approximately 70% of the environmental pressure of inbound tourism originated from transport to Amsterdam, 21% from accommodation, 8% from visiting attractions and other leisure activities and 1% from local transportation. Long-haul tourists accounted for less than 25% of tourism revenues but were responsible for 70% of the EF of inbound tourism to Amsterdam. This high share of EF is caused by the long travel distance per trip using air transport, with a relatively high impact per passenger-kilometre. The paper shows that large reductions in the ecological footprint could be made at relatively little economic cost, if marketing effort was switched from long-haul markets to short-haul markets. Opportunities may exist for this kind of market-shift, as the demand for tourist accommodation within Amsterdam exceeds supply during the high season. © 2006 P. Peeters & F. Schouten..

Landscape governance for or by the local population? A property rights analysis in Austria

Penker, M. 2009, Land Use Policy Vol 26 side 947-953.

Diverse and unique landscapes not only are one of the key assets of Austrian tourism industry, but are also highly valued for local identity, quality of life and their ecological functions. Society tries to prevent unintended landscape change and thereby purposefully intervenes in landscape development by countless environmental regulations, contracts with landholders, agri-environmental schemes, landscape and nature reserves, food-related activities such as 'eat the view' and labels of origin. In the face of increasing state control and the growing influence of (inter-) nationally acting civil society groups, the paper poses the question whether the local population still has a saying in the governance of their landscape. Is it the local people, their costumes and institutions that shape the diversity and uniqueness of landscapes (i.e., the 'root meaning of landscape' [Olwig, K.R., 2002. Landscape, Nature, and the Body Politic. From Britain's Renaissance to America's New World. The University of Wisconsin Press, Madison.]) or is local peculiarity lost to national or international landscape control? The paper analyses the changing structures of use and control rights to Austrian landscapes and resulting shifts between locally driven and centrally controlled landscape change. The paper is a meta-analysis of ten empirically founded interdisciplinary research projects on cultural landscapes in Austria. The results are compared with international literature that indicates a loss of control of the local rural population over their natural resources. In the Austrian case however, the local population (re-) negotiates and (re-) interprets complex and conflicting international and state regulations according to their respective needs before concretizing them in actual land use practises. Some participation projects and self-governed local civic society movements integrate non-landholders. In few of homogenisation forces such as CAP and international regulations, diverse and unique landscapes call for the involvement of the local preferences, traditions, knowledge and skills-of both local non-landholders and landholders. © 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved..

Managing protected areas for sustainable tourism: Prospects for adaptive co-management

Plummer, R.F., D. A. 2009, Journal of Sustainable Tourism Vol 17 side 149-168.

This paper looks at the challenging enterprise of managing protected areas for sustainable tourism. It notes that during the past 25 years multistakeholder conflicts, complexity and uncertainty have emerged and persisted as important issues requiring managerial responses. These issues reflect substantial paradigmatic shifts in pursuing and understanding sustainability. Governance directs attention to broad participatory approaches, and complex systems theory emphasises transformative changes and an integrative perspective that couples human and natural systems (a social-ecological system). The paper envisions the prospects of adaptive co-management as an alternative approach to protected areas management for sustainable tourism. It also makes the case for an interdisciplinary approach by highlighting important and informative developments outside tourism studies. Adaptive co-management bridges governance and complex systems by bringing together cooperative and adaptive approaches to management. In appraising the potential for adaptive co-management attention is systematically directed to conceptual, technical, ethical and practical dimensions. While adaptive co-management is clearly not a universal answer, experiences and knowledge from natural resource management raise salient prospects for the approach to be insightfully applied to protected areas for sustainable tourism..

Sustainable wine tourism: The host community perspective

Poitras, L.G., D. 2006, Journal of Sustainable Tourism Vol 14 side 425-448.

The meaning and elements of sustainable wine tourism from the community perspective are explored. A case study method involving multi-stakeholder input was employed to identify issues specific to the Town of Oliver, British Columbia, which is the self-proclaimed 'Wine Capital of Canada'. The case illustrates challenges facing a town that is aggressively pursuing wine tourism development, but it must deal with serious implications for agriculture, the natural environment, and the community. Recommendations made for Oliver, both strategies and implementation methods, provide a useful starting point for other communities engaged in wine tourism development. More general implications are drawn on the application of the life cycle concept to wine tourism, and specific research recommendations are made. © 2006 L. Poitras & D. Getz..

Conceptualising a contemporary marketing mix for sustainable tourism

Pomering, A.N., G.; Johnson, L. W. 2011, Journal of Sustainable Tourism Vol 19 side 953-969.

This paper outlines how marketing, though traditionally considered an enemy of sustainability, can play a role in implementing sustainable tourism. It notes the redefinition in 2007 by the American Marketing Association of marketing's aims to consider wider societal issues beyond those of clients and customers. It illustrates how the recognition of the importance of sustainable tourism at all scales of tourism activity provides marketing with an opportunity to pursue sustainability outcomes. We review the strategic tourism marketing planning process and conceptually develop a sustainability tourism marketing model that embeds sustainability considerations at each stage of the planning process. Our proposed model contributes to sustainable tourism theory development and offers a conceptual tool for managing a tourism organisation's ecological and societal footprint on the supply side and a critical opportunity for transforming consumer decision-making on the demand side, irrespective of tourism scale. A 30-cell matrix is proposed that cross-references a strong set of 10 marketing elements (product, price, promotion, place, participants, process, physical evidence, partnership, packaging and programming) against the questions posed by the triple bottom line of economic factors, the environmental and sociocultural concern, creating a check list of indicators for management purposes. © 2011 Taylor & Francis..

Environmental concern and responsibility among nature tourists in oulanka PAN Park, Finland

Puhakka, R. 2011, Scandinavian Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Vol 11 side 76-96.

Following the growth of nature-based tourism, "pristine" and remote areas, such as national parks, attract tourists in Scandinavia. Various international initiatives and certification programs, such as PAN Parks in Europe, have been introduced to promote sustainable nature-based tourism. Often tourists are also given responsibility to prevent negative environmental impacts of their travel. This paper examines the role of nature tourists in developing sustainable tourism: what expectations do tourists have on nature and sustainability in national parks, how do they consider environmental aspects when travelling, and how do they respond to ecolabels and certifications? Thirty interviews of mainly Finnish tourists were conducted in Oulanka National Park, one of PAN Parks certified parks in Finland. The results show that these nature tourists do not form a homogenous group, yet they have various views on environmental issues, which differentiate them from other nature tourists and have an influence on their travelling behavior. Thus, four types of tourists were identified on the basis of their environmental concern and responsibility. The results emphasize the role of regulation, incentives and guidance in developing sustainability in tourist destinations and companies; tourists do not necessarily set high demands as long as negative impacts do not ruin their perception of pristine nature. ©2011 Taylor & Francis..

Local discourses and international initiatives: Sociocultural sustainability of tourism in Oulanka National Park, Finland

Puhakka, R.S., S.; Cottrell, S. P.; Siikamäki, P. 2009, Journal of Sustainable Tourism Vol 17 side 529-549.

National parks have become important tourist attractions and tools for regional development. New international initiatives, such as PAN (Protected Area Network) Parks in Europe, now promote sustainable tourism in protected areas. This paper examines the sociocultural sustainability of tourism perceived by local stakeholders of Oulanka National Park in northeastern Finland. The central question concerns the role of PAN Parks certification in community and tourism development. Four discourses were identified, based on 40 semi-structured interviews exploring different views on sociocultural development pertaining to tourism in the national park: (1) integrating nature-based tourism and conservation, (2) defending the rights of local people, (3) stressing the economic utilization of nature and (4) accepting tourism development and the national park. Although local stakeholders mostly have a positive perception of tourism in the park, it cannot be concluded whether the park facilitates development in a sustainable manner or not. Key problems identified are lack of participation opportunities and contradictions with traditional subsistence economies. The various positions of stakeholders in these discourses tend to influence their views on sustainability. Findings imply the necessity to monitor the distribution of benefits and burdens of park development holistically to multiple stakeholders. © 2009 Taylor & Francis..

Local discourses and international initiatives: sociocultural sustainability of tourism in Oulanka National Park, Finland

Puhakka, R.S., Simo; Cottrell, Stuart P.; Siikamaki, Pirkko 2009, Journal of Sustainable Tourism Vol 17 side 529-549.

National parks have become important tourist attractions and tools for regional development. New international initiatives, such as PAN (Protected Area Network) Parks in Europe, now promote sustainable tourism in protected areas. This paper examines the sociocultural sustainability of tourism perceived by local stakeholders of Oulanka National Park in northeastern Finland. The central question concerns the role of PAN Parks certification in community and tourism development. Four discourses were identified, based on 40 semi-structured interviews exploring different views on sociocultural development pertaining to tourism in the national park: (1) integrating nature-based tourism and conservation, (2) defending the rights of local people, (3) stressing the economic utilization of nature and (4) accepting tourism development and the national park. Although local stakeholders mostly have a positive perception of tourism in the park, it cannot be concluded whether the park facilitates development in a sustainable manner or not. Key problems identified are lack of participation opportunities and contradictions with traditional subsistence economies. The various positions of stakeholders in these discourses tend to influence their views on sustainability. Findings imply the necessity to monitor the distribution of benefits and burdens of park development holistically to multiple stakeholders..

Problematising 'Festival tourism': Arts festivals and sustainable development in Ireland

Quinn, B. 2006, Journal of Sustainable Tourism Vol 14 side 288-306.

This paper problematises the term 'festival tourism'. It conceptualises festivals as socially sustaining devices and argues that while they frequently function as tourist attractions, their social significance extends far beyond tourism. Using empirical material gathered in two case study arts festivals in Ireland, the paper demonstrates how festivals can contribute to arts development by inter alia creating demand for the arts, enhancing venue infrastructures, encouraging local creativity and animating local involvement. The paper contends that arts festivals, irrespective of their initial objectives almost inevitably develop tourist profiles over time and it proceeds to examine how changing tourism priorities in the two festivals studied impact upon sustainable festival practices. The findings suggest that tourism emerged as a key force promoting festival growth and expansion. It was found to be associated with increased revenue flows but also with increased arts activity on a year-round basis and with an improved venue infrastructure in both places. However, problems were identified with respect to the quality of the relationship forged between the festivals and local populations in the respective places. The paper concludes by arguing that festivals' engagement with tourism needs to be carefully managed in the interests of promoting the socially sustaining function of festivals and of encouraging sustainable approaches to tourism development. © 2006 B. Quinn..

Sustainable development in tourism municipalities: The role of public goods

Rigall-I-Torrent, R. 2008, Tourism Management Vol 29 side 883-897.

It is usually argued that, since many of the inputs used in the production function of private firms in tourism municipalities are depletable, unsustainability looms over the horizons of tourism jurisdictions. However, this reasoning forgets that public goods are an important part of tourism products. Since public goods are nonrival (and hence nondepletable), a way out of the apparent unsustainability might exist. By considering well-established growth models, this paper argues that a correct supply of public goods may contribute to achieve sustainable development throughout time in tourism municipalities. © 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved..

Sustainability indicators for small tourism enterprises - An exploratory perspective

Roberts, S.T., J. 2008, Journal of Sustainable Tourism Vol 16 side 575-594.

Despite the numerical dominance of small tourism enterprises (STEs) in many destinations, little is known about their role in helping destinations progress towards sustainability objectives. The a priori assumption is that, by being small and locally owned, these enterprises automatically contribute to sustainable tourism development. This paper argues that to test this assumption, relevant indicators of sustainability (ISTs) should be developed. In contrast to destination and community ISTs, which are often stakeholder driven, the indicators developed here take an unconventional but not unprecedented approach, drawing on published frameworks and peer-reviewed case studies. The methodology of this approach has been made explicit so that potential users and researchers can assess its value and build upon it. A list of indicators that emerge from the process, covering the four broad sustainability dimensions, is given, which can be used in assessing the STE's progress towards a destination's long-term sustainability goals. © 2008 Taylor & Francis..

Developing and testing an assessment framework to guide the sustainability of the marine wildlife tourism industry

Rodger, K.S., A.; Newsome, D.; Moore, S. A. 2011, Journal of Ecotourism Vol 10 side 149-164.

Growth in the marine wildlife tourism industry has been accompanied by concerns regarding its sustainability. This paper develops and tests a generic framework for assessing the sustainability of such ventures. The framework aims to guide the collection and collation of existing information and then use this information to identify current sustainability issues and information gaps. Development relied on a literature review and expert opinion. Testing was undertaken on whale shark tourism at Ningaloo Marine Park in north-western Australia. Evaluation of the framework suggests it has applicability (i.e. it is simple to use) and is useful, where usefulness refers to the ability to contribute to sustainable tourism management. Its reproducibility (i.e. providing consistent responses irrespective of the context) could only be determined through application to multiple case studies, a recommendation flowing from this study. The framework has at least three applications: improving existing marine wildlife tourism operations through reviewing their sustainability; developing an auditing mechanism as part of the licensing provisions for such tourism; and helping to determine the likely sustainability of proposed ventures. Overall, this framework provides an important opportunity to further develop the professionalism of the wildlife tourism sector through enhancing good practice. © 2011 Taylor & Francis..

Traditions of sustainability in tourism studies

Saarinen, J. 2006, Annals of Tourism Research Vol 33 side 1121-1140.

As sustainability has become an important policy issue in tourism, it is arousing growing discussion and criticism, and an increasing need to understand the nature of the limits of growth. This paper analyzes how these limits are approached and evaluated in discussions on a local scale. The purpose is to recognize that behind the different understandings of them lie distinct traditions that are different in their focuses. These are referred to as resource-, activity-, and community-based traditions of sustainability. Further, the relationship between sustainable tourism and sustainable development is critically discussed. © 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved..

Access, Tourism and Democracy: A Conceptual Framework and the Non-establishment of a Proposed National Park in Sweden

Sandell, K. 2005, Scandinavian Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Vol 5 side 63-75.

Tourism, conservation, national parks and the interrelationship with regional development are important aspects of the high mountain region in the North of Sweden. Here, during the latter part of the 1980s there was a debate concerning the possibility of establishing a large national park in the area around Lake Tornetraesk. Even though various interested parties were represented in the working group, there was such a clash of interests that the plan was shelved for an indefinite period. The main obstacle was the resistance from local groups, principally in the township of Kiruna close by, who were afraid that their use of the area would be curtailed due to restrictions on such outdoor activities as fishing, hunting and the use of snowmobiles. This case is analysed in a conceptual framework of different "ecostrategies" for attitudes and behaviour with regard to landscape and the man-nature interrelationship. The framework is constituted as a four-field figure with the help of one axis illustrating the tension between "functional specialization" vs. "territorial adaptation" as point of departure for landscape perspectives. The other axis illustrates the tension between the strategies of "active" use vs. "passive" contemplation of the landscape..

Economic and ecological impacts of wood chip production in North Carolina: An integrated assessment and subsequent applications

Schaberg, R.H.A., P. B.; Cubbage, F. W.; Hess, G. R.; Abt, R. C.; Richter, D. D.; Warren, S. T.; Gregory, J. D.; Snider, A. G.; Sherling, S.; Flournoy, W. 2005, Forest Policy and Economics Vol 7 side 157-174.

The North Carolina Wood Chip Mill Study represents an integrated assessment of the economic and ecological impacts associated with production of wood chips at satellite chip mills in the state of North Carolina (NC), USA. Mandated by the Governor of NC, the study was attended by a high degree of public scrutiny. We report principal findings, and describe the processes by which we dealt with uncertainty resulting from limited data availability, methods used to foster public involvement and efforts to reconcile public concerns over forest harvests with our narrower mandate to examine chip mills. We considered the hypotheses that chip mills fostered widespread industrial clearcutting, increased utilization of previously noncommercial timber (especially small hardwoods), depleted future growing stocks of sawtimber, and might create adverse ecological consequences or impair aesthetics important to recreational forest users. NC wood-based industries are a major component of the state's economy, but lagged the state in economic growth from 1977 to 1996. Over the same period, the nature-based tourism sector grew rapidly. Forest land losses in North Carolina from 1982 to 1997 totaled more than one million acres. We used an econometric model to adjust timber land base and project timber supply dynamics to 2020. The simulation indicated that softwood removals exceeded growth from 1990 onward. Hardwood removals exceed growth by 2005, causing inventory levels to decline slightly by the end of the projection period. Wood chip mills processed approximately 27% of the state's chipwood harvest and 12% of the state's total timber harvest. They were statistically correlated with increased timber harvests in the state, especially in the Piedmont and the Mountains. Chip mills have effective storm water management plans and do not show visible signs of adversely affecting water quality. Higher levels of timber harvest alter forest structures in the Coastal Plain and Piedmont, generally creating less habitat for bird, amphibian and reptile species of conservation concern. Fewer species are adversely affected in the Mountains. Public opinion about chip mills is polarized, and controversy exists principally in the western portion of the state. Overall, public acceptance of study findings was favorable, and selected elements of the research findings have been used to support a variety of advocacy positions. © 2003 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved..

Development for whom? Social justice and the business of ecotourism

Schellhorn, M. 2010, Journal of Sustainable Tourism Vol 18 side 115-135.

This paper reports on long-term research conducted in Lombok, Indonesia into the social and socio-economic outcomes of tourism development within a heterogeneous community of migrant settlers and native residents. It explores the outcomes of international development agency work in the area. It explains how while most of the case study's tourism attractions are part of the indigenous heritage of the wetu telu Sasak, they derive few economic benefits from that heritage. Local women in particular struggle to access the new development opportunities that tourism offers. Benefits tend to flow to incoming migrant groups and to men. The prevailing conditions of culture, education, ethnicity, gender, politics, history, location, mobility, socio-economy, tourism skills and knowledge constitute key barriers. Further constraints, often overlooked, result from an "institutional culture" within aid projects that promotes business ahead of social development. © 2010 Taylor & Francis..

Tourism in small island states: From vulnerability to strengths

Scheyvens, R.A.M., J. 2008, Journal of Sustainable Tourism Vol 16 side 491-510.

This article argues that the narrow and frequently negative conceptualisations of small island states as environmentally vulnerable and economically dependent are problematic for sustainable tourism development and for economic development, generally. Scenarios presented to date are often incomplete. Narratives suggesting that island peoples are unskilled and lack resources, and that their islands are 'tiny' and 'fragile', can undermine their pride and stifle their initiative, reducing their ability to act with autonomy to determine and achieve their own developmental goals. A range of more positive conceptualisations is given, demonstrating the strong social dimensions of sustainability in small island states and the resilience and adaptability of island states. Examples describe a number of positive development paths to sustainable tourism in small island states. © 2008 Taylor & Francis..

Sustainability indicators for tourism destinations: A complex adaptive systems approach using systemic indicator systems

Schianetz, K.K., L. 2008, Journal of Sustainable Tourism Vol 16 side 601-628.

This article discusses the necessity for complementing linear sustainability assessment tools, which disregard the complex and dynamic nature of tourism, with complex adaptive systems (CASs) approaches. A methodological framework for the selection and evaluation of sustainability indicators for tourism destinations, the systemic indicator system (SIS), is proposed; this framework takes the interrelatedness of sociocultural, economic and environmental issues into account. The SIS methodology is tested using a case study of a holiday eco-village project near Lamington National Park in Queensland, Australia. The results show that tourism destinations need to be viewed and studied as CASs, and that sustainability indicator systems need to be applied in the context of an adaptive management approach. Special attention is given to the capability of the SIS methodology as a decision aid for resort developers and planners to improve the effectiveness of measures for pollution prevention and mitigation. © 2008 Taylor & Francis..

Concepts and tools for comprehensive sustainability assessments for tourism destinations: A comparative review

Schianetz, K.K., L.; Lockington, D. 2007, Journal of Sustainable Tourism Vol 15 side 369-389.

This paper reviews a wide range of tools for comprehensive sustainability assessments at whole tourism destinations, covering sociocultural, economic and environmental issues. It considers their strengths, weaknesses and site-specific applicability. It is intended to facilitate their selection (and combination where necessary). Tools covered include Sustainability Indicators, Environmental Impact Assessment, Life Cycle Assessment, Environmental Audits, Ecological Footprints, Multi-Criteria Analysis and Adaptive Environmental Assessment. Guidelines for evaluating their suitability for specific sites and situations are given as well as examples of their use. © 2007 K. Schianetz et al..

Sustainable tourism: Sustaining biodiversity?

Schloegel, C. 2006, Public Library Quarterly Vol 25 side 247-264.

New markets for ecosystem services have emerged in response to the failure of traditional biodiversity conservation mechanisms to effectively protect and conserve the processes that support ecosystem function and process (Landell-Mills and Porras, 2002; Pagiola et al., 2002). Sustainable tourism-one market tool that potentially supports biodiversity services-aims to balance the environmental, economic, and socio-cultural features of tourism development by maintaining environmental resources, the socio-cultural livelihoods of host communities, and providing stakeholder benefits (WTO, 2004). Proponents claim that sustainable tourism contributes toward maintaining biodiversity, while critics fear that marketing various components of biodiversity as distinct services (e.g., only protecting unique places for sustainable tourism, and only protecting extremely biodiverse places for bioprospecting), fails to protect the integrity of the functioning, and dynamic ecosystem (Landell-Mills and Porras, 2002). This chapter serves as one section of a four-part analysis of existing and emerging markets for biodiversity services using Panama as a case study. Based on projections of future sustainable tourism markets, this analysis presents policy options that could positively augment future sustainable tourism ventures. Copyright © by The Haworth Press, Inc. All rights reserved..

Why sustainable tourism must address climate change

Scott, D. 2011, Journal of Sustainable Tourism Vol 19 side 17-34.

This opinion piece examines Weaver's thesis that sustainable tourism's current expanding engagement with climate change may not necessarily be conducive to the interests of tourism sustainability. It critically examines and responds to the seven interrelated issues presented by Weaver to support that opinion. This paper dispels some common climate science myths that continue to hamper scientific progress and obfuscate debate over climate change policy responses and specifically refutes recent claims of compromised and inaccurate research findings. It is argued that climate change studies reveal a deficiency in past conceptualizations of sustainable tourism that focused almost exclusively on destination scale issues and highlight the need to properly account for the environmental and social impacts of tourism's travel phase. Addressing climate change is considered a prerequisite to sustainable development and therefore germane to advancing sustainable tourism research. Tourism is currently considered among the economic sectors least prepared for the risks and opportunities posed by climate change and is only now developing the capacity to advance knowledge necessary to inform business, communities and government about the issues and potential ways forward. Any retreat from engagement with climate change issues by the tourism industry or its researchers would be to their substantial detriment. © 2011 Taylor & Francis..

Flagship attractions and sustainable rural tourism development: The case of the Alnwick Garden, England

Sharpley, R. 2007, Journal of Sustainable Tourism Vol 15 side 125-143.

This paper proposes an alternative approach to rural tourism that returns to a more traditional model of development: large, flagship attractions that act as a 'growth pole' for the local economy and community. It questions some of the accepted beliefs about sustainable rural tourism development current in recent years. It is based on a case study of Alnwick Garden in Northumberland, England. It suggests that, under certain circumstances, flagship or mega-attractions can not only increase substantially the number of visitors to rural areas but also, through appropriate policies and processes, can underpin the longer-term, sustainable development of those areas. © 2007 R. Sharpley..

Tourism, marketing and sustainable development in the English national parks: The role of National Park Authorities

Sharpley, R.P., T. 2007, Journal of Sustainable Tourism Vol 15 side 557-573.

This paper examines the work of the English National Park Authorities (NPAs) in relation to aspects of the development of sustainable tourism. The NPAs have implicitly sought to achieve sustainable tourism development since the parks were first designated, striving to balance the needs of visitors and the environment within the context of living, working landscapes. Studies have revealed, however, that some NPAs are not fully championing sustainable tourism development. The paper examines the NPA's use of marketing and marketing perspectives in encouraging sustainable tourism, exploring attitudes, roles and activities. A diverse, piecemeal and sometimes under-informed approach is revealed. The paper concludes with ways forward for English NPAs and for other protected area management organisations. © 2007 R. Sharpley & T. Pearce..

Food, place and authenticity: Local food and the sustainable tourism experience

Sims, R. 2009, Journal of Sustainable Tourism Vol 17 side 321-336.

In recent years, attempts to improve the economic and environmental sustainability of both tourism and agriculture have been linked to the development of "alternative" food networks and a renewed enthusiasm for food products that are perceived to be traditional and local. This paper draws on research from two UK regions, the Lake District and Exmoor, to argue that local food can play an important role in the sustainable tourism experience because it appeals to the visitor's desire for authenticity within the holiday experience. Using evidence from qualitative interviews with tourists and food producers, the paper records ways in which local foods are conceptualised as "authentic" products that symbolise the place and culture of the destination. By engaging with debates surrounding the meaning of locality and authenticity, the paper challenges existing understandings of these concepts and offers a new way forward for tourism research by arguing that "local food" has the potential to enhance the visitor experience by connecting consumers to the region and its perceived culture and heritage.© 2009 Taylor & Francis..

APPLICATION OF SUSTAINABILITY PRINCIPLES IN WINTER SPORTS TOURISM

Skoric, S. , Faculty of Tourism and Hospitality Management in Opatija. Biennial International Congress. Tourism & Hospitality Industry Vol side 1237-1250.

Winter sports tourism is currently facing many challenges in its development. These challenges can be summarized into two basic ones. The first one includes the problem of saturation which is the consequence of a great boom in the development of skiing centres in the 1960s. The second challenge refers to the climate change problems that affect the sureness of snow which the development of winter sports tourism actually depends on. The previously mentioned problems, as well as the concern for the future, imply the need for the application of the sustainability principles in the tourism development in these destinations. Although the term sustainable development is an indispensable part of the development plans in general, as well as tourism development plans in almost every country of the world, and although it is theoretically a well advanced area of research, the question of the applicability of these principles in practice still remains unanswered. In this sense, a research problem of this paper is the acquaintance of decision makers in winter sports destinations with the term sustainable development, i.e. are the sustainability principles applied in the development of these destinations? For that purpose, a research in winter sports centres of Austria and Slovenia has been conducted. The results show that less than a half of the destinations involved in the research were familiar with this term, and in their development (plans) they are usually concerned with the economic impacts. [PUBLICATION ABSTRACT].

APPLICATION OF SUSTAINABILITY PRINCIPLES IN WINTER SPORTS TOURISM

Skoric, S. 2010, Faculty of Tourism and Hospitality Management in Opatija. Biennial International Congress. Tourism & Hospitality Industry Vol side 1237-1250.

Winter sports tourism is currently facing many challenges in its development. These challenges can be summarized into two basic ones. The first one includes the problem of saturation which is the consequence of a great boom in the development of skiing centres in the 1960s. The second challenge refers to the climate change problems that affect the sureness of snow which the development of winter sports tourism actually depends on. The previously mentioned problems, as well as the concern for the future, imply the need for the application of the sustainability principles in the tourism development in these destinations. Although the term sustainable development is an indispensable part of the development plans in general, as well as tourism development plans in almost every country of the world, and although it is theoretically a well advanced area of research, the question of the applicability of these principles in practice still remains unanswered. In this sense, a research problem of this paper is the acquaintance of decision makers in winter sports destinations with the term sustainable development, i.e. are the sustainability principles applied in the development of these destinations? For that purpose, a research in winter sports centres of Austria and Slovenia has been conducted. The results show that less than a half of the destinations involved in the research were familiar with this term, and in their development (plans) they are usually concerned with the economic impacts. [PUBLICATION ABSTRACT].

The diffusion of environmental sustainability innovations in North American hotels and ski resorts

Smerecnik, K.R.A., P. A. 2011, Journal of Sustainable Tourism Vol 19 side 171-196.

This study examines the diffusion of environmental sustainability innovations in North American hotels and ski resorts. It seeks to understand what sustainability innovations are being adopted and the variables affecting the rate of adoption. An electronic survey was distributed to 49 medium/large hotels and ski resorts. Rogers' diffusion of innovations theory was utilized to hypothesize that a hotel/resort manager's perceptions of sustainability would correlate with the adoption of the innovations. Over 4000 published studies have used diffusion of innovations theory to examine the innovation in mass media, public health, sociology, communication and agriculture. Results from this study revealed that the\ perceived simplicity of sustainability innovations and high levels of opinion leadership of hotels/resorts were most strongly associated with the adoption of sustainability innovations. The perceived relative advantage of sustainability innovations and the general innovativeness of the hotels/resorts also correlated to some extent with the adoption of innovations leading to increased sustainability. Sustainability communication must emphasize simplicity and ease of adopting sustainability innovations to increase the rate of adoption. The findings provide useful theoretical knowledge and advice for change agents, opinion leaders and suppliers in the resort industry on how to further diffuse sustainability in the sector. © 2011 Taylor & Francis..

Seeing a new side to seasides: culturally regenerating the English seaside town

Smith, M.K. 2004, The International Journal of Tourism Research Vol 6 side 17-28.

The "buzzword" for the 1990s was undoubtedly the concept of sustainability in all its various manifestations, not least in the field of tourism development. Its successor for the 2000s looks set to become the phenomenon of cultural regeneration, which is already dominating the urban landscape of much of western Europe. However, the extent to which regeneration through cultural development and the revival of tourism can become the new panacea for declining resorts is open to debate. This issue will be discussed in more depth in the context of English seaside towns, focusing in particular on a case study of Southend-on-Sea. [PUBLICATION ABSTRACT].

Analytic and Dynamic Approach to Collaboration: A Transdisciplinary Case Study on Sustainable Landscape Development in a Swiss Prealpine Region

Stauffacher, M.F., Thomas; Krütli, Pius; Scholz, Roland W. 2008, Systemic Practice and Action Research Vol 21 side 409-422.

The involvement of stakeholders and the public in societal decision processes has lately received increased attention. We suggest that appropriate and tailored techniques should be selected and integrated to provide the prerequisites for inclusive involvement depending on the issue, type, goals and phase of the decision process in question, i.e. an analytic, systematic and dynamic approach to collaboration. In a transdisciplinary case study design we integrate diverse analytical methods whereby a process of mutual learning between science and people from outside academia is strived for. Our framework for collaboration is illustrated by a case study on sustainable landscape development in the Swiss prealpine region of Appenzell Ausserrhoden. [PUBLICATION ABSTRACT].

Sustainable cruise tourism in Arctic Canada: An integrated coastal management approach

Stewart, E.J.D., D. 2006, Tourism in Marine Environments Vol 3 side 77-88.

Cruise tourism in Arctic Canada is increasing, albeit haphazardly. This article discusses the elements of management and planning that are expected to be important in the development of sustainable cruise tourism activities in Arctic Canada. Stakeholders might benefit from cruise tourism management and planning being given higher priority in approaches to integrated coastal management. This approach is viewed as useful in northern Canada where resource management operates in an environment of uncertainty. There is a sense of urgency to address the issues raised because sovereignty challenges and climate change are likely to accelerate the development of cruise tourism in the Canadian Arctic. Copyright © 2006 Cognizant Comm. Corp..

Reviewing the IYE and WSSD processes and impacts on the tourism sustainability agenda

Tepelus, C. 2008, Journal of Ecotourism Vol 7 side 77-86.

Two major events marked 2002 as a milestone year for the sustainable development agenda and in particular for the tourism sector. The declaration by the United Nations of 2002 as 'International Year of Ecotourism' (IYE), culminated in the organisation of the World Ecotourism Summit (WES) in May 2002. This was followed in August 2002 by the World Summit for Sustainable Development (WSSD), a global event where the research and business communities gathered to review the last decade's achievements in making business and society more sustainable for future generations. A review of the proceedings of these events is carried out here, in light of the actions of different stakeholders. Policy-makers and the research community may consequently revisit the current tourism sustainability agenda, especially when scrutinised under the Global Code of Ethics in Tourism and considering the challenges posed by the Millennium Development Goals and their application to tourism policies. © 2008 C. Tepelus..

Traditional livelihoods, conservation and recreation: Reflections on managing visitation in New Zealand conservation parks

Thompson, A.L., B.; Reis, A.; Jellum, C.; Sides, G.; Wright, R.; Kjelsberg, M. 2009, Tourismos Vol 4 side 163-179.

This article discusses the findings of research conducted in protected natural areas in the South Island of New Zealand over three consecutive summers between December 2005 and May 2008. The primary purpose of the research was to gather perspectives and data about local community members' and visitors' recreational experiences and aspirations for future management of the conservation parks. Since 2005, 'high country' conservation parks have been designated by the country's protected natural area manager, the Department of Conservation (DOC). The three South Island parks involved in this study - the Ahuriri, Ruataniwha and Hakatere Conservation Parks - were, prior to designation, leased and managed since the nineteenth century by multiple generations of farming families for agricultural purposes, primarily farming merino sheep and beef cattle. Thus the landscape has undergone transition from a farmed environment coexisting with natural features that have high conservation values to one where tourism and recreation activities dominate. © University of the Aegean..

Half a century of mass tourism: Evolution and expectations

Tirados, R.M.G. 2011, Service Industries Journal Vol 31 side 1589-1601.

This paper presents a retrospective analysis of the service sector focusing on the hotel industry with reference to how internationalisation and globalisation are having a major effect on demand, and as a result how changes must be made to what is offered. The socalled mass tourism must evolve; we are about to enter the second decade of the twenty-first century and mass tourism needs to be transformed. A large number of issues need to be borne in mind, such as the influence technological progress is having on the ways of travelling and booking and on sustainable, environmental tourism. Also to be taken into account is the competitiveness of the so-called emerging nations, for which a mature country like ours can provide new tourist packages. © 2011 Taylor & Francis..

The shark watching industry and its potential contribution to shark conservation

Topelko, K.N.D., P. 2005, Journal of Ecotourism Vol 4 side 108-128.

Over 100 million sharks are killed annually, putting enormous pressure on shark populations worldwide. Sharks have traditionally been considered a detriment to coastal tourism, but since the early 1990s, shifts in attitudes amongst divers have led to growth in the popularity of shark watching as a tourist activity. An estimated 500,000 divers a year find, photograph, feed, and swim with sharks, contributing millions of dollars to local and regional economies. This paper examines whether the economic value attached to shark watching can provide enough incentive to reduce consumptive exploitation levels. Although the economic value attached to shark watching has led to greater protection of sharks in some locations, analysis of available data suggests that incentives do not appear large enough to encourage a significant reduction in fishing pressure appropriate to the scale of threat facing sharks. Growth of the shark watching industry is constrained by a number of factors including perceived risks and benefits, declining shark populations, and government regulations. However, conservation strategies for sharks involving tourism can be envisaged, involving varying levels of non-consumptive and consumptive uses of sharks. Three kinds of interaction between the non-consumptive and consumptive use of sharks are outlined along with implications for shark conservation. © 2005 K.N. Topelko and P. Dearden..

Reasons for going green in serviced accommodation establishments

Tzschentke, N.K., David; Lynch, Paul A. 2004, International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management Vol 16 side 116-124.

This paper reports on the preliminary findings of an exploratory study on environmental decision making in the context of largely small serviced accommodation establishments. It focuses on the motivations of owner-managers for becoming environmentally involved and their reasons for joining an environmental accreditation scheme. The study was conducted in Scotland using face-to-face in-depth interviews with members of the Green Tourism Business Scheme, an environmental accreditation scheme for tourism businesses. Initial analysis suggests that involvement in environmental activities may be driven by economic as well as ethical considerations. The results point to the role played by personal values and beliefs in small firms' decision making and the need to gain a greater understanding of the complexity of motives that drive the small hospitality business owner.[PUBLICATION ABSTRACT].

Transitions to sustainable tourism mobility: The social practices approach

Verbeek, D.M., H. 2008, Journal of Sustainable Tourism Vol 16 side 629-644.

In this article, we argue that current research on sustainable tourism mobility can be divided roughly into two streams. One covers primarily the organisational and technological side of tourism mobility, while the other concentrates on travellers' attitudes. To date, these streams have been organised as separate bodies of research. There is much to be gained by being able to create linkages between the two. To do this, tourism research will have to develop a less generalised and more context-specific approach to travelling behaviour. In this paper, the Social Practices Approach is suggested as an interesting conceptual tool to interrelate current approaches. By giving greater consideration to the contextual dimension of tourism practices, citizen-consumers might be mobilised more effectively as change agents. To analyse the potential roles of citizen-consumers in transition processes towards sustainable tourism mobility, two citizen-consumer-led change processes are differentiated. The first is directed at tourists in their consumer-role, by providers developing sociotechnical innovations enabling and tempting tourists to behave more sustainably, and by incorporating consumer-logics in supply. Second, tourists can be mobilised in their role as citizen-consumers through processes of sub-politics, social movements and political consumerism. © 2008 Taylor & Francis..

Local knowledge and adult learning in environmental adult education: Community-based ecotourism in southern Thailand

Walter, P. 2009, International Journal of Lifelong Education Vol 28 side 513-532.

This paper examines how local knowledge is employed in environmental adult education in a community-based ecotourism project in an island community in southern Thailand. The study is based on field research and analysis of project websites, media reports and documents. Situated at the intersection of global tourism and a local Thai-Malay Muslim fishing community, the ecotourism project functions as an alternative tourism development model challenging dominant practices of mass tourism. In the project, tourists stay as guests in local homes, and learn firsthand from family and community ecotourism guides. The informal ecotourism 'curriculum' for tourists centres on local knowledge of tidal and marine ecosystems, environmental conservation efforts, local culture, and traditional livelihood activities. Tourists learn experientially to understand and appreciate this local knowledge, and in the process, contribute to the sustenance of the community, to the preservation of culture, and to the conservation of the marine resources upon which the community depends. Members of the ecotourism project, for their part, have engaged in a wide range of adult learning over the project's lifespan. This learning includes skills and knowledge in ecotourism management, environmental conservation, cross-cultural exchange and political activism. Although the advent of mass tourism on the island now threatens to overwhelm the local community, the capacity for environmental adult education, adult learning and political activism built up over many years by members of the ecotourism project will likely help to moderate, if not control, the deleterious effects of future commercial development. © 2009 Taylor & Francis..

Environmentalism and tourism preferences: A study of outdoor recreationists in Sweden

Wolf-Watz, D.S., K.; Fredman, P. 2011, Scandinavian Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Vol 11 side 190-204.

This article explores the linkages between nature-based recreation and preferences of individuals classified as "environmentalists". Following an overview of the literature, this paper reports on an empirical investigation of the nature-based recreation vs. environmentalism nexus using data from a national Swedish survey. Study findings show that environmentalists (environmentally-oriented individuals) behave differently in terms of their recreation-related preferences when compared to non-environmentalists. Environmentalists prefer outdoor activities with little or no impact on the environment as demonstrated, for example, by their avoidance of extractive (e.g. hunting) and motorized activities (e.g. snowmobiling). Despite these differences, the findings were inconsistent in that while environmentalists avoid some extractive and motorized activities, other similar activities were not avoided. Thus, the results question the use of simplistic recreational classification systems for the understanding of activity preferences and the authors call for more in-depth, qualitative research to further understand the nature-based recreation choices of environmentalists. Study findings also show that environmentally-oriented individuals do not hesitate to travel away from residential areas for participation in nature-based recreation. Therefore, this paper helps us to understand which nature-based activities environmentalists demand and can provide a more informed basis for tourism planning and management. © 2011 Taylor & Francis..

Cultural clash: Interpreting established use and new tourism activities in protected natural areas

Wray, K.E., S.; Perkins, H. C. 2010, Scandinavian Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Vol 10 side 272-290.

Protected natural areas are a significant tourism resource in many countries, including Norway, Sweden, Canada, Australia and New Zealand. The provision of tourism facilities in such areas is increasing but this is not without controversy. Tensions have arisen in some areas where international tourist visitation is believed to be affecting traditional cultural and recreational practices. Despite this, little research attention has been given to exploring local users' attitudes towards tourism activities in areas where they have traditionally not existed. Using Fiordland National Park as a case study, this paper reports research on recreational wilderness use in New Zealand by locals and visiting international tourists. Its focus is on local recreationists' attitudes towards international wilderness tourism. The discussion draws on data gathered using in-depth interviews and research diaries. Findings revealed that international tourists were often viewed as a threat to New Zealanders' recreation opportunities and cultural identity. These attitudes appear to be influenced by widely held values and beliefs about the purpose of public conservation lands. A consideration of the links between the natural environment and national identity is seen as crucial when planning for tourism in protected natural areas in the future. © 2010 Taylor & Francis..

Policy communities, networks and issue cycles in tourism destination systems

Wray, M. 2009, Journal of Sustainable Tourism Vol 17 side 673-690.

This paper demonstrates how concepts derived from policy community, policy network and issues management theories can be used to understand the roles, activities and interactions of government, corporate and pressure group stakeholders engaged in tourism policy, planning and management in destination contexts. It shows the relevance and utility of an "integrated issue lifecycle approach" to trace the evolution of tourism policy, planning and destination management within specific destination contexts. The application of this approach is demonstrated through a case analysis of the tourism policy and planning system that underpins the destination system of Byron Bay, a significant domestic and international destination on the East Coast of Australia. The underlying premise adopted for this study is that the examination of the antecedents of tourism policy and planning processes, within particular destination contexts, can lead to an understanding of the driving values and ideas that have led to contemporary tourism policy issues and problems. © 2009 Taylor & Francis..

Managing cultural values in sustainable tourism: Conflicts in protected areas

Zeppel, H. 2010, Tourism and Hospitality Research Vol 10 side 93-104.

This article addresses the role of cultural values in sustainable tourism. It evaluates cultural conflicts between indigenous groups, recreation users and management agencies over the appropriate amenity use of protected areas in the USA, Australia and New Zealand. It assesses both social values conflicts and interpersonal conflicts between groups with different worldviews about landscapes, resource use and recreation. This article identifies six types of cross-cultural conflicts between indigenous peoples and recreation users: sacred sites/religious beliefs, resource use, land use, visitor infrastructure, recreation activity and place names. Management strategies to address cultural values in sustainable tourism and cultural conflicts over recreational use of natural areas are presented. © 2010 Macmillan Publishers Ltd..

The sustainability of tourism supply chain: A case study research

da Costa, M.T.G.C., L. M. C. 2011, Tourismos Vol 6 side 393-404.

The dynamic environment and the globalization of the tourism sector accelerate the necessity to improve sustainable supply chain management. In tourism sector the supply chain is composed by a diversity of firms with higher heterogeneity and in general without trade alliances. These circumstances improve the complexity of this chain and difficult the study of the sector. The main object of this study is to analyse the sustainability of tourism supply chain through a case study research. This research tries to answer the question: Is the supply chain of Palmela village sustainable? This case study presents a sustainable diagnosis of tourism supply chain and suggests several proposals for its improvement. © University of the Aegean..

Crisis management, tourism and sustainability: The role of indicators

de Sausmarez, N. 2007, Journal of Sustainable Tourism Vol 15 side 700-714.

The damage to tourism caused by a crisis or disaster may not only have serious implications for a national economy but also threaten the livelihoods of many in the destination. The monitoring of crisis indicators could allow intervention to minimise the crisis and offers a chance of protecting tourism for the benefit of all stakeholders. This paper evaluates the role of crisis indicators in sustainable tourism development, and shows why this is closely connected to issues in sustainable tourism. The author challenges the conventional classification of crises and suggests that grouping them according to their triggers is more useful in predicting and managing a potential crisis. Empirical data gathered during interviews with senior Malaysian public and private sector representatives highlight some of the practical issues associated with the identification and monitoring of appropriate indicators. The paper concludes that the new classification allows crisis management to be more cost-effective and may also be a key to indicator development for other aspects of sustainable tourism. The travel trade may hold the key to indicators of market trends, but there would be issues in obtaining the necessary information for reasons of confidentiality. © 2007 N. de Sausmarez..

Environmental initiatives in bed and breakfast establishments in Canada: Scope and major challenges with implementation

van Haastert, M.d.G., D. 2010, Tourism and Hospitality, Planning and Development Vol 7 side 179-193.

The objective of this paper is to investigate the implementation of environmental practices in small firms in the hospitality industry, namely bed and breakfast establishments. The issues addressed include motivations, scope of environmental initiatives and challenges faced during their implementation. The study is based on interviews with eight bed and breakfast owners in the Niagara Region in Canada. The research indicated a limited scope of environmental initiatives at bed and breakfast establishments. The majority of the initiatives had a cost savings nature and include different actions aimed at energy conservation, water conservation and waste management. Further analysis indicated three major types of barriers to adoption of environmental practices by tourism micro businesses: budgetary constraints, lack of knowledge and conflict with customer attitudes and expectations. The study specifically highlights significant lack of understanding of the sustainability terminology and very low awareness of the impacts of the business activity on the environment by the owners of bed and breakfast establishments and calls for additional education and training on sustainability for small business owners. © 2010 Taylor & Francis..

The potential of rural tourism and the sustainable development of rural areas

Šimková, E. 2007, E a M: Ekonomie a Management Vol 10 side 57-62.

Paper describes role of rural tourism for the development of rural areas. It's an alternative for agricultural entrepreneurship and could be beneficial both for profitability and for revitalization and living social environment. It highlights the importance of rural tourism for the future of mankind and different needs for doing business in this area. Author assumes that meeting customer's demands in the current business environment is more and more difficult. It is also very demanding. Prior setting up a rural tourism oriented business, it is advisable to cautiously analyze the general policy of the region. It is necessary to react to changes of consumer behavior, such as increasing demand habits and orientation to goods and services that are not really necessary. The goal of this article is to set procedure of the analysis of the rural tourism potential, and stress out the necessity of exercitation of the effective planning and marketing approach as a key aspect in rural tourism entrepreneurship. The main steps of strategic and marketing planning are also described. The article also reveals the relationship of the "Local Agenda 21" as a fundamental instrument of the territorial development from the view of the sustainable development. The described CATWOE methodology and "Environmental Assessment" negotiate impacts of all activities for environment. As any business activity, also rural tourism is profit-oriented. Risk analysis must therefore be performed with systematic approach. "Risk Assessment" and its usage are shown at the SWOT analysis. The analysis of rural tourism and main strategic business rules are based upon information from a large number of literatures and practical experience of the author. She analyzed strategic documents and gathered lot of information..