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Tourist accommodation effects of festivals

2006, Tourism Economics Vol 12 side 291-291.

There is increasing interest in arranging festivals or special events in many cities. This paper presents an econometric model to account for the tourism accommodation impact of such events. The autoregressive count data model incorporates some of the more important factors in the planning and evaluation of an event, such as spare capacity, displacement effects and the costs that visitors face. The results for two large Swedish festivals indicate that there are some displacement effects but that the net tourism effect is positive, since the average visitor stays longer during festival periods. In the final year of the sample the festival increased the accommodation receipts for the hotels in Stockholm and Gothenburg by 2% and 6%, respectively. [PUBLICATION ABSTRACT].

Olives, hospitality and tourism: a Western Australian perspective

2010, British Food Journal Vol 112 side 55-68.

Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to examine the links between olive growing, hospitality and tourism in an emerging olive growing region, as well as challenges olive grove operators face. Design/methodology/approach - A qualitative approach is taken in the form of face-to-face and telephone interviews among 23 olive grove operators in Western Australia from a sample of 33 operations identified. Findings - Almost half of the respondents indicated being open to the public in some form, including cellar door sales and hospitality facilities, such as a café. Other respondents are currently in the process of developing hospitality facilities or plan to be associated to tourism. However, some responses identified existing marketing issues and outside competition from cheaper products as current constraints. Research limitations/implications - That only 23 respondents participated in the study does clearly limit the generalisability of the findings in regards to olive growing in Western Australian or elsewhere. Despite this limitation, this exploratory study provides first insights into an unexplored emerging and increasingly multifunctional industry. Practical implications - In view of some operators' concerns of being able to market their products in the future, the findings illustrate that the mix of strategies combining the olive products, hospitality and/or tourism could have several positive impacts on this emerging industry for those operators willing and able to pursue such paths. Originality/value - The current developmental stage of olive growing and its potential for further extending into "olive tourism" or related concepts suggests opportunities for future research. [PUBLICATION ABSTRACT].

Customers' perceptions of floating restaurants in Egypt

Abdelhamied, H.H.S. 2011, Anatolia Vol 22 side .

Floating restaurants are a new phenomenon for dining out in Cairo, where customers can be provided not only with a meal but also an entertaining casual dining experience with unrivalled views of the Nile River. This study aims to identify customers perceptions of the floating restaurants sailing down the Nile River and also explores the different attributes that influence customer satisfaction with, and increase the intention of repeat patronage for, Sailing Floating Restaurants. Frequencies, means, Pearson correlations, cross tab and factor analysis were used for the data analysis. The results indicate that aspects such as parking spaces, healthy, and local dishes, along with rest-room cleanliness are pivotal attributes to create satisfied customers and to increase repeat patronage intentions. Floating restaurant managers should reasonably take into consideration the trip length, which contributes significantly to customers' satisfaction and repeat patronage intentions. © 2011 Taylor & Francis..

Marketing its colonial heritage: A new lease of life for Cape Coast, Ghana?

Agyei-Mensah, S. 2006, International Journal of Urban and Regional Research Vol 30 side 705-716.

Most of the published works on place promotion and urban change have been undertaken within the western world. This essay goes beyond previous studies by examining the phenomenon within the African context. Specifically, it examines the utility of heritage tourism as an avenue for place promotion of Cape Coast, Ghana. The essay demonstrates how urban development in Ghana has become more centralized on towns such as Accra and Kumasi, so that once important towns like Cape Coast have lost their importance. The fact that such towns have attempted to improve their position via innovative urban development strategies, and the experience of Cape Coast, is a testimony of how heritage tourism is helping to fill this gap. However, there are significant structural constraints on the effective use of tourism in salvaging Cape Coast's declining image, and these have to be addressed before too much faith is put in tourism as a tool for place promotion. © 2006 The Author. Journal Compilation 2006 Joint Editors and Blackwell Publishing Ltd..

Love motels: oriental phenomenon or emergent sector?

Alexander, M.C., C. C.; MacLaren, A.; O'Gorman, K. D. 2010, International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management Vol 22 side 194-208.

Purpose - This paper aims to explore the "love motel" concept by examining the changing attitude of consumers in Taiwan. This will increase knowledge of the sector and define love motels. Design/methodology/approach - The literature review charts the development of Taiwanese love motels from a dual origin: American motels and Japanese "love hotels." This is followed by an empirical qualitative study consisting of a two-stage collection strategy: focus groups of hospitality and tourism professionals to gather a wide range of opinions on the subject area, followed by semi-structured interviews with consumers. Findings - The findings split into three interrelated areas: growth of Taiwanese love motels due to more liberal attitudes towards sexual practice; a change in the public perception of motels due to increased standards and an increased satisfaction with the personal consumption experience; these hotels are designed for couples. Research limitations/implications - The empirical element of the study is an exploration of consumer experience in Taiwanese love hotels. Because of the sensitive nature of some of the data that were gathered a qualitative approach has been adopted. Practical implications - The sexual associations with this product appear almost coincidental. If the love motel product is considered in its purest form it is simply a hotel product that provides complete anonymity for its guests. Therefore, despite its application in South East Asia, this hospitality concept has potential to be applied in a variety of guises. Originality/value - The phenomenon of "love hotels" is absent from the hospitality management literature; the paper begins to fill that gap by beginning a discussion on this possibly controversial sector..

Mutant mobilities: Backpacker tourism in 'global' Sydney

Allon, F.A., K.; Bushell, R. 2008, Mobilities Vol 3 side 73-94.

This essay explores the complex mobilities of contemporary backpackers. Backpackers are not just tourists; they are also frequently students, working holidaymakers, highly skilled professional workers, and even, at times, long-term semi-permanent residents. How to define this group of physically and conceptually mobile travellers is often problematic, especially for local authorities. It is difficult to discern what cultural space and identity this type of mobility and this category of traveller occupy. Focusing on the tensions in residential communities which have developed as a result of backpackers not only travelling through but frequently dwelling in place, the essay analyses the 'backpacker phenomenon' as a complex and mutating mix of working, holiday and residential experiences that needs to be understood within a framework of increasing(ly) uneven, diverse and contested mobilities..

Are travellers interested in wine tourism in New Zealand?

Alonso, A.D. 2009, International Journal of Culture, Tourism and Hospitality Research Vol 3 side 13-24.

Purpose - While much of contemporary wine tourism research focuses on on-site winery visitors, little is reported on the level of wine tourism participation among travellers outside the winery who may not necessarily be winery visitors or wine enthusiasts. This study investigates this dimension from the perspective of travellers. Design/methodology/approach - Between October and November of 2006, a total of 998 questionnaires were distributed among travellers from the North to the South Island of New Zealand. In all, 500 travellers participated in the study, a 50.1 percent response rate. Findings - One critical finding of this study is that while winery visitation appears common among domestic travellers, for the majority of international visitors lack of knowledge of New Zealand wines and wineries is their main reason not to visit wineries while members of this group travel in New Zealand. Research limitations/implications - The potential limitations of choosing a predominantly quantitative approach, as well as choosing specific days of the week for the questionnaire distribution are acknowledged in this study. Practical implications - The overall results suggest that if wine tourism is to continue its present development in New Zealand, winery operators and the wine industry need to address several issues identified in this study, particularly overseas travellers' apparent lack of knowledge about New Zealand's wine and wine tourism. Originality/value - This study examines wine tourism from a different perspective, namely, that of travellers who might not necessarily fall under the wine tourist category. This dimension has been ignored for the most part in previous wine tourism research. The study also provides avenues for future research to further explore this dimension of tourism/wine tourism..

VFR travel: An examination of the expenditures of VFR travellers and their hosts

Backer, E. 2007, Current Issues in Tourism Vol 10 side 366-377.

The visiting friends and relatives (VFR) phenomenon is a sizeable form of travel. Despite this, VFR travel has been largely ignored, and has remained highly under-researched. Through undertaking exploratory quantitative research, using Maroochy Shire within Queensland's Sunshine Coast, Australia, as a case study area, VFR travel was found to be greatly misunderstood and underestimated. This research concluded that both VFR numbers and expenditures have been greatly understated due to problems regarding expenditure accounting systems as well as disregarding the expenditures incurred by VFR hosts. © 2007 E. Backer..

The International Organisation of Social Tourism (ISTO) working towards a right to holidays and tourism for all

Belanger, C.E.J., L. 2011, Current Issues in Tourism Vol 14 side 475-482.

This case study article discusses the history and development of the International Organisation of Social Tourism (ISTO) and its role in social tourism policy and provision today. It will examine the origins of the concept, how it developed in a historical context and how the organisation has responded to the challenges this has brought. The main milestones of the organisation will be contextualised: from the foundation of ISTO (then Bureau International du Tourisme Social, BITS which became ISTO in September 2010) in 1963, over the Montreal Declaration in 1996 to the Addendum of Aubagne in 2006. Although social tourism is historically mainly a European phenomenon, ISTO is a global organisation, and the article will therefore highlight examples of projects in other parts of the world. In conclusion, the article will review the most recent challenges that face social tourism today and propose avenues for the future as proposed by ISTO..

Inspired by eruptions? eyjafjallajökull and icelandic tourism

Benediktsson, K.L., K. A.; Huijbens, E. , Mobilities Vol 6 side 77-84.

The paper deals with the complex meaning of risk for tourism mobilities. The impact of the Eyjafjallajökull eruption on tourism in Iceland is outlined, as well as the response of Icelandic tourist authorities. A survey in June and July 2010 among international tourists in the country revealed that for many the eruption had added considerable depth to their travel experiences. The sense of risk affects the relation between mobile travellers and their destination. The paper also analyses how events such as the eruption can facilitate new paths towards being sensitive to the natural world. © 2011 Taylor & Francis..

Some footnotes on tourism in the Baltic region

Benthien, B.S., W. 2006, Anmerkungen zum Tourismus im Ostseeraum Vol side 84-95.

Globalisation and transformation are the decisive factors in recent development of tourism in the Baltic region. They therefore also decisively influence actual geographical research on tourism in the recreational zone of the Baltic. The transformation processes from the former planned economy to the present market economy have on the one hand led to a substantial increase in the tourism possibilities of the coastal regions. On the other hand, globalisation has brought first and foremost the arrival of international cruising in the eastern Baltic region and its classification as an elitist destination. This intensification of tourism, not only on the Baltic Sea itself but in particular on the Baltic coasts, has resulted in the emergence of load, even overload, phenomena, which have been aggravated by other economic and social developments as well as natural physical processes. To steer this development, to solve conflicts, if at all possible to solve them before they really become apparent, is the allotted task of the so-called Integrated Coastal Zone Management (IKZM). Tourism occupies a central place in this new planning approach, not only because of its importance for coastal utilisation but also because of its pronounced emphasis on cross sections. In addition we have to state that the entire economic situation in the rural regions of all the Baltic states is characterised by difficult paradigms and structural problems. The development and, in particular, the further increase in tourism appears to be the correct way to solve these problems. In recognition of this fact a multitude of projects has been carried out over the last fifteen years, financed by the EU, but which unfortunately were barely or not at all coordinated with each other. In this situation the creation of the so-called AGORA-Network, with the aim of coordinating the development of lasting tourist structures within the Baltic region has been the logical conclusion. The project, in which 40 partners from ten countries cooperate, and in which the tourism geographers of Greifswald University play the coordinating role, aims to provide an all embracing information platform for those politicians who actively shape the regions. In addition it aims to provide concrete recommendations for action for the politicians..

Destination branding: Insights and practices from destination management organizations

Blain, C.L., S. E.; Ritchie, J. R. B. 2005, Journal of Travel Research Vol 43 side 328-338.

Although the concept of branding has been applied extensively to products and services, tourism destination branding is a relatively recent phenomenon. In particular, destination branding remains narrowly defined to many practitioners in destination management organizations (DMOs) and is not well represented in the tourism literature. Consequently, this study has three goals. First, it attempts to review the conceptual and theoretical underpinnings of branding as conveyed by leading authors in the marketing field. Second, it seeks to refine and enhance the definition of destination branding (acceptable to and understood by tourism destination managers) to more fully represent the complexities of the tourism product. Third, and most importantly, it seeks to improve our understanding of current destination branding practices among DMOs. The findings indicate that although DMO executives generally understand the concept of destination branding, respondents are implementing only selective aspects of this concept, particularly logo design and development. © 2005 Sage Publications..

Our common Heritage: New tourist nations, post-"socialist" pedagogy, and the globalization of nature

Breidenbach, J.N., P. 2007, Current Anthropology Vol 48 side 322-330.

UNESCO's World Heritage program, which aims to encourage participation in the preservation of local cultural and natural heritage and international cooperation in conservation, now includes some 830 sites of "outstanding value to humanity." The notion of world heritage has been quickly embraced by the tourism industry, and consequently countries in which commodified tourism was nonexistent 20 years ago are experiencing a tourism boom. Examination of the social construction of heritage tourism in two post-"Socialist" states, Russia and China, suggests that the "treasures of all human-kind" there are not so much sites of a "global cultural commons" as laboratories and mirrors of new cultural practices and ideologies that reflect the two countries' different historical traditions, views of development and the "good life," structures of social order, and positions in the current global order. The story of World Heritage in these two countries reinforces the need to restore the nation, with its distinctive practices of culture and power and its particular position in post-coldwar globalization, to our understanding of even the seemingly most global phenomena. © 2007 by The Wenner-Gren Foundation for Anthropological Research. All rights reserved..

Relationship between wine involvement and wine-related travel

Brown, G.P.H., M. E.; Getz, D. 2006, Journal of Travel and Tourism Marketing Vol 21 side 31-46.

This research was conducted to examine the nuances of special interest wine markets in terms of day-to-day consumption and travel-related patterns. Ademographically diverse set of respondents (n = 161) were recruited from wine clubs and wine events at a western Canadian city. Based on previous involvement research a reliable and valid fifteen-item, three-faceted Wine Involvement Scale (WIS) was developed. Respondents were placed into one of four market segments based on their responses to the WIS. Although between market demographic differences were minimal, consumptive behaviours related to wine and wine tourism were consistent and profound (p < .05). Discussion focuses on marketing implications for special interest wine tourists and on conceptual challenges related to high-end market research. © 2006 by The Haworth Press, Inc. All rights reserved..

Tourist accommodation effects of festivals

Brännäs, K.N., J. 2006, Tourism Economics Vol 12 side 291-302.

There is increasing interest in arranging festivals or special events in many cities. This paper presents an econometric model to account for the tourism accommodation impact of such events. The autoregressive count data model incorporates some of the more important factors in the planning and evaluation of an event, such as spare capacity, displacement effects and the costs that visitors face. The results for two large Swedish festivals indicate that there are some displacement effects but that the net tourism effect is positive, since the average visitor stays longer during festival periods. In the final year of the sample the festival increased the accommodation receipts for the hotels in Stockholm and Gothenburg by 2% and 6%, respectively..

From erewhon to edoras: Tourism and myths in New Zealand

Buchmann, A. 2006, Tourism, Culture and Communication Vol 6 side 181-189.

This article presents the case study of the Upper Rangitata Valley, Canterbury, where literary and film tourists meet in the high country of the Southern Alps of New Zealand. Both the literary myth of "Erewhon" and the film myth of "Edoras" are being used to promote the region and present important case studies for mythical tourism in New Zealand. Samuel Butler published his tale of the Utopian society Erewhon in 1872 after having lived in New Zealand for 5 years. The book became a best-seller and established a new myth that endures until today. Within weeks of publication a specific tourism to the high country of Canterbury begun that brought tourists to locations described by Butler. This early literary tourism was facilitated by the fact that Butler interwove existing geographical and botanical features with purely mythical ideas of a Utopian society hidden in the mountains. And while the tourists sought the farmed high country scenery described in the book, they also visited the property and the homestead of the author. A hundred and thirty years later this early literary tourism faces a challenge by an unlikely rival. The set of "Edoras" of the Lord of the Kings movies used another location in the Upper Rangitata Valley. And even though the set was finally disassembled, the location is now attracting film tourists. What are the characteristics of these special-interest tourism forms? Both support the claim that tourists are seekers of myths and challenge the notion that tourists seek authenticity in their experience. It is interesting to note that both myths incorporated already existing images and used existing physical features to heighten the reality aspects of their telling. And both forms of tourism bring characteristic challenges for the tourism industry and its stakeholders. Copyright © 2006 Cognizant Comm. Corp..

Geneva: French city (1830-1900)?

Campos, R. 2006, Genève, ville française (1830-1900)? Vol 92 side 123-137.

The case of Geneva is particularly well-suited to a geographical approach of musical life phenomena. As the principal city of the French-speaking part of Switzerland, Geneva has contradictory links to France, revealing a complex mixture of dependence and autonomy. Its border situation explains only in part its integration within the French aesthetic space (illustrated by, e.g., the place given to Parisian artistic news in the Geneva press). Paris is the main source for a large part of the best musicians heard in Geneva, for most of the repertoire of operas and opéras-comiques as well as for musical scores of works performed there. On the other hand, Geneva flaunts its independence on moral aspects of musical life (the Calvinist heritage still very present in public debates) and asserts its national pride. In spite of its relatively small dimensions, Geneva has always dreamt to be part of European musical capitals, a position the city already occupied in the field of luxury tourism. The oversized Grand Théâtre inaugurated in 1879 is the symbol of this shift between the modest size of the city and its claim to be a central part in the international musical landscape..

A typology of Australian tourism-based condominiums

Cassidy, K.G., C. 2011, International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management Vol 23 side 312-326.

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to develop a typology of the organisational forms comprising the Australian condominium tourism accommodation sector. Design/methodology/approach: A total of 34 exploratory interviews were conducted with interviewees representing a cross-section of interests in condominium tourism accommodation operations. Findings: An original hierarchical typology is developed. The structuring criteria employed for the hierarchy include: whether a condominium complex is in a hotel or apartment complex, whether it is branded and whether the condominiums are serviced. Research limitations/implications: The findings reported will greatly advance the capacity to provide a meaningful commentary on the nature of condominium tourism accommodation complexes and to understand key issues associated with different forms of condominium tourism accommodation services provided. Practical limitations: The study suffers from the normal limitations associated with the subjective interpretation of qualitative data. In addition, the fast evolving nature of the condominium tourism accommodation sector signifies that the typology advanced should be viewed as somewhat time-specific. Originality/value: Despite the huge growth in condominium-based tourism accommodation worldwide, there has been a scarcity of research directed to the phenomenon. The study can thus be seen to be highly original. © Emerald Group Publishing Limited..

Tourism as a school subject

Cigler, N. 2006, Turizem v šoli Vol 15 side 38-43.

Tourist education has been present in Slovenian schools for over thirty years. It was started as free-time activity, but since 2000 pupils attending classes of the last triad can choose tourist education as an optional subject. In the past schoolyear it was taught in half of Slovenian primary schools. The aims of tourist education are multi-dimensional - learning about tourism as an interesting social phenomenon and perspective economic activity, learning about and preservation of natural and cultural heritage, and guiding young people towards careers in tourism. One of the possible ways of achieving those goals is joining the competition project called "Your own head can help tourism". The project is promoted by Turistična zveza Slovenije (Tourist Association of Slovenia) and Zavod Republike Slovenije za šolstvo (Slovenian Board of Education). This year the competion was organized for the twentieth time..

Toddlers, tourism and Tobermory: Destination marketing issues and television-induced tourism

Connell, J. 2005, Tourism Management Vol 26 side 763-776.

It has been witnessed on an international scale that destination-specific film and television has the power to increase tourism demand. For destination marketers, the projected image and the profile of visitors attracted form significant areas of concern. Nowhere has this been more marked than on the Isle of Mull, Scotland, where in 2003, a new phenomenon termed 'toddler tourism' was sparked by the popularity of a new pre-school children's television programme called Balamory, which is filmed on the Island. This paper reports on a survey of tourism business operators on Mull and provides evidence of the nature and scope of the impact of television-induced tourism on tourism business performance and activity, indicating that the effects were concentrated spatially and temporally. Marketing implications are explored using business operators perceptions of the effects of marketing on tourism patterns and broad areas of concern for the future development of tourism as a result of television programmes are highlighted. (c) 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved..

Balamory revisited: An evaluation of the screen tourism destination-tourist nexus

Connell, J.M., D. 2009, Tourism Management Vol 30 side 194-207.

It is well-established that tourism induced by film and television (TV) (screen tourism) is a phenomenon of global significance, and a number of studies since the 1990s have explored its impacts on specific destinations and communities. While some research provides insights into motivations of screen tourists, understanding of the experiences of screen tourists in film and TV locations remains an emerging area of inquiry. Consequently, the aim of this paper is to explore the interface between the screen tourist and the destination. The results of empirical research with screen tourists to the Isle of Mull (Scotland) to view the filming location for the children's TV show Balamory are discussed. First, the degree to which people are attracted to a location through film connections and the types of visits are explored. Second, the nature of visit experiences is analysed, allowing some consideration of emerging issues for both visitors and the destination. Third, the visitor propensity to return for a future visit is examined. The paper identifies that the lower the influence of Balamory for the visit, the higher the level of adult satisfaction, and that a return visit was more likely if visitors were satisfied with their trip, especially if Balamory was not the only reason for the visit. A structural equation modelling approach is adopted to explore some of the issues induced by an evaluation of visit experiences and the perceived likelihood of repeat visits, generating a range of widely applicable implications for screen tourism destination management and development. (C) 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved..

Constructions and experiences of authenticity in medical tourism: The performances of places, spaces, practices, objects and bodies

Cook, P.S. 2010, Tourist Studies Vol 10 side 135-153.

Using the concepts of constructivist authenticity and existential authenticity, I will analyse how claims to, and experiences and understandings of authenticity, are central to medical tourism. This is achieved by examining the interplay of places, spaces, objects, practices and bodies that create this cultural phenomenon. This includes a concern with how medical tourism is constructed around and performed through the perceptions of bodies, and the experiences of being a body. It is these complexities and their interdependencies that provide medical tourism its dynamism. This theorizing of medical tourism goes beyond existing studies that primarily seek to define it or restrict it to typologies, by analysing the practices and experiences that actually constitute this significant social phenomenon. © The Author(s) 2010..

Anthropology of tourism and authenticity. Analytical category or indigenous category

Cravatte, C. 2009, L'anthropologic du tourisme et l'authenticité: Catégorie analytique ou catégorie indigène? Vol 49 side 603-619.

This paper gives a retrospective view of the way in which the notion of authenticity has been constructed and employed by anthropologists observing tourism phenomena. Particular emphasis is given to analysing the ambiguity of this notion, evoked as a research concept and also used by tourists. The links between processes of authentication used by anthropologists and the attempts by tourists to authenticate relationships, situations and experiences are also examined..

Scientific challenges in the Arctic: Open water

Cressey, D. 2011, Nature Vol 478 side 174-177.


Local resource use, nature conservation and tourism in Mkuze wetlands, South Africa: A complex weave of dependence and conflict

Dahlberg, A. 2005, Geografisk Tidsskrift Vol 105 side 43-55.

Competition over natural resources is a complex phenomenon. This is explored through a case study in the Mkuze Wetlands, South Africa, where fibrous plants are important to local women who produce craftwork for the growing tourist market. The tourist industry encourages this, but simultaneously promotes the wetlands as 'a wilderness untouched by man'. Conservation authorities fear the harvesting of fibrous plants may degrade the wetlands but have to accommodate local as well as tourism interests. The study investigates this complex weave of dependence and conflict, and discusses how efforts at negotiation and co-operation may become more constructive. Present needs play an important role in shaping local conflicts, but so do different interpretations of reality, difficulties in evaluating sustainable use, and international markets and agendas further compound the situation. The results demonstrate the existence of multiple interpretations of the environment, and an unexpected high degree of variability in resource use. Studies aiming to provide a base for sound decisions on the management of resources must take this into account and apply an interdisciplinary approach that includes different theoretical frameworks and empirical data sets, and that acknowledges the value of knowledge systems represented outside academia..

Tourism as complex interdisciplinary research object

Darbellay, F.S., M. 2012, Annals of Tourism Research Vol 39 side 441-458.

Tourism is currently a complex and globalised phenomenon with demonstrated socio-economic importance. While tourism is a socially recognised phenomenon, its status as scientific object within an academic field seems to be still in question. We ask the following questions: What is the order of construction of the field of knowledge constituted around tourism? Is it a paradigmatic order or an epistemic order? In what ways do the scientific object's specificities constitute an important element of understanding of a new episteme? How do different definitions of tourism allow for a reconstruction of the field? This article seeks to summarise the current debate in the light of broader reconstructions of scientific discourse and reflect from an interdisciplinary epistemological perspective. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd..

The carbon cost of polar bear viewing tourism in Churchill, Canada

Dawson, J.S., E. J.; Lemelin, H.; Scott, D. 2010, Journal of Sustainable Tourism Vol 18 side 319-336.

This paper examines the paradoxical issues surrounding long-distance tourism to view polar bears, a form of tourism which is disproportionately (on a per capita basis) responsible for greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions that are negatively affecting survival chances of the species. It also notes that the phenomenon of "last chance tourism" is influencing more tourists to visit the region. The paper describes and explains the evidence that climate change is causing a substantial reduction in sea ice, vital for Arctic wildlife species survival, particularly mega fauna, such as polar bears. Churchill, Canada is one of the few places where tourists can easily view polar bears. A total of 334 on-site tourist surveys and 18 in-depth interviews were conducted to help evaluate tourist perceptions of climate change and to estimate their GHG emissions related to polar bear viewing tourism. Polar bear viewing tourists perceive climate change to be negatively impacting polar bears but do not necessarily understand how they themselves contribute to GHG emissions, or understand offsetting possibilities. The polar bear viewing industry is estimated to contribute 20, 892 t/CO2 per season. Mitigation strategies, including reduction and offsetting programs are outlined. © 2010 Taylor & Francis..

The space (re)production from the touristic phenomenon: The case of Aver-O-Mar community (Sirinhaém-PE)

Dias E Cordeiro, I.C., C. 2006, A (re)produção do espaço a partir do fenômeno turístico: Um estudo sobre a comunidade de aver-o-mar (Sirinhaém - PE) Vol 10 side 47-58.

This study aims at discussing the role of tourism while an item of the northeastern littoral's space (re)production. The reality of Gamela's beach and the Aver-O-Mar traditional fisherman's community, located at Pernambuco's Southern Littoral, were taken as case instances. The touristification process of the space started with the tourism ideology that tourism is the "natural vocation". An image as a beach while the tropical paradises was created and as a result the local fisherman does not recognise his/her place; a fantasy is lived by tourists and the space loses its identity..

Restructuring and health in Canadian coastal communities

Dolan, A.H.T., M.; Neis, B.; Ommer, R.; Eyles, J.; Schneider, D.; Montevecchi, B. 2005, EcoHealth Vol 2 side 195-208.

Environmental and socioeconomic restructuring has had profound consequences for coastal communities in Canada. The decline of traditional resource-based industries-fisheries, forestry, and mining-and the emergence of new economic activities, such as tourism and aquaculture, compounded by concurrent shifts in social programs, have affected the health of environments, communities, and people. Drawing on research conducted as part of the interdisciplinary major collaborative research initiative Coasts Under Stress, we examined the implications of interactive restructuring for the health of people and communities on Canada's east and west coasts. The research is guided by a socioecological framework that identifies the pathways from interactive restructuring through health determinants to health risks and health outcomes. The utility of the proposed framework is exemplified by a specific place-based example in Prince Rupert, British Columbia, and a case-based example from coastal communities in Newfoundland and Labrador. A focus on interactive restructuring draws our attention to the many challenges associated with promoting health in a context of rapid and often accelerating environmental and institutional change that is relevant to other areas and contexts. © 2005 EcoHealth Journal Consortium..

Place change and tourism development conflict: Evaluating public interest

Dredge, D. 2010, Tourism Management Vol 31 side 104-112.

As a set of economic activities, tourism trades on the character of special places. Conflict can emerge where local residents perceive that tourism development proposals challenge the special qualities of place, and where place meaning and attachments are compromised. A key function of government in mediating conflict is to protect public interests, yet explicit consideration of public interest in tourism development conflict is unusual. This paper argues for a reinvigoration of public interest in the mediation of tourism development conflicts. It explores the concept of public interest and how governments interpret and give meaning to it in development debates. In a case study of a cruise ship terminal proposal on the Gold Coast, Australia, the state adopted a neoliberal interpretation of public interest wherein increased global competitiveness of the destination was the overriding common good pursued. Local and diverse interests were marginalised in the debate. The paper concludes that in order to reinvigorate public interest, a public interest evaluation framework for tourism development is needed. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved..

Mongrel management, public interest and protected area management in the Victorian Alps, Australia

Dredge, D.T., P. 2009, Journal of Sustainable Tourism Vol 17 side 249-267.

Public interest is fundamental to representative democratic government. This paper argues that due to recent shifts towards the use of statutory agencies, public-private partnerships and governance arrangements, and the empowerment of specific interests in tourism policymaking, explicit consideration of public interest has diminished. But it cannot be ignored. Sensible interpretation of public interest provides the key to making appropriate tourism public policy decisions. The aim of this paper is to explore interpretations of public interest in alpine tourism management and whether different interpretations impact upon interagency collaboration. Using a case study of alpine tourism in Victoria, Australia, this paper finds that interpretations of public interest are distant from traditional notions of just, moral and virtuous public interest, and are more likely to be market-driven, issue-specific and organisational-centric. Moreover, the difficulty of identifying public interest is exacerbated by the fragmentation of agencies involved in tourism management. Implications for reinvigorating public interest are discussed..

Enhancing conservation of the Tasmanian glow-worm, Arachnocampa tasmaniensis Ferguson (Diptera: Keroplatidae) by monitoring seasonal changes in light displays and life stages

Driessen, M.M. 2010, Journal of Insect Conservation Vol 14 side 65-75.

The light displays by the Tasmanian Glow-worm, Arachnocampa tasmaniensis Ferguson (Diptera: Keroplatidae), in Exit and Mystery Creek caves in southeast Tasmania, Australia have been recognised as a world heritage value under the criterion relating to outstanding natural phenomena. To conserve and manage these populations, particularly in response to potential tourism development, a better understanding of their ecology is needed. Aspects of the life cycle of A. tasmaniensis were monitored over 24 months. A strong seasonal pattern was found, with pupae and adults most common in spring and summer. The increase in numbers of pupae and adults coincided with an increase in the number of prey caught in silk threads produced by the larvae. Larvae were present throughout the year but the number glowing varied both seasonally and spatially. In Mystery Creek Cave, the number of larvae glowing was generally highest during summer and autumn and lowest in winter and early spring. In Exit Cave, there was no consistent seasonal pattern in the number of larvae glowing among sites, and overall there was less variation between monthly counts than at Mystery Creek Cave. This difference in seasonal patterns between the two caves may be due to a difference in climate, with Mystery Creek Cave possibly experiencing a greater drying out of the cave air in winter than Exit Cave. © Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2009..

Yield measures for special-interest Australian inbound tourism markets

Dwyer, L.F., P.; Fredline, L.; Deery, M.; Jago, L.; Lundie, S. 2007, Tourism Economics Vol 13 side 421-440.

Different tourism stakeholders mean different things by 'yield' and this presents a barrier to communication and policy discussion. Primarily, this paper provides an overview of different concepts of yield. It also operationalizes several of these measures using inbound tourism expenditure data for Australia so that the origin markets and market segments identified as generating high yields under the various measures can be compared. The paper further identifies the manner in which the concept of yield can be broadened to embrace sustainable yield by incorporating measures of environmental and social impact. It concludes with a discussion of the policy implications of the study..

Yield measures for special-interest Australian inbound tourism markets

Dwyer, L.F., Peter; Fredline, Liz; Deery, Marg 2007, Tourism Economics Vol 13 side 2.

Different tourism stakeholders mean different things by 'yield' and this presents a barrier to communication and policy discussion. Primarily, this paper provides an overview of different concepts of yield. It also operationalizes several of these measures using inbound tourism expenditure data for Australia so that the origin markets and market segments identified as generating high yields under the various measures can be compared. The paper further identifies the manner in which the concept of yield can be broadened to embrace sustainable yield by incorporating measures of environmental and social impact. It concludes with a discussion of the policy implications of the study. [PUBLICATION ABSTRACT].

Urban Tourism Research. Developing an Agenda

Edwards, D.G., T.; Hayllar, B. 2008, Annals of Tourism Research Vol 35 side 1032-1052.

The study of urban tourism and associated focus on urban tourist precincts is a growing area of interest as practitioners, researchers and policy makers seek to understand the phenomenon of tourism within the urban environment. In Australia research in this area has lacked integration and has not engaged sufficiently with the contextual setting of the urban environment. This paper reports on a study that was undertaken to identify the important areas that should be included in an urban tourism research agenda. This paper has three aims: to review the literature on urban tourism; to outline the process that was undertaken to identify areas for urban tourism research; and to present a conceptual framework that can be used to focus future urban tourism research. © 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved..

'The global warming clock is ticking so see these places while you can': Voyeuristic tourism and model environmental citizens on Tuvalu's disappearing islands

Farbotko, C. 2010, Singapore Journal of Tropical Geography Vol 31 side 224-238.

At a time when climate change is being defined and grappled with around the world as a looming large-scale environmental crisis, low-lying Pacific islands are being publicized in a range of practices as 'disappearing islands', and their inhabitants as future 'climate refugees'. This paper is concerned with the disappearing island as a space in which new intersections between environmentalism and tourism can be explored. It analyzes specifically western representational practices associated with climate change imperatives on Tuvalu, an atoll state in the central Pacific. New phenomena are emerging there such as climate change tourism and the transformation of the islands into showcases of renewable energy. These phenomena are analyzed in order to understand how climate change meanings are being shaped by various participants in the debate. I argue that Pacific islanders are heroized as climate change saviours when environmentalists attempt to locate ethnocentric notions of environmentally harmonious, 'traditional' culture on disappearing islands. Further, islanders are objectified in the rhetoric of climate change tourism. Imagined destinies for atoll dwellers as climate saviours are sited uncomfortably alongside voyeuristic gazes turned towards inundated islands. Competing forces of compassion and voyeurism produced in the name of the Tuvaluan indigene are entrenching an iconic role for the Tuvaluan atoll dweller as climate change hero/victim. © 2010 The Author. Journal compilation © 2010 Department of Geography, National University of Singapore and Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd..

Selling the favela: thoughts and polemics about a tourist destination

Freire-Medeiros, B. 2007, A favela que se vê e que se vende: reflexões e polêmicas em torno de um destino turístico Vol 22 side 61-72.

The article discusses the development of the favela into a tourist attraction, examining how promoters in four different favelas have been attempting to actually place them in a tourist market. The development of the favela into a tourist destination is seen as part of the socalled reality tours phenomenon and of the global circulation of the favela as a trademark. The methodology included different strategies: long interviews with qualified informants, field observation, and participant observation in different tours. The article concludes with some thoughts on my own research experience on such a polemic field of investigation. © 2009 ANPOCS..

Making the Aurora Norwegian: Science and image in the making of a tradition

Friedman, R.M. 2010, Interdisciplinary Science Reviews Vol 35 side 51-68.

Norway claims to be the home of the aurora borealis. But other far-northern countries and states declare similar roles for themselves, both with respect to tourism and research. Common to all of these northern cultures, the aurora is commonly used as an icon to express identity. To understand how and why nations incorporate natural phenomena into identity, appeals to geography are not sufficient. In contrast to some of its neighbours that had long traditions for studying the northern lights, Norway first engaged the aurora forcefully around 1900. Through research and visual images polar scientist Fridtjof Nansen and physicist Kristian Birkeland helped transform the northern lights from a regional to a national icon, which in turn promoted further scientific investigations. This process was part of a broader development of a virile national identity that embraced engagement with polar nature. This essay sketches the cultural politics involved in launching the Norwegian auroral tradition. © 2010 Maney Publishing..

At the heart of the tourism potential of a territory: An anthropological and geopolitical process

Gagnon, S. 2007, Au fondement du potentiel touristique d'un territoire: Un processus de nature anthropologique et géopolitique Vol 30 side 23-42.

The reputation and shaping of an upmarket resort will depend on the actions and decisions taken, together with the strategies employed by the various social players within specific historic contexts. However, in mysterious and subtle ways, the attraction exercised by a tourist destination owes more to its physical setting or landscape which creates the atmosphere and fills the visitor's field of vision. So, how can we describe the "spatiality" of this landscape dimension, and how can we explain the shaping of upmarket resorts in terms of a geographic phenomenon ? The classic geographical interpretation of a tourist resort is of utilitarian material taken under the political wing and to which is added aesthetic improvements that provide artists with work. For its part, structural geography distances itself from this empiricist a priori by making clear the primacy of art over utility in the development of tourist resorts. The present paper offers a foray into this field, with Quebec being used as a case study. We would suggest that a work of art is an essential element-in the creation of captivating landscapes. Between them they feed the imago that allows the society concerned to recognize itself as an organized whole. The aesthetic apprehension and shaping of the tourist resort lies at the very heart of a process that is both anthropological and geopolitical..

Understanding the Relationship between Tourism Destination Imagery and Tourist Photography

Garrod, B. 2009, Journal of Travel Research Vol 47 side 346-358.

Photography and tourism are widely considered to be intrinsically linked. Photographs play a crucial role in the promotion of tourism destinations, working through a range of media including brochures, television commercials, and picture postcards. Meanwhile the practice of photography is often held to be intimately related to the condition of being a tourist. Urry (1990) links these two phenomena, suggesting that they may constitute a self-reinforcing "closed circle of representation" in which tourist photographs both reflect and inform destination images. Using an innovative research approach combining visitor-employed photography with content analysis and quantitative statistical techniques, this article presents an empirical test of Urry's theory. Mixed evidence is found, suggesting that while in many respects the circle of representation may indeed be at work, in certain other respects it may not be. This suggests that a more fine-grained and nuanced understanding of the circle of representation is required..

Tourist territories and neo-toponymy: The names of the major ski regions in the French Alps

Gauchon, C. 2007, Territoires touristiques et néotoponymie: Les noms des grands domaines skiables des Alpes Françaises Vol 30 side 69-88.

One way of looking at the relationship between tourism and territories is to study the spatial markers that tourism generates. These spatial markers include place names, a phenomenon that is very visible and indicative of the associations we make with a space dedicated to recreational activities. The development and reorganization of winter sports centres in the French Alps has given rise to a flourishing neo-toponymy which has led to the renaming of the major skiing areas created by the interlinking of ski resorts. An analysis of these new names, and of their structure, sheds light both on the actual status of the territories, and on the temptation to take advantage of this eddy of new brand names by privatizing these recreational areas. This study suggests that, given their inherent temporality, the neo-toponyms designate connectors, rather than places, in the traditional sense, and that such connectors may develop into as many functional territories..

Event tourism: Definition, evolution, and research

Getz, D. 2008, Tourism Management Vol 29 side 403-428.

This article reviews 'event tourism' as both professional practice and a field of academic study. The origins and evolution of research on event tourism are pinpointed through both chronological and thematic literature reviews. A conceptual model of the core phenomenon and key themes in event tourism studies is provided as a framework for spurring theoretical advancement, identifying research gaps, and assisting professional practice. Conclusions are in two parts: a discussion of implications for the practice of event management and tourism, and implications are drawn for advancing theory in event tourism. © 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved..

Unpacking corporeal mobilities: The global voyages of labour and leisure

Gogia, N. 2006, Environment and Planning A Vol 38 side 359-375.

Concepts of mobility are rapidly moving across disciplines, as scholars grapple with the complexities of movement that characterise our world today. Although not a new phenomenon, the conditions of globalisation have facilitated the movement of a record number of people; individuals who are crossing international borders for work, leisure, safety, and security. Among these groups of people, tourists and labour migrants account for the largest groups traveling worldwide. Although abundant scholarly research is available on the transnational voyages of both groups, in this paper I seek to juxtapose a subset of these two types of movement - backpackers and seasonal workers - to investigate how these mobilities are determined, articulated, and shape various identities of the actors involved. Moreover, by referring to material, juridical, and spatial conditions that facilitate the mobility of these two groups, I will examine who is benefiting from these manifold movements and whether these mobilities represent new patterns of corporeal mobility and/or if they reify old relationships between the North and the South..

Historic waterfronts as tourism precincts: An experiential perspective

Griffin, T.H., Bruce 2006, Tourism and Hospitality Research Vol 7 side .

Over the last few decades, urban waterfronts worldwide have become places of significant change. Many have essentially lost their working port functions and have been redeveloped for other purposes, often incorporating significant leisure and tourism functions. Others, however, have maintained a significant portion of their original commercial maritime activities, but have still become a focus for leisure and tourism pursuits. This paper explores two such waterfront precincts in major Australian cities: Fremantle in Perth and Williamstown in Melbourne, places with long histories in shipping but very recent histories in tourism. The focus of the paper is on understanding how tourists experience these places, and what it is about such precincts that contribute most to their touristic appeal. The basis for the research was a series of structured interviews with both domestic and international visitors to each precinct. Relaxation and taking time out from the everyday city were important visitor motivations, and the waterfront setting contributed to these. Significantly there was a strong feeling that the working port element was an important part of Fremantle's appeal, along with a very strong connection to history through a well-conserved physical fabric. The lack of depth in the Williamstown experience seemed to limit the visitors' ability to appreciate the precinct's history, with its most positive features relating to the pure physicality of its waterfront setting..

Natural sights of interest and cultural heritage monuments as objects of country study (regional geography)

Grigorjev, A.A. 2007, Vestnik Sankt-Peterburgskogo Universiteta, Seriya Geologiya i Geografiya Vol 2007 side 38-50.

The importance of natural phenomena (among them monuments of heritage) for forming the idea about a country is investigated. Sign peculiarities (among them symbols) of natural phenomena, their role in forming the image of a country are revealed. The connections of natural phenomena with culture and ethnic groups, their role for tourism are discussed. © A. A. Grigorjev, 2007..

Role of signs, symbols and images in complex geographical research of countries of the world

Grigoryev, A. 2009, Vestnik Sankt-Peterburgskogo Universiteta, Seriya Geologiya i Geografiya Vol 2009 side 98-110+167+171.

Different aspects of sign phenomena in the formation of geographical images of countries of the world are examined. The oldest signs, signs of Earth, toponyms and colors as sign phenomena, natural and historical-cultural (and sacral phenomena) are discussed. The role of signs, symbols and images in the formation of tourist images of countries of the world is examined..

Examining the dimensions of a lifestyle tourism destination

Gross, M.J.B., Chris; Brown, Graham 2008, International Journal of Culture, Tourism and Hospitality Research Vol 2 side 44-66.

This paper develops and tests a measurement model for the combined study of involvement and place attachment in a tourism context. The study was conducted in South Australia, a state that has positioned itself as a lifestyle tourism destination. Tourism involvement was conceptualised as a multidimensional construct consisting of centrality to lifestyle, attraction, self-expression, and food and wine. Place attachment was also conceptualised as a multidimensional construct consisting of place identity and place dependence. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were used to develop and test a measurement model using survey data from tourists in South Australia. A six factor measurement model was developed and found to have a reasonable fit with the data. The present study findings suggest that a viable theoretical, practical, and methodological basis can be established to measure the relationships among the involvement and place attachment constructs in a tourism context. This establishes a sound foundation for further examination of the predictive nature of the relationships between the constructs. A better understanding of involvement dimensions and the extent to which tourism experiences are rooted in place may be of invaluable assistance in the marketing of tourism destinations. Involvement and place attachment have received considerable study as individual constructs in tourism contexts, however their study in combination has been undertaken only recently, and almost exclusively in leisure and recreation contexts. This study extended the scope of the combined examination of involvement and place attachment into a tourism context..

Sustainable tourism: learning from Indian religious traditions

Gupta, V. 1999, International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management Vol 11 side 91-95.

Religious pilgrimages have taken place for many hundreds of years without causing the negative environmental, cultural and social impacts associated with tourism. Common features of pilgrimages are: not an excessive burden on the environment; beneficial to local communities; occur at certain times of year only; people carry their own baggage and purchase food, etc. locally; pilgrims are quiet and law-abiding; killing animals or taking from nature is taboo. Some lessons can be learned from these for modern tourism..

Casual Observers, Connoisseurs and Experimentalists: A Conceptual Exploration of Niche Festival Visitors

Gyimothy, S. 2009, Scandinavian Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Vol 9 side 177-205.

Although "amateur spectators" as a growing segment is mentioned in a number of special interest event studies, our understanding of their behaviour is still limited to case-specific descriptions, and convenience explanations. This paper attempts to conceptualize and explore further the segment of "casual observers" by integrating several non-adjacent theoretical areas. This endeavour intersects festival and event motivation studies, sport marketing literature and sporting subcultures from leisure sociology. Following a mixed method methodology, the paper presents both qualitative and quantitative data to illuminate attendee characteristics of a special event, namely, the world's largest extreme sports festival. Results indicate that beyond two previously documented motivational inclinations directed at the sport or the event respectively, there exists a third type of visitor (experimentalists) who are mostly motivated by attaining intrinsical goals, such as identity construction by consuming "fetish" items at a niche festival. The paper concludes with an evaluation of the marketing potential of this group and discusses the implications for event sport event segmentation..

Is spiritual tourism a new strategy for marketing Islam?

Haq, F. 2010, Journal of Islamic Marketing Vol 1 side 136-148.

Purpose - Spiritual tourism has recently been accepted as a growing segment of tourism in business and research circles. The purpose of this paper is to suggest a new dimension in Islamic marketing and investigates spiritual tourism as a new strategy for marketing Islam as a religion. Design/methodology/approach - In this exploratory research, convenient sampling was employed to select Muslim spiritual tourists and Islamic organisations arranging spiritual tourism in Australia. A total of 34 face-to-face interviews were conducted. Thematic analysis was used to identify factors relevant to the research themes regarding spiritual tourism and marketing Islam. Findings - Some religious organisations used religious gatherings and festivals as spiritual tourism products to market their religion - Islam. These organisations attracted Muslim and non-Muslim spiritual tourists to the Islamic places, gatherings, occasions, and festivals by promoting them as spiritual tourism products. Practical implications - The paper identifies spiritual tourism journeys and events that could be strategically used by religious organisations for marketing Islam. Social implications - This paper aims to build bridges for better understanding of Islam among the Australian public. The paper could be replicated to study the marketing of other religions in other geographical locations. Originality/value - The paper originates in recognising a genuinely new strategy of spiritual tourism that could be used more effectively for marketing Islam. A future quantitative study could be conducted to test the findings of this paper. [PUBLICATION ABSTRACT].

DEVELOPMENT OF TOURISM DESTINATIONS An Integrated Multilevel Perspective

Haugland, S.A.N., H.; Gronseth, B. O.; Aarstad, J. 2011, Annals of Tourism Research Vol 38 side 268-290.

Research on destination development is fragmented. Some studies focus primarily on one or a few selected areas of destination development, paying limited attention to multilevel issues and theoretical integration, while others take a more holistic, phenomena-driven view, making theoretical delimitation difficult. We lack theoretical approaches to guide us in the question of how destinations can be developed from an integrated multilevel perspective. We mitigate this challenge by developing a theoretical framework highlighting three specific areas impacting destination development. These are: destination capabilities, coordination at the destination level, and inter-destination bridge ties. The three areas will each have a direct impact on destination development, and furthermore, the areas are interrelated and thereby impact destination development indirectly..

Development of tourism destinations An Integrated Multilevel Perspective

Haugland, S.A.N., H.; Grønseth, B. O.; Aarstad, J. 2011, Annals of Tourism Research Vol 38 side 268-290.

Research on destination development is fragmented. Some studies focus primarily on one or a few selected areas of destination development, paying limited attention to multilevel issues and theoretical integration, while others take a more holistic, phenomena-driven view, making theoretical delimitation difficult. We lack theoretical approaches to guide us in the question of how destinations can be developed from an integrated multilevel perspective. We mitigate this challenge by developing a theoretical framework highlighting three specific areas impacting destination development. These are: destination capabilities, coordination at the destination level, and inter-destination bridge ties. The three areas will each have a direct impact on destination development, and furthermore, the areas are interrelated and thereby impact destination development indirectly. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd..

The culture of horsemanship and horse-based tourism in Iceland

Helgadóttir, G. 2006, Current Issues in Tourism Vol 9 side 535-548.

The nature of attractions in tourism is complex. Attractions can be places, events or experiences. In this paper the attraction of experience in horse-based tourism as promoted by horse-based tourism businesses, and in documentation from riders, is discussed. The argument is made that attractions must be considered as philosophical topics. Horsemanship is a cultural phenomenon, hence horse-based tourism is essentially cultural tourism. Classical perspectives of defining culture are used to interpret the findings, which suggest that the ideal of horse-based tourism is rather a romantic notion of horsemanship that incidentally fits very well with the elements of nostalgia and romance inherent in tourism as experience. © 2006 G. Helgadóttir..

Transition and worker mobility behaviour of tourism alumni: The case of Switzerland

Heller, A. 2008, Tourism Vol 56 side 243-256.

The research paper investigates the behaviour of tourism alumni at the transition from tourism education market to tourism labour market and from tourism labour market to other labour markets. The paper focuses especialk on the decisions Of tourism graduates to enter in the tourism labour market as "stayer" or to exit the tourism industry as "mover". The first part commences with some facts and figures from the hotel and restaurant industy of Switzerland regarding the mover issue. The second part discusses the framework of the mover/stayer phenomenon. In the third part, the methodology to determine the transition and worker mobility behaviour and the drivers of this behaviour are presented. A multinomial logit model with a dummy variable controlling for the possibility that tourism alumni may behave differently than alumni of non-tourism sectors was implemented. Descriptive results from a univariate analysis and econometric estimations from a multivariate analysis are described in the fourth part. The influence of gender, age, education level and other variables are estimated for the tourism industy as well as for non-tourism industries using the example of Switzerland. It will be shown that tourism alumni exhibit higher mover rates and mover probabilities as compared to those of non-tourism industries..

More than an "industry": The forgotten power of tourism as a social force

Higgins-Desbiolles, F. 2006, Tourism Management Vol 27 side 1192-1208.

This paper argues that in the current neo-liberal era, the discourse of tourism as an "industry" has overshadowed other conceptualisations of the tourism phenomenon. An argument is developed that this discourse serves the needs and agendas of leaders in the tourism business sector. However, the author desires to revive an earlier understanding of tourism that predates the neoliberal era. Tourism is in fact a powerful social force that can achieve many important ends when its capacities are unfettered from the market fundamentalism of neoliberalism and instead are harnessed to meet human development imperatives and the wider public good. Examining the human rights aspects of tourism, investigating phenomena such as "social tourism", exploring a few "non-western" perspectives of tourism and outlining some of the tantalising promise that tourism holds, this paper attempts to revive and reinforce a wider vision of tourism's role in societies and the global community. It is argued that it is critical for tourism academics, planners and leaders to support such a vision if tourism is to avoid facing increasing opposition and criticism in a likely future of insecurity and scarcity. © 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved..

Justice tourism and alternative globalisation

Higgins-Desbiolles, F. 2008, Journal of Sustainable Tourism Vol 16 side 345-364.

Because of the negative impacts of capitalist globalisation, some commentators are anticipating an alternative form of globalisation. This paper examines the potential of alternative tourisms to be catalysts for more just and sustainable forms of globalisation. While it is argued that various forms of alternative tourism, including ecotourism, sustainability, peace through tourism, and pro-poor tourism have been co-opted by a defensive tourism industry in the face of widespread criticism and an active anti-capitalist globalisation movement, it is suggested that the niche of justice tourism provides a singular model of difference. Justice tourism is a relatively new and under-analysed phenomenon that seeks not only to reform the inequities and damages of contemporary tourism, but also to chart a path to a more just global order. An examination of justice tourism indicates that its 'products and services', its structures and its agendas are radically different from the other segments of the alternative tourism phenomenon. In particular, the formation of the Tourism Interventions Group, with its collaboration with the social justice movement meeting under the auspices of the World Social Forum, shows that justice tourism aims for a fundamental transformation of the contemporary global order. © 2008 F. Higgins-Desbiolles..

The marriage between welfare services and tourism - A driving force for innovation?

Hjalager, A.M. 2006, Journal of Quality Assurance in Hospitality and Tourism Vol 6 side .

This paper discusses the linkages between the welfare state and tourism, and attempts a definition of the phenomenon. It suggests that the specific features of welfare ideologies and practices influence the scale and scope of tourism in many ways. Six welfare trajectories, containing examples of similar modes of thinking, are explored: the human capital trajectory, the environmental protection trajectory, the discouragement-of-noxious-behaviour trajectory, the workfor- all trajectory, the Beaux Art trajectory, and the health trajectory. Innovativeness in tourism is more likely if welfare-based sectors are well connected with other sectors, including the voluntary sector. Both internal and external driving forces are continuously challenging the Danish welfare model. The pressures and the opportunities are transmitted to tourism, albeit not uniformly. There are good reasons for commercial and non-commercial tourism and leisure facilities to keep up to date with the various welfare ideologies. Copyright © 2005 by The Haworth Press, Inc. All rights reserved..

Cultural tourism innovation systems - the roskilde festival

Hjalager, A.M. 2009, Scandinavian Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Vol 9 side 266-287.

It is only recently that the "innovation systems approach" has become a framework for micro-economic research in new institutional economics in tourism-related businesses and activities. There is still much to be explored. Cultural tourism phenomena constitute noteworthy objects for illustrative case studies, embedded as they are in business as well as maintaining relations with public governance structures and voluntary organizations. Since 1971, Roskilde Festival (Denmark) has developed its role as a leading element in an emerging cultural innovation system. Festival organizers maintain long-term, dense and multifaceted relations. Funds from the (non-profit) festival are efficiently channelled into cultural and sports facilities, enhancing the attractiveness of the region. To keep ahead in the festival market, innovators in the field of managerial systems, technologies and services are deliberately invited to use the grounds as test benches for new ideas. The concept of innovation systems allows for a better understanding of the complex driving forces and mechanisms that mediate the conditions, the extent and the outcomes of innovative behaviour. Roskilde is a not static event. Since 2001 especially, wider ranging organizational structures have been constructed and politically enforced with the aim of nurturing spin-offs, and including strong representation within the educational and research sectors. © 2009 Taylor & Francis..

Tourism and geopolitics

Hoerner, J.M. 2007, Le tourisme et la géopolitique Vol side 15-28+199+203.

It is useful that tourism, especially mass and international tourism, nourishes the geopolitical thought, in particular in the university. Indeed, very much appreciated by the middle class representing the majority in rich countries, this leisure activity belongs to the social phenomena likely to rebuild human relationships on the planet. Therefore, «colonism», which would characterize the behaviour of hundreds of millions of western tourists in southern countries, shows a geopolitical domination adding to the classic colonial heritage. It is even the major cause of Islamic terrorism attacks on the most visible shop window of the globalization. Finally, despite the small size of these multinational companies, and simultaneously with the considerable expansion of international tourists in the world, the touristic industry evolves in the frame of a fluctuating, innovative and in continuous growth financial globalization..

La famille fenouillard: A premonitory work?

Hoerner, J.M. 2007, La Famille fenouillard: Une œuvre prémonitoire? Vol side 190-198+202+205.

In 1893, the academic Christophe published La Famille Fenouillard». The author reveals the world geography in the form of both funny and cruel geopolitics, where the characters of the middle class travel as tourists because they travel under hypnosis. He foresees tourism as a future society phenomenon, a social promotion tool in his time, a mean to share the richest'universe today. This album deserves our full attention..

The english origins of geotourism (as a vehicle for geoconservation) and their relevance to current studies

Hose, T.A. 2011, Acta Geographica Slovenica Vol 51 side 343-360.

This paper contextualises the recognition of the geotourism concept. It stresses the underpinning geoconservation purpose that drove its development in England. It notes the multidisciplinary nature of geotourism research. It provides a summary of the development of early modern geoconservation in England as a necessary precursor to the inception, recognition and development of geotourism. It notes the evolving geotourism research approach and its impact on its understandings, definitions and models; the whole is contextualised within the framework of special interest tourism. The interaction between geotourism and geoparks is considered. A new geotourism definition is provided and a plea made for its original rationale and observations to be included in studies elsewhere in Europe..

Classifying wine festival customers

Houghton, M. 2008, International Journal of Culture, Tourism and Hospitality Research Vol 2 side 67-76.

This paper attempts to provide a better understanding of the relationship between wine festivals, winery visitation and wineries in order to determine whether wine festivals are an effective promotional tool. Primary data identifying the characteristics of festival patrons was gathered from regional wine festivals in Australia, then compared with Hall's stratified, New Zealand wine tourist market segments to ascertain whether the right type of consumer is attracted to wine festivals. The study concludes that wine festivals are successful promotional strategies that attract a diverse mix of consumers including the preferred consumer type, namely those with a high predilection to purchase wine. The study was conducted in a wine growing area of south eastern Australia. Case studies of other regions would be of interest to determine the reliability of the findings. Previous studies of wineries and events approach from a wine tourist's perspective. From a winery's perspective however, successful wine festivals are those that not only attract consumers wishing to trial and buy wine products but ultimately lead to ongoing brand recognition and loyalty. This study specifically considers the juxtaposition of wine festivals and their patrons and therefore the effectiveness of this promotional strategy..

Promoting destinations via film tourism: An empirical identification of supporting marketing initiatives

Hudson, S.R., J. R. B. 2006, Journal of Travel Research Vol 44 side 387-396.

Film tourism is a growing phenomenon worldwide, fueled by both the growth of the entertainment industry and the increase in international travel. This article proposes a model for exploiting film tourism marketing opportunities. It identifies the optimum marketing factors that encourage film tourists to visit destinations that appear (or are depicted) in the movies. Factor analysis reveals four types of marketing activities in which destinations can engage to promote film tourism: proactive efforts to encourage producers and studios to film at the location, efforts to generate media publicity around the film and its location, marketing activities that promote the film location after production, and peripheral marketing activities that leverage film tourism potential. Results of a stepwise multiple regression analysis indicate a high correlation between film tourism success and one of the four factors: the proactive efforts of destinations that encourage producers and studios to film at their location. © 2006 Sage Publications..

Lesbians as tourists: Poor relations of a poor relation

Hughes, H.L. 2006, Tourism and Hospitality Research Vol 7 side 17-26.

This paper states the case for further research into tourism by lesbians - besides making good a gap in market knowledge it may contribute to further understanding of diversity of society, issues of sexual orientation and inequality. Related literature that may contribute to an understanding of holidays by lesbians is reviewed and it is postulated that holiday profiles will differ from those of gay men and of heterosexual women. The (limited) current information on holiday profiles is presented; it suggests that profiles differ from those of gay men. It is concluded that holidays of lesbians are likely to be a [PUBLICATION ABSTRACT].

Practising highland heterotopias: Automobility in the interior of Iceland

Huijbens, E.H.B., K. 2007, Mobilities Vol 2 side 143-165.

The paper describes the history and current enactments of automobility in the highland interior of Iceland and interprets this phenomenon through the notion of spatial history. We elucidate how the currently widespread practices of automotive travel in the highlands are mediated through the technological assemblage of the 'jeep' and its user. We argue that the travelling is done in a double sense; through an 'inner' space of the vehicle and an 'outer' space of the highland terrain. A heterotopic spatial history emerges, which offers detailed insights into this specific form of automobility. In the final part of the paper, implications of these travel practices for the politics of nature are discussed..

The free state roots of international tourism research: The case of Prof. AJ Norval

Ingle, M. 2006, South African Geographical Journal Vol 88 side 79-87.

Research linking South Africa's tourism industry with development is generally reckoned to be a fairly recent phenomenon. In the mid-1930s, however, two seminal works were published in the United Kingdom which sought to highlight the economic potentialities of tourism and to differentiate it as a topic worthy of study in its own right. One of these studies was a doctoral thesis entitled The Tourist Industry: a national and international survey by a South African economics professor, Arthur Norval. Although it was published to critical acclaim it appears, with the passage of time, to have sunk into oblivion. Norval was schooled in the Free State and graduated as an attorney from the then Grey University College in Bloemfontein. Tourist Industry is a prescient work which anticipates a number of the themes which have come to inform contemporary tourism research. This article details many of these points of connection and contends that the history of tourism research stands to gain considerably from Norval's pioneering study being recovered from obscurity..

Geographical knowledge of inner Patagonia and the configuration of Torres del Paine as a natural heritage to be preserved

Jimenez, D.F. 2009, El conocimiento geográfico de la Patagonia interior y la construction de la imagen de Torres del Paine como patrimonio natural a conservar Vol 70 side 125-154.

Torres del Paine National Park (12th Region, Chile), the Paine Massif and its surroundings are a major milestone concerning three issues: The perception of nature in the Patagonian-Andean environment, the first steps of conservationism in South America and the first scientific studies in this part of the planet. In addition, ever since scientists and travelers were to "discover" this region, Paine has been a benchmark of both the first proposals for nature tourism linked with conservationism, as well as a major challenge for alpine expeditions. Due to these circumstances, the doctoral dissertation of the author devotes one entire chapter to analysing the main contributions of the Paine phenomenon to the geographical knowledge of inland Patagonia and to the perception of Torres del Paine as a natural heritage worth preserving. This is precisely the subject of this paper, which gives an insight into the geographical reconnaissance explorations that took place between 1877 and 1896 in the Patagonian inland, under the initiatives of Chilean and Argentinean go-vernments; the first known touristic travel in the Chilean region of Magallanes; the role of the first "visionaries" of Patagonian-Andean tourism in Chile, gathered around Werner Gromsch and the Touring Club; or the geographical, scientific and informative work carried out by Alberto Maria De Agostini. Finally, the article discusses the first alpine expeditions which targeted the summits of the Paine Massif..

Negotiating constraints to the adoption of agent-based modeling in tourism planning

Johnson, P.A.S., R. E. 2011, Environment and Planning B: Planning and Design Vol 38 side 307-321.

Recent work exploring the use of agent-based models (ABMs) in a planning support role must be accompanied by an evaluation of the possible constraints that exist to the use of these models. This research presents an evaluation, from the perspective of professional tourism planners, of the potential for ABM of tourism dynamics to serve as a planning support system (PSS). Tourism is a phenomenon that is inherently individually based, with many interacting processes occurring at multiple scales, across space and time. This makes it a natural environment in which to test an ABM-based PSS. We conducted a series of interviews with tourism planners operating in the Canadian province of Nova Scotia, a region where tourism plays an important economic role. These interviews consisted of a general-needs overview, coupled with an assessment of a prototype model we developed, called TourSim. The interviews sought to uncover the specific planning tasks to which ABM would be best applied and identify areas of adoption constraint. The results of this research indicate that TourSim served as a scenario development tool, with a focus on data analysis and communication. Conversely, TourSim was reported to lack transparency, which affected the confidence that planners had in its results. This evaluation clarifies the path forward for developers looking to introduce ABM to planning practice. © 2011 Pion Ltd and its Licensors..

Illustrated journeys to the fatherland: Tourism, image and nationalism in Finland

Jokela, S. 2010, Kuvitettuja matkoja isänmaahan: Matkailu, kuva ja nationalismi Suomessa Vol 122 side .

Territorially bounded representations of national and ethnic groups are popular in tourism promotion. They add to the appeal of tourist destinations and help tourists structure their spatial experiences. Simultaneously, they are used to define and present a nation in order to increase its social cohesion and distinctiveness. This study focuses on explaining how ideas of Finnishness have manifested themselves in tourism imagery on national and local scales. The examination is based on a literature review that illuminates the interrelationship between tourism and nationalism. Images and text extracts from tourism marketing materials exemplify the development of nationalistically charged meanings that have embodied and reinforced tourism practices from the end of the 1800s until the present day. The study shows a shift from openly nationalistic messages towards more subtle identity-political and consumer-oriented messages. Despite these changes, national symbols are persistent in the Finnish tourism imagery, indicating their powerful role in the common-sense understanding of the world..

ASEAN and transboundary haze pollution in Southeast Asia

Jones, D.S. 2006, Asia Europe Journal Vol 4 side 431-446.

In recent decades the countries of Southeast Asia have been affected by air pollution (commonly called haze) arising from the burning of vegetation by small holders, plantation owners and logging companies. This is done in order to clear or rejuvenate the land for cultivation and planting and can occur at particular times during the year, most noticeably in the periods March to May and August to October. The burning has resulted in widespread forest fires and has been particularly intense in years when the weather has been noticeably dry due to the effects of the El Nino phenomenon. By far the main source of forest fires caused by small holders and plantation owners has been Indonesia. The smoke from the forest fires has not only caused widespread air pollution in Indonesia itself but also in neighbouring countries, resulting in what is termed as transboundary air pollution. This has affected, amongst other things, public health, bio-diversity, tourism, air transport, and agricultural production. So serious have the effects been that the member states of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) were prompted from 1990 to collaborate in tackling the problem and to embark upon a series of joint initiatives for that purpose. After discussing the extent of forest burning in Indonesia, its causes and effects, the article will examine and assess the initiatives mentioned above, culminating in the ASEAN Agreement on Transboundary Haze Pollution, which came into effect in November 2003. The paper will then examine a crucial impediment to the effective implementation of the initiatives: viz. the standards of governance and administration in Indonesia. In conclusion, the paper will consider the challenges to be overcome to enable the aims of the ASEAN initiatives to be realised, and also, by examining these initiatives, what conditions are necessary to ensure that international agreements affecting domestic policy and administration in signatory states, have a genuine impact and achieve their goals. © Springer-Verlag 2006..

Almost indigenous: cultural tourism in Acadia and Acadiana

Jones, G.E., Kevin 2009, Journal of Enterprising Communities Vol 3 side 193-204.

This paper aims to present an account of the history and recent cultural revival of the Acadians, one people flourishing in two geographically distinct regions of North America. The methodology is a comparison and contrast structure utilizing secondary historical research sources. Two different environments have given rise to a similar pattern of development, suppression, and rejuvenation of Acadian and Cajun culture in which apparent differences between the groups hide deeper correspondences, while lesser-known parallels are more striking than more obvious similarities. While the particular case of Acadian and Cajun collaboration is unique, future research may compare this case to that of other cultural groups separated by geography and political systems. This paper suggests that the Acadians and Cajuns are a unique case of two cultures with a single history achieving cultural autonomy first in tandem and finally in concert..

The environmental management systems and contemporary tourism development

Jovicic, D. 2011, Tourismos Vol 6 side 377-391.

This paper discusses the role of the Environmental Management Systems (EMS) applied to the tourism sector. Among contemporary instruments, being used to encourage the movements of tourist companies towards sustainability, an important role have voluntary/market instruments. That is why this paper analyses the principles, tasks, good practice experiences advantages, disadvantages and perspectives of EMS. Special attention is devoted to the ISO 14000 standards, representing the most important international regulations for environmental management. The above standards are the base for implementation of EMS within tourism, and make it possible for companies to direct the course of their actions towards a full agreement with the international criteria. Although application of environmental management in tourism is a relatively recent phenomenon, the potentialities of the EMS are huge and they can significantly contribute to putting tourism on a sustainable path. © University of the Aegean..

Emergent vikings: The social ordering of tourism innovation

Jóhannesson, G.T. 2010, Event Management Vol 14 side 261-274.

During the last three decades, Iceland has experienced a rapid growth of tourism, both in regard to international tourist arrivals and in domestic terms. Tourism has increasingly been taken up as an option for economic development not least at regional levels where innovation in the area has been promoted by public actors. This article focuses on the accomplishment of a particular tourism innovation project, the Gísla Saga project, in the small fishing village of fiingeyri. The article follows how the project emerges through the networking practices of key actors. Particular emphasis is put on exploring how the local village festival, Dýrafjardardagar, has been related to the innovation project and how that connection plays a part for its accomplishment. Inspired by relational materialism in the form of Actor-Network Theory, the article argues that it is important to follow the enactment of diverse styles of ordering for gaining insight into the emergent cultural economy of tourism. By tracing the practices through which the project is established, the article illustrates some of the ways in which tourism innovation relates to the social ordering of local communities. © 2010 Cognizant Comm. Corp..

The attitudes of tourists towards the environmental, social and managerial attributes of Serengeti National Park, Tanzania

Kaltenborn, B.P.N., J. W.; Kideghesho, J. R. 2011, Tropical Conservation Science Vol 4 side 132-148.

Serengeti National Park is a world class icon for wildlife tourism attracting a diverse group of tourists from all over the world. The park has played a pivotal role in protecting large populations of wildlife species of the Eastern African savannah and the globally outstanding biological phenomena such as the annual migration of wildebeest. However, the history of the park is also characterised by resource use conflicts and pressures that could threaten the current quality of the visitor environment. In this paper we examine the attitudes of international visitors toward the management and attributes of the park. Overall, the tourists report a high degree of satisfaction with most aspects of their trip. Yet, the current tourists are concerned about possible future changes that could alter the visitor environment and idealized images of the African wild lands. Basic environmental attitudes (degrees of ecocentrism) have effects on attitudes toward management of the park. Tourists expressing a high degree of ecocentrism are more likely to support management actions aimed at controlling tourism activities, access and impacts. They also express a stronger interest in experiencing nature, wilderness and local culture. The results are discussed in light of the major impact factors and conservation issues facing the management of Serengeti National Park; poaching, poverty in surrounding communities, increasing population pressure, habitat degradation, and wildlife diseases. © Bjørn P. Kaltenborn, Julius W. Nyahongo, and Jafari R. Kideghesho..

The festivalscape of Finnmark

Kari, J.M., R. J. 2009, Scandinavian Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Vol 9 side 327-348.

The diversity of festivals in Finnmark, Norway, was researched with the aim of creating a festival map of the county's Festivalscape. Data were collected by questionnaires to the registered festival managers. It was concluded that Finnmark is a festive county where 72,000 people share close to 60 festivals arranged annually in 19 municipalities across the county. The festivals were categorized as either music, arts, sports or market festivals, however the largest group were named thematic festivals as they are each built around rather unique themes, thus representing a diverse example of festival variety and creativity. Even so, live music and food sales are found at most festivals, and all festivals have more than one main activity. Festivals are by no means a source of paid employment for the inhabitants, but rich opportunities for more than 3000 volunteers to participate in creating compressed cultural expressions and develop social networks. The number of visitors at the festivals varies from 100 to 10,000 persons. It is also a cost effective way of culture production as most of the festivals present budgets below 500,000 NOK. Entrance fees, sales of merchandise, sponsorship and public municipality funding are the most important source of sponsorship. A wide range of themes are represented in these festivals in which ethnicity, nationality and various border themes also play roles as ideological bases and cultural framing of the events. The tourism potential of the festivals and their actual production processes seems underdeveloped. © 2009 Taylor & Francis..

A grid cell viewpoint to resorts: Case studies in Northern Finland

Kauppila, P.R., J. 2009, Scandinavian Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Vol 9 side .

Resorts are key elements in the tourism phenomenon, because they are considered places for tourism demand and supply. Basically, resorts are geographical units and, statistically, they are traditionally treated as administrative regions, that is as municipalities. However, resorts are often a part of a municipality, not independent administrative regions. When statistically examining the socio-economic characteristics and changes of resorts smaller than municipalities, GIS (Geographical Information Systems) and georeferenced data seem to be a respectable option. The purpose of this investigation is to present a model, how to define resorts from their surrounding environment by utilizing so-called grid cell data. The cases deal with the four large resorts - Levi, Ruka, Saariselka and Yllas - and their location municipalities (Kittila, Kuusamo, Inari and Kolari) in Northern Finland. Population is used as an example variable to indicate the changes which occur on different geographical scales, that is municipality and resort levels. The study results show that at the municipality level, excluding Inari, the population development was negative in 1970-2003, but at the resort level the trend was vice versa. In addition, the population of the resorts seems to be concentrated in a smaller geographical area. Finally, the strengths, challenges and opportunities offered by GIS and georeferenced data are discussed in the context of resorts..

Yikes, there's a tourist in town: Guidance for local planners

Kelly, M.E. 2009, Planning Advisory Service Memo Vol side .

Unless directly engaged in making tourism plans or working in a destination community, local planners tend to give little thought to tourism or to tourists in their day-to-day work. However, many communities across the country attract some share of visitors, and planners should be aware of the implications and opportunities that may result. It can be easy to get swept up in the boosterism that surrounds what is often taken for tourism planning but really is just tourism marketing and promotion. Local governments have a key role to play in tourism planning and development, but that role is not attracting tourists to the community. Marketing and promoting tourism are activities best left to political and business leaders. The true role of local government in tourism planning, as in all development planning work, is to first capture the community vision as it is informed by a comprehensive situational analysis, then attract the investments that will fulfill that vision, and finally facilitate and control development so that it conforms to the vision and mitigates external costs. In this PAS Memo, I will look at the relationship of tourism to local government, the roles that community and economic development planners play in this relationship, and some tools used by local governments in implementing tourism development. General interest in tourism planning appears to have diminished in recent years, as suggested by the recent merger of APA's Resort & Tourism Division with the Economic Development Division. Still, many academics and staff in senior governments see tourism as an important social phenomenon and global economic activity. In the United States, for example, there are more than 1.1 billion trips taken annually by U.S. residents traveling to other parts of the country, and another 50 million international travelers arrive each year (U.S. Travel Association 2009; UNWTO 2008, 9). In Canada, international arrivals in 2005 numbered 18.6 million people, or about 27 percent of the total number of international arrivals (67.8 million) for North America in that year. Domestic travelers on day trips place only limited demands on local tourism and community infrastructure, but international travelers on longer stays require accommodation, several meals, and a variety of other services from a community. Every year, our federal, state, and provincial governments, as well as the private and nonprofit sectors, allocate considerable financial resources to attract tourists to their jurisdictions and destination communities. The World Travel & Tourism Council (2009a) reports that even after a sharp decline since 2007, annual capital investment in tourism in the United States in 2008 was still above $230 billion. In Canada, tourism investment in 2008 was over $16 billion (in U.S. dollars). A graph is presented. Tourism investment includes public sector spending on air, highway, and rail facilities; travel offices; parks; and water, sanitation and utility infrastructure. Examples of private sector tourism investment include airplane purchases, car rental fleet purchases, and lodging facilities construction (WTTC 2009b). Investment in tourism is not necessarily made in just a community itself; investments made in surrounding jurisdictions can affect small towns or cities as well..

Locals' and Tourists' Sense of Place: A Case Study of a Swiss Alpine Village

Kianicka, S.B., Matthias; Hunziker, Marcel; Müller-Böker, Ulrike 2006, Mountain Research and Development Vol 26 side 55-63.

The development of Swiss Alpine landscapes must comply with the needs of different interest groups. We assume that the way people relate to places, and particularly the sense of place they have, is a basis for their needs and aims regarding future landscape development. Conflicts among aims can be better understood if the underlying place relations are known. Therefore, we inductively examined differences between locals' and tourists' sense of place by means of a qualitative interview study in Alvaneu, a Swiss Alpine village. In social science theory, "sense of place" is used as an umbrella concept for manifold people-place relations. The findings reveal that the place characteristics relevant to sense of place are approximately the same for both groups. However, locals and tourists attribute different meanings and significance to these characteristics, and thus have distinct needs regarding landscape development. Consequently, a balance between appropriate economic development desired by locals and the preservation of the cultural characteristics and authenticity sought by tourists must be found when pursuing sustainable landscape development. [PUBLICATION ABSTRACT].

Queensland as a golf tourism destination: From South Korean market perspective

Kim, A.L., Y. S. 2009, International Journal of Tourism Policy Vol 2 side 124-137.

Research into Special Interest Tourism (SIT) has been on the rise and this is far from a foreign phenomenon in South Korean tourism. This paper identifies similarities and differences in promotional themes for South Korean general and golf tourists to Queensland, Australia. Using tourist brochures and websites prepared for and used by the two different types of tourists, content and semiotic analyses were conducted. There was only one theme observed in common from the two sets of data from the study findings. Based upon some uniquely golf tourism-oriented characteristics, this paper provides implications for government and tourism marketers. Copyright © 2009, Inderscience Publishers..

Audience involvement and film tourism experiences: Emotional places, emotional experiences

Kim, S. 2012, Tourism Management Vol 33 side 387-396.

This study attempted to investigate the extent to which audience involvement or engagement with a serialised TV drama affects their actual on-site film tourism experiences at its former filmed locations. As an empirical study, an on-site survey was conducted at Daejanggeum Theme Park, the main filmed location of Jewel in the Palace, known in Korean as Daejanggeum, in Yangjoo, South Korea. The results indicated that audience's emotional and behavioural involvement was the main driver that positively affected their on-site film tourism experiences. Cognitively oriented audience involvement including cognitive interaction and critical reflection, however, was not considered as one of the major vehicles to construct and influence audience viewing experiences and their subsequent on-site film tourism experiences. The results also identified that the more emotional involvement audience develops through viewing the TV drama, the greater the likelihood of them visiting film tourism locations. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd..

China's Outbound Tourism during the 1980s - A Socio-Political Perspective

King, B.T., C. H. 2009, Anatolia Vol 20 side 18-32.

Through the introduction of the Open Door and Reform Policy in the late 1970s and the ensuing period of social upheaval and re-structuring during the 1980s, the China outbound travel phenomenon exhibited some distinctive characteristics which are not readily explainable using the established tourism theories. The literature has generally characterized international leisure travel as discretionary consumption prompted by motivators (e.g. reasons for travel), and facilitators (e.g. discretionary income and available leisure time). Drawing upon an examination of Guangdong residents and their attitudes to the travel phenomenon during the 1980s, this exploratory paper proposes a model of outbound tourism behaviour which explores the interrelationship between migration and tourism and incorporates the concept of socio-political change occurring in the source market..

Special interest tourists collecting places and destinations: A case study of Australian World Heritage sites

King, L.M.P., B. 2010, Journal of Vacation Marketing Vol 16 side 235-247.

The World Heritage brand signals the best in protected areas. Certain destinations and places hold particular appeal to special interest tourists resulting in the conscious collection of those sites. TV programs, authors and others take advantage of this penchant to collect places; yet, there is little literature on this behaviour. This paper reports on research testing the contention there is a specific group of visitors who collect World Heritage listed sites. The article examines World Heritage visitor recognition prior to and after time on-site. A case study approach is applied and visitor surveys used across five Australian properties. Findings demonstrate only 13% of site visitor do collect World Heritage Areas but their socio-demographics profiles are too diverse to develop a specific socio-demographic profile of this group. Additionally, only 60% of respondents knew they were visiting a World Heritage listed site indicating a significant weakness in the World Heritage brand. © The Author(s) 2010..

Rumours and cohabitation in Marrakech's médina: The tourist where he was not expected

Kurzac-Souali, A.C. 2007, Rumeurs et cohabitation en médina de Marrakech: L'étranger où on ne l'attendait pas Vol side 64-88+200+204.

Since the end of the 90s, many westerners come in the Moroccan medinas to stay on vacation, to invest and to reside. This phenomenon is most important in Marrakech. The medina is always associated with a place of city traditions, with a typical Arab and Moroccan urbanity put forward in a context of globalization in the way of living and the opening to tourism of Morocco. In this context, there are raised questions on foreign presence and cohabitation with natives. They often bring out ambiguous relationships when evoking the identity dimension, the patrimony value and the urban sociological practices today identified of new inhabitants and tourists..

Niches to riches

Lamb, J.M. 2006, Stitches Magazine Vol 20 side 42-45.

A lot of work needs to be done on focusing a particular niche or a market and create opportunities to analyze, understand, and predict the future of the embroidery business market that would enable to deliver products and services. Ten uniquely profitable markets are personalization, boating, fishing, tourism, cheerleading, marching bands, spirit wear, fire departments & EMS, pets, and religious organizations. Personalization is one such niche which has a 100% increase in retail embroidery operations in the last few years. Mobile embroidery at events attended by boaters is also a great way to reach potential customers. Recreational fishing has plenty of embroidery opportunities and a good collection of detailed, realistic fish, and right selection of sportswear would be needed. The key to these markets is to know about the members present and their needs and to understand about the niche..

Subjective food-risk judgements in tourists

Larsen, S.B., W.; Øgaard, T.; Selstad, L. 2007, Tourism Management Vol 28 side 1555-1559.

Sources of risk in contemporary tourism vary over a long array of phenomena ranging from the risk of terror attacks to risks related to food and consumption. Currently, alleged food-risk sources such as Creutzfeldt-Jacobs Disease (CJD; commonly known as "Mad Cow Disease"), Salmonella, Scrapie disease and even genetically modified food are salient in mass media. In the present study, we addressed the pervasiveness of tourists' judgements of such food-related risks. As part of a larger study, some 1880 individual tourists (from 48 different nations) answered a questionnaire pertaining to food-risk issues. Based on the logics of the availability heuristic, we expected that food risks would be judged to be lower in one's own home country than abroad. We also expected that people would rate various sources for food risk differently when rating food risks at home and abroad. The results indicate that risks linked to food are indeed perceived to be higher abroad than at home, regardless of where the respondents' homes are, although attributions of risk to the various risk sources seem to vary between at home and abroad. The results also show a significant, but moderate correlation between travel experience and food-risk judgements abroad and at home. The results also indicate cultural differences in risk judgements concerning food. © 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved..

Last-chance tourism: The boom, doom, and gloom of visiting vanishing destinations

Lemelin, H.D., J.; Stewart, E. J.; Maher, P.; Lueck, M. 2010, Current Issues in Tourism Vol 13 side 477-493.

Popular press and industry stakeholders are reporting a travel trend whereby tourists increasingly seek to experience the world's most endangered sites before they vanish or are irrevocably transformed. Termed 'last-chance' or 'doom' tourism in the popular media, the desire for tourists to witness vanishing landscapes or seascapes and disappearing species may have important consequences for tourism management, yet the nature of these consequences is poorly understood by the academic community. This paper describes how last-chance tourism is promoted in various tourism marketing strategies, especially in the Arctic. The analysis is supported through a literature review of web-based information and an analysis of three different studies conducted in Churchill, Manitoba, Canada - the self-declared polar bear capital of the world. The authors also examine more closely the concepts of dark and last-chance tourism, and elaborate on the possible connections between the two. The paper concludes with a discussion of the implications of this type of tourism and identifies potential risks and opportunities. © 2010 Taylor & Francis..

Culture as a major determinant in tourism development of China

Li, F.M.S. 2008, Current Issues in Tourism Vol 11 side 492-513.

It is axiomatic that culture, however defined, will influence the way in which resources are utilised for tourism, whether those resources are built heritage, living heritage (ethnic minorities way of life, art forms, dance, music and so forth), natural heritage, or the 'way of life' of different population segments of countries. To a certain extent, this is because tourism, as the industry of difference, is fundamentally involved in image creation in order to differentiate one destination from another, and the trappings and values embedded in a nation's culture are pivotal in exhibiting difference. The enduring strength of Chinese culture is evident in its unbroken history of more than 5000 years, and this history needs to be approached from a Chinese perspective which is underpinned by Chinese values that find expression in contemporary tourism development all over China. The historical-cultural legacy is buttressed by its linguistic roots that have remained constant for millennia, and tourism development in China embraces these cultural phenomena to an extent matched by few other countries. As globalisation relentlessly encompasses country after country, particularly in terms of economics, communications, and transport systems, and many stakeholders in the travel and tourism industry aggressively pursue policies of standardisation of product regardless of the countries of location of their products, the strength of traditional cultural factors in China often ensures localisation rather than globalisation in terms of tourism development. There is thus a distinctive 'Chinese tourist gaze'. This article examines just a few of the major elements of Chinese culture that act as determinants of contemporary tourism development in China. © 2008 Taylor & Francis..

Mass media's production of destination images: Majorca's image in three Swedish newspaper, 1950-2000

Lindström, K.N. 2005, BELGEO Vol side 215-228.

This article deals with mass media's role as producers of images of tourist destinations, and the extent to which mass media can be viewed as external actors in connection to the tourism industry. The aim is to describe and analyse the media images applied to one tourist destination in a selection of Swedish newspapers during the period 1950-2000, in terms of amount of space, media content and evolution over time. In spite of the fact that the production of media images has an impact on geographical phenomena such as human mobility and geographical consciousness, little direct work on the media has been conducted in human geography. In the tourism industry, media images of places influence tourist decision-making and thereby global travel patterns as well as local tourist-destination development. That is, both in terms of being efficient destination marketing tools and in terms of being conducive to negative effects on places. Hence, in order to understand the power of the production of media imagery in tourism and its geographical implications it is of relevance to study mass media's creation of destination images within the field of human geography..

Self, wonder and God! The spiritual dimensions of travel experiences

Little, D.E.S., C. 2006, Tourism Vol 54 side 107-116.

There is a long tradition within travel and tourism research to focus on the commoditized aspects of functional exchange, consumer satisfaction, market share, and the tourist product. This has meant that economic, social, cultural and environmental elements have predominated, with tourism being seen as a mass phenomenon, and less focus being placed on the personal or experiential components that are part of the promise of travel itself. While diverse approaches and foci to the study of travel are necessary to understand the breadth of possibilities within the industry, the nature of the experience itself remains core to interpreting the scope and potential of travel and tourism and how it may impact on individuals beyond the immediate response to a location, an attraction, a product or a service. This paper focuses on revealing the subjective spiritual experiences that emerged for 10 leisure travelers who were on various independent journeys. Using a phenomenological approach that examined the meaning and nature of experience as it is lived, the findings revealed that leisure travel was a complex experience that could have spiritual meaning and impact on the participants. Specifically, analysis revealed the respondents: gained an enhanced awareness of self, God or 'other'; felt a greater sense of connection with something beyond the self; and experienced their spiritual leisure travel intensely, recognizing a range of sensations including wonder, awe, fear and release..

Wine tourism development in emerging Western Australian regions

Liu, Y. 2010, International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management Vol 22 side 245-262.

Purpose - The remarkable growth of wine tourism in recent decades has created opportunities for rural communities to diversify and stimulate development, and for travellers to enjoy an activity that brings together educational and gastronomic experiences. However, still today many areas around the globe with the potential to become quality wine tourism destinations have been ignored in contemporary research. This paper aims to examine winery operators' involvement with wine tourism, and current challenges they face in several emerging Western Australian wine regions. Design/methodology/approach - Semi-structured face-to-face and telephone interviews were used to collect data among 42 participating winery operators. Findings - Respondents acknowledge the great potential for the development of wine tourism and many foresee their own future involvement in hospitality and tourism. However, the fragmented nature of the wine industry in some of the areas studied, financial limitations and geographical distance from large cities or tourist traffic are current barriers limiting further development. Research limitations/implications - With over 300 wineries in Western Australia the number of participating businesses in the study may not substantiate making generalisations of Western Australia's wineries or those of other wine regions. However, the findings of this preliminary study do provide information about efforts and challenges related to "new" wine regions in Western Australia. Practical implications - The existing potential to develop wine tourism in emerging wine regions may in the long term attract quality wine tourists seeking authenticity and uniqueness, the very same elements on which these regions seem to rely. However, to achieve these goals, current barriers need to be addressed by all parties involved: wineries, local tourism bodies and local/state authorities. Originality/value - The study constitutes an effort to extend the very limited existing knowledge on newly developing wine regions in Western Australia. [PUBLICATION ABSTRACT].

A romantic in Spain: The Finnish nineteenth-century painter Albert Edelfelt's Andalusian dream

Lundström, M.S. 2006, Journal of Intercultural Studies Vol 27 side 331-348.

Nineteenth-century painters were an important part of the creation of a particular Spanish imagery. This construction was produced through differentiation and the exaggeration of (cultural) stereotypes: Flamenco dancers, bullfighters, gitanos, sun-drenched cityscapes and ethnographic pictures of the local people. This imagery is still valid and further cemented within the frames of heritage tourism, which mirrors a relatively unaltered, however reconstructed imagery that previously was experienced by 'adventurous' nineteenth-century artists. The Finnish painter Albert Edelfelt's (1854-1905) letters and pictures from his Spanish journey in 1881 reveal that his view of Spain was dependent on a previous, Romantic imagery. During the 1870s, Edelfelt studied in Paris, and his view of Spain is hence to be seen through the concurrent French espagnolisme. Particularly the French writer and art critic Théophile Gautier's (1811-1872) Voyage en Espagne (1843) constituted a powerful referent and guide. In Spain, Edelfelt visited all the main attractions: the art collections in Madrid, Granada with the Alhambra palace, Flamenco performances in Seville, the great mosque in Cordoba and the medieval Toledo. The painter Edelfelt was, indeed, acting like a tourist in Spain, who participates in and takes snapshots of the most 'typical' features of foreign culture. The idea of Spain was a mental construction, which the visiting painters sought in reality during their journeys. In my article, I analyse Edelfelt's travel pictures from Granada and his travel letters within the frame of semiological tourism research. From the early nineteenth-century, Spain was regarded as a place where one still could experience a pre-modern time. The motivation for tourism, as the sociologist Dean MacCannell argued in 1976, is that reality and authenticity are thought to be elsewhere: in other historical periods and cultures, in purer, simpler lifestyles. Therefore, the increasing interest in Spain is to be seen as associated with the nineteenth-century anxiety against modernity, a phenomenon that evolved from the rapid economic development, industrialisation, urbanisation and the dilution of national characteristics, in addition to a feeling of timelessness. Travels to Spain were hence an expression of nostalgia, which is one of the main forces of tourism. Nostalgia for history and authenticity are plainly articulated also in Edelfelt's letters and pictures from Granada..

The spanish cartoon from 1900 to 1951

Martín, A. 2011, La historieta española de 1900 a 1951 Vol 187 side 63-128.

The present piece of research starts after the birth of the Spanish comic by the second half of 19th century as a new way of expression that appears linked to the satirical and humour press, created and thought especially for adult readers. From the reality of this new media the basis were set to approach the Spanish comic produced during the 1900 to 1950. During this particular period, we are facing its first development, the consolidation, and the conversion of the new comic into a mass phenomenon. At the same time, a further analyze of the industrial structure, capable to support the publishing process of the comic, is carried out too; this is put in the context of the whole Spanish society depending, not only on the economy, but also on the political and social movements that shook the country during these fifty years, causing an accelerated flow of events that became a reality during the political regimes that have built the structure of the Spanish country: Alphonse 13th's constitutional monarchy, Primo de Rivera's military dictatorship, parlamentary republic, civil war and finally the General Franco's personal dictatorship..

Systems approach to tourism training and education: The Kenyan case study

Mayaka, M.A., J. S. 2007, Tourism Management Vol 28 side 298-306.

Kenya's tourism industry is relatively well developed (with first class hospitality establishments and tourist facilities that are juxtaposed in close proximity to pristine glistering tropical sand beaches and world renowned wildlife attractions in protected parks and reserves). Hence the country, in recent years, has become a popular destination for international visitors, especially European and North American tourists, haggling for safari tourism experience combined with relaxation in pristine glistering tropical sand beaches. Thus, Kenya provides a good case study in the examination of deficiencies in tourism training that characterises many countries in Africa and other emerging tourist destinations in different regions of the world. As this study shows Kenya, as the case is with many other Third World countries, lacks a well-coordinated tourism training strategy and educational institutions capable of providing much needed human resource training and capacity building, especially at supervisory and managerial level. This paper identifies existing deficiencies in tourism education and training in Kenya, and provides a framework that can be applied in the development of a well-coordinated national tourism training strategy and initiation of education programmes. Indeed, systems approach can be replicated elsewhere in Africa and other Third World countries where tourism is increasingly gaining momentum as a major socio-economic phenomenon. © 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved..

Complexity science: An alternative world view for understanding sustainable tourism development

McDonald, J.R. 2009, Journal of Sustainable Tourism Vol 17 side 455-471.

Tourism research has generally taken a reductionist approach and has not effectively understood tourism as a stakeholder within a complex system (CS) of stakeholders. As a result, interpretations of sustainable tourism development (STD) are highly focused and sector-specific, thereby limiting understanding of the complex inter-relationships between tourism components and other components within a system. This paper explores complexity science as an alternative paradigm to understand why STD is problematic. It is argued that a new world view is required to understand the unpredictable world in which tourism operates. Complexity science and the associated chaos theory offer an alternative paradigm for viewing and understanding tourism phenomena. Viewing underlying influences on a CS in terms of the characteristics of complexity science, including the edge of chaos, strange attractors and conflict provides greater understanding of the system in which tourism operates. The second part of the paper discusses a framework, adapted from complexity science characteristics, to identify the complex inter-relationships between stakeholders with political, environmental, economic, social and cultural interests in an urban river context, the Swan River in Perth, Western Australia. © 2009 Taylor & Francis..

My Home Is My Castle: Defiance of the Commercial Homestay Host in Tourism

McIntosh, A.J.L., Paul; Sweeney, Majella 2011, Journal of Travel Research Vol 50 side 509.

The intrinsic nature of small tourism business provision has rarely been captured in previous literature, but it has recently gained momentum within scholarly discourse exploring the role of the "home" in tourism and hospitality. This article contributes an examination of the commercial homestay host in New Zealand with a particular focus on the hosts' personal relationship with their "commercial home." The article reports the findings of in-depth interviews conducted with commercial homestay hosts in New Zealand. Findings allude to the tyranny of the homestay hosts in their tourism hosting role, their oppressive social need, self-marginalization, and distinctive identity -- one that is notably defiant of other commercial hospitality and tourism business norms. In contrast, previous studies rarely showcase the personal perspectives, conscious defiance, or marginalization of commercial hospitality provision. Consequences for understanding the tourism and hospitality phenomenon of commercial home hosting are thus discussed. [PUBLICATION ABSTRACT].


Mihelj, V. 2010, Faculty of Tourism and Hospitality Management in Opatija. Biennial International Congress. Tourism & Hospitality Industry Vol side 1075-1085.

Needs, expectations and anticipated benefits of tourism vary greatly from one destination to the next, and there is certainly no "one size fits all" approach to creation of national tourism strategy and design of the destination tourism product. As baby boomers move into mid-life and retirement, their expectations for travel will shift toward educational, self-improvement, and in-depth experiences. Destinations featuring cultural tourism, heritage tourism, sports tourism, active tourism, adventure travel, and eco-tourism will be in greater demand. The growing concern worldwide over global warming and climate change combined with rising oil prices, the energy crisis and the economic slowdown has led to dramatic changes in consumer attitudes, travel seasonality and other travel patterns and trends. The objective of the paper is to identify the drivers for new trends and motives for creation of different destinations' products and to examine how these specific market trends could contribute towards tourism growth within Europe and to look at the impact of such trends on the changing customer needs..

Mapping the boosterist imaginary: Colonial Williamsburg, historical tourism, and the construction of managerial memory

Miller, J.S. 2006, Public Historian Vol 28 side 51-74.

With very few exceptions, existing scholarship on public memory in America has tended to script commercial-industrial "development" as the implacable adversary of legitimate collective remembering. Indeed, it has become a virtual article of faith that any attempt at commercially underwritten historical reconstruction involves, by definition, an act of historical falsification. This essay sets about to revise this longstanding conceit by pondering some of the specific ways that industrial and commercial development practices came during the early twentieth century to be imagined as technologies for producing new and viable models of a specifically white-collar history. To make this argument, I focus on the phenomenon of historical tourism, a movement that gained popularity in the 1920s and 30s (typified by such ventures as Henry Ford's Greenfield Village and John D. Rockefeller's Colonial Williamsburg), which dedicated itself to reconstructing vestiges of America's "bygone" past. Using Colonial Williamsburg as my case study, I explore how the planners and promoters behind this movement forged a discourse of historical reconstruction designed to make the tactics of industrial-commercial development compatible with the vaunted ideals of historical recovery and cultural conservation. More specifically, I show how this discourse labored to imagine the past itself as a useful and fungible resource: a raw material to be taken up, managed, and improved by the agents of the modern corporate-capitalist order. © 2006 by the Regents of the University of California. All rights reserved..

An exploratory study of types of special interest tour preferences and preference demographic variables analysis

Ming-Jian, S.M.-C., Chen 2008, International Journal of Culture, Tourism and Hospitality Research Vol 2 side 271-284.

The paper research objectives are: to investigate into the classification of special interest tour preferences in terms of their types and to compare whether consumers with different demographic attributes result in discrepancies in special interest tour preferences. Those collected questionnaires that had incomplete answers and that had a significant response tendency or were left blank with no answers were eliminated. The required statistical methods are explained thus: this study conducts analysis on special interest tour preferences by factor analysis to distinguish between the categories of special interest tour preferences; this study adopts correlation analysis to examine the ratio scale of the study's demographic variables, including age and education level; this study adopts one-way ANOVA to examine the variables of categorical or nominal scale, such as gender, marital status, and occupation. After collecting the questionnaire data, factor analysis is used to conduct classification of the types and a total of four types emerged: recreation type, nature/ecology type, physical adventure type, historical/artistic activity type. Furthermore, in the verification of the demographic variables of each type preferences: age and nature-eco type preferences constitute a significant positive correlation, and age has also formed a significant negative correlation with physical adventure type; gender differences result in a significant difference in recreation type preferences and a significant difference in physical adventure type preferences; marital status has a significant variation regarding physical adventure preferences. Special interest tours are gradually on the rise and the previous literature is still lacking a systematic method for investigative analysis. Accordingly, conducting a systematic categorization of special interest tour preferences and to examining the background of the consumers of each type of special interest tour preference is essential. The necessity for special interest tours to conform to consumer interests, and the existence of special interests, require that those in the travel industry conduct market segmentation, prior to designing travel itineraries, so as to have an understanding of the target market. Furthermore, the types of special interest tour preference this study provides can offer the basis for discussion of relevant issues for those travel business industry operators in the industry and future researchers. [PUBLICATION ABSTRACT].


Mitchell, R.C., S.; Albrecht, J. N. 2012, Annals of Tourism Research Vol 39 side 311-335.

Regionally distinct cultural systems are manifest in the landscapes of all cultures. Geographers have begun to explore such cultural systems in an attempt to better understand a range of cultural geographical phenomena, but such an approach has yet to be applied to our understanding of tourism. Using Bonnemaison's cultural systems approach, this paper explores the relationship between rural cultural systems and the production and consumption of wine tourism in two culturally distinct wine regions: Champagne, France, and Margaret River, Western Australia. In so doing, it highlights the importance of situating wine tourism within the wider system of rural land tenure, local mythologies of rurality and the regional wine cultural complex..

The importance of networks in special interest tourism: Case studies of music tourism in Australia

Moscardo, G.M., B.; Murphy, L.; Pearce, P. 2009, International Journal of Tourism Policy Vol 2 side .

Music tourism can be seen as a type of special interest cultural tourism. This paper addresses the role of themed music festivals in regional development. Three diverse and recurring music tourism events in regional Queensland, Australia are studied. The case studies describe the festivals and their impacts and contributions to tourism development in their area. These analyses specifically examine the roles of clusters and networks in the contributions made by these events to regional tourism and associated development. The results of the analyses are used to examine government policies and recommendations are made to support better outcomes for host communities. Copyright © 2009, Inderscience Publishers..

Rethinking globalization theory in tourism

Munar, A.M. 2007, Tourism, Culture and Communication Vol 7 side 99-115.

Globalization has become the most popular term in social sciences since the beginning of the 21st century. The phenomenon is suffering under the paradox of inclusiveness and it is becoming clouded and useless. An effort to structure and focus on the meaning of the term is a necessity. The former debate between globalists and antiglobalists has shown to be a misleading one, and it is being surpassed by the study of three theoretical tendencies and approaches to the phenomenon: the hyperglobalist, the traditionalist, and the transformationalist. All three approaches can be seen in the understanding of tourism today. The first two have a methodological problem as they are rooted in the methodologies of nationalism as well as on a preconception of the global world The transformationalist approach to globalization is to be applied as the theoretical frame of globalization and tourism, used in a dialogic and systemic way of understanding tourism development and tourists as today's global citizens. Copyright © 2007 Cognizant Comm. Corp..

Evaluating tourist satisfaction with the retail experience in a typical tourist shopping village

Murphy, L.M., G.; Benckendorff, P.; Pearce, P. 2011, Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services Vol 18 side 302-310.

The study presented in this paper explores the phenomenon of Tourist Shopping Villages (TSVs) and the dimensions that contribute to satisfying visitor experiences. TSVs are defined as small towns and villages that base their tourist appeal on retailing, often in a pleasant setting marked by historical or natural amenities. A conceptual framework was developed in an attempt to explain and understand visitor satisfaction with the tourist shopping village experience. The results indicate the village performance on providing a unique local experience, value for money and regionally distinctive products, and opportunities for entertainment and bargain hunting were the key variables which most strongly predicted whether respondents were very satisfied or not. Surprisingly, the level of enthusiasm for leisure shopping did not have a strong influence on the visitor experience or satisfaction. Tourist shopping villages provide a unique setting in which recreational or leisure shopping occurs and are under-researched, particularly from the perspective of the visitor experience. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd..

Hypolithic plants from Carruthers Peak, Snowy Mountains, New South Wales, Australia

Müller, G. 2009, Geographical Research Vol 47 side 449-453.

Hypolithic plants, plants growing under rocks, have been found from a number of climatically extreme, mostly arid sites from the poles to the equator, but there are limited reports from temperate zones. A brief survey in the Kosciuszko Alpine Area of New South Wales, Australia, revealed four species of moss and one liverwort growing beneath diaphanous quartz pebbles in feldmark vegetation communities. The probable restricted nature of this phenomenon and the likely impact of global warming, tourists and recreation management activities raise concerns for its conservation. © 2009 Institute of Australian Geographers..

Event business leveraging: The Sydney 2000 Olympic Games

O'Brien, D. 2006, Annals of Tourism Research Vol 33 side 240-261.

The business leveraging of mega sport events is an emerging phenomenon not currently addressed in the tourism literature. This study explores Business Club Australia, an initiative launched by the Australian federal government to create leverage from Sydney's hosting of the 2000 Olympic Games by providing opportunities for business networking and international trade facilitation. The study examines the formulation and implementation of the program and discusses how the accumulated knowledge is being institutionalized and applied in other event contexts. Conclusions suggest that event business leveraging represents a subtle, yet significant paradigm shift in the international event sector that warrants ongoing empirical analyses. © 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved..

The role of horror and dread in the sacred experience

Osbaldiston, N.P., T. 2011, Tourist Studies Vol 11 side 175-190.

In this article we seek to add to the debate/discussion into so called 'Dark Tourism'. While a plethora of studies analyse this phenomenon through binaries such as authentic/inauthentic, we seek here to approach sites of historical death with a less sceptical view. Rather, like others, we understand tourist engagement with 'dark' sites as a source of ritualistic engagement. Using the Australian and New Zealand iconic place of Gallipoli in Turkey as a case study, this article will argue that the experience of pilgrims to sites of death is best discussed through the concept of the sacred. However, it is true that these sites can also disturb visitors. Thus, we propose that the often under-utilized figure in sociology, Hertz, can be consulted in order to comprehend how people negotiate places of 'dark' properties, particularly those with national or international heritage value. © The Author(s) 2011..

Tourist scams: Exploring the dimensions of an international tourism phenomenon

Pearce, P.L. 2011, European Journal of Tourism Research Vol 4 side 147-156.

Tourist scams exist in many countries and are a subset of the long standing research area concerned with crimes against tourists. In this paper it is suggested that a defining feature of the tourist scam is the initial involvement of the tourist in the activity either through their gullibility or personal desire for an unusual or easy gain. This paper locates tourist scams in the literature on crimes against tourists and reviews work on scams in order to develop a category scheme portraying these encounters. Data collected in Thailand provide examples of scams to underpin the construction of a scheme which identifies tourist service scams, general retail scams and social interaction scams. The attribution of responsibility literature is used to interpret how scam victims are seen. A role for international comparative studies is suggested to better explain and potentially limit scam practices. © 2011 International University College. All rights reserved..

Conscience in Zwitserland. Over Levenslust (1868)

Pelckmans, P. 2006, Spiegel der Letteren Vol 48 side 57-75.

In his nearly forgotten novel Levenslust (1868), Conscience might be the first author within the Netherlands and Flanders to amply write about the emerging phenomenon of holiday tourism. He combines the new topic with a remarkable, sentimental plot which is supported by a number of fantastic and magnetic twists and which unusually clearly refers to all kinds of doubts that the sentimental novel typically rather suppresses. © 2006 by Spiegel der Letteren. All rights reserved..

The geo-environmental heritage of the Manubiola Valley (Parma Province)

Perego, S.V., P. 2005, Il patrimonio geo-ambientale della Val Manubiola (Prov. di Parma) Vol 41 side 67-101.

The Manubiola Valley underwent a radical transformation in the late Sixties with the construction of the A15 motorway. Despite the significant alterations to the landscape involving a segment of the central sector of the valley, the decision to carry out a geo-environmental study was taken because the valley nevertheless preserves some interesting natural features. This study examines the geological and geomorphological features of the whole valley and proposes a subdivision into areas in which three different kinds of landscape can be identified: an ophiolitic rocks landscape, a Ligurian sandstones landscape and a debris mantles landscape. The study provides a descriptive analysis of various itineraries through different types of geological landscape: these itineraries make it possible to identify and assess the geological peculiarities of the different areas, as well as their historical and cultural characteristics. Each itinerary has been assigned a specific value that characterises it. Moreover, along each itinerary, value is given to those sites which are considered to be more suitable for geo-tourism and didactic-scientific purposes. Itinerary 1 has a geomorphological value in connection with the morphologies produced by landslides; along this itinerary, sites that could be useful from a didactic-scientific point of view and sites that are better suited to geo-tourism have been identified. Itinerary 2 has a geological value based on the presence of outcrops of very significant Ligurian Units and is suitable for didactic-scientific purposes; it has a historical-cultural value that is suitable for geo-tourism. Itinerary 3 has a historical-cultural value justified by the evidence of ancient human activities in the valley: some of the sites are suitable for geo-tourism. Itinerary 4 has a geomorphological value as it highlights phenomena due to gravity on the slopes as well as phenomena due to selected erosion; the unusual features of some morphologies make the itinerary suitable for didactic-scientific purposes, too. Itinerary 5 has a geological value because of the exposure of ophiolite units of the External Ligurian Domain and a historical-cultural value because of the signs of ancient mining activities. The sites can serve both didactic-scientific and geo-touristic purposes. Itinerary 6 has a geological value because of the excellent exposure of ophiolite Ligurian Complexes and may also lend itself to didactic-scientific objectives as it serves as a clear illustration of the relationships between a Cretaceous sedimentary chaotic unit and large ophiolitic bodies and provides a good example of structures and mineral deposits related to Jurassic "oceanic metamorphism"..

State of phytoplankton community in the Bulgarian and Macedonian lakes

Petrova, D.P., S.; Mitic, V.; Shtereva, G.; Gerdzhikov, D. 2008, Journal of Environmental Protection and Ecology Vol 9 side 501-512.

For the Balkan Peninsula lakes ecosystems the phenomenon of water quality deterioration has been evident since the early 1980's. These lakes are one of the hot spots along the Bulgarian Black sea coastal zone and coastline in Macedonia. The ecological state of the lakes is strongly influenced by the process of anthropogenic presses. Along the lake coast are located many sources of pollution such as rivers, ports, chemical industry. It has significantly influenced fishing, aquaculture, tourism and caused enormous economic losses. The paper presents the results of investigations of lakes with different trophic status in Bulgaria (the Varna and Beloslav lakes) and Macedonia (the Ohrid and Prespa lakes). Seasonal and inter-annual variability of species composition, predominating groups, abundance and biomass of microalgae in both areas are analysed. Considering the hydrological connection of the Ohrid and Prespa lakes, one of the oldest lakes on earth, comparative investigations were carried out on the basic trophic parameters with particular attention to the phytoplankton community as the most sensitive indicator of changes on trophic conditions in the lakes..

Beer tourism in Canada along the Waterloo-Wellington Ale Trail

Plummer, R.T., D.; Hashimoto, A.; Summers, R. 2005, Tourism Management Vol 26 side 447-458.

Food and beverage tourism is increasingly recognised as a way to showcase local products and stimulate tourism demand. The use of an ale trail, similar to a wine trail also represents an important option for small retailers to partner to promote their products. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the results of a self-reporting survey conducted over a 3-year period at six breweries along the Waterloo - Wellington Ale Trail located in south central Ontario, Canada. A total of 2136 valid surveys were returned and the results are examined under visitor profile, visit information and the Ale Trail experience. The paper stresses the importance of partnering and collecting baseline data for new ventures. © 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved..

Urban tourism and the "Tourist gaze" in postmodern times

Popp, M. 2009, Der touristische Blick im Städtetourismus der Postmoderne das Beispiel der italienischen Stadt Florenz Vol 61 side 42-48.

Urban tourism has become a mass phenomenon and is not restricted to highly educated tourists any more. Therefore, the way the city is gazed upon is changing. The article discusses these changes with reference to Urry's concept of the "tourist gaze" using Florence / Italy as an example. It is shown that urban tourism in postmodern times is characterised by a diversity of different gazes. Finally, the chances and limitations of Urry's concept are discussed. The article is based on results of an ongoing project which is concerned with the experience of tourists in cities..

Geoconservation for science and society: Challenges and opportunities

Prosser, C.D.B., D. R.; Brown, E. J.; Larwood, J. G. 2011, Proceedings of the Geologists' Association Vol 122 side 337-342.

Well managed and accessible geological and geomorphological sites are important to both science and society, for research, education, and, in some cases, for recreation. In this viewpoint paper we celebrate achievements in the field of geoconservation over the last 60 years since the first geological Sites of Special Scientific Interest were designated in the UK following the passing of the National Parks and Access to the Countryside Act in 1949. With a range of new political, social, economic and environmental challenges and opportunities coming to the fore, geoconservation now needs to innovate and adapt in order to sustain and enhance its influence and effectiveness. In advance of the 2011 Geologists' Association Annual Meeting, Geoconservation for Science and Society: An Agenda for the 21st Century, we give our view on the challenges and opportunities facing geoconservation and the areas in which new approaches and partnerships are required to secure the long-term conservation of our geological and geomorphological heritage. © 2011 The Geologists' Association..

Pulse of tourism. The transnational world of guinean drum

Raout, J. 2009, Au rythme du tourisme: Le monde transnational de la percussion guinéenne Vol 49 side 175-201.

Apart from business tourism and a few hiking journeys in the Fouta-Jalon, tourism in Guinea is supported by a growing international craze for traditional music and dance. The jembe drum, true emblematic instrument of Guinean culture, attracts every year hundreds of tourists who wish to improve their musical practice and discover the country of origin of their chosen instrument. We aim to study this rhythm tourism which has risen from the late 1980's, by considering this phenomenon as a part of the quickening of musical transformations and increasing movements of artists since decolonization. How does this new tourism based economy generate artistic transnational networks and create artistic callings on a local level while causing tensions around a musical heritage that is shared from now on?..

The growth and promotion of regional tourism in the developing world: The South African experience

Rogerson, C.M.K., W. 2007, Development Southern Africa Vol 24 side 505-521.

Although regional tourism is an important phenomenon in the developing world, it has largely been overlooked by international tourism scholars. The promotion of regional tourism can make a positive contribution to tourism development. This article stresses the importance of regional tourists to the expanding tourism economy of South Africa. It highlights the changing policy environment and suggests that critical policy interventions should be undertaken at both national and local levels of government in order to maximise the developmental impacts of promoting regional tourism..

Tourism industry employee workstress - A present and future crisis

Ross, G.F. 2006, Journal of Travel and Tourism Marketing Vol 19 side 133-147.

Workstress is a pernicious yet little understood problem in many industries, including tourism. It is, moreover, evidencing no signs of abatement, with researchers such as Schabracq, Winnubst and Cooper (2003) suggesting that a number of clearly identifiable trends within organizational life are likely to exacerbate the extent of this problem in the future. This paper presents an examination of stress as a phenomenon of workplace functioning and suggests a model of organizational wellbeing within which stress might be understood. It is suggested that workstress has the ability to cause personal crises, organizational morbidity and mortality, and even financial crisis at a community level should a climate of workstress come to typify a local industry. The paper presents findings from a series of tourism studies that have, either directly or indirectly, sought to gauge employee reactions to elements of tourism industry worklife that were undesirable, unpleasant or even debilitating. The second section of the paper then offers an organizational justice framework wherein stress within the tourism industry may be addressed. Three major industry employment issues are considered: the treatment of disabled workers, workplace malfeasance and its detection, and employee dismissal procedures; each issue is explored within an organizational justice perspective, examining how proactive organizational change may assist tourism employees to avoid or minimize stress and industry organizations to avert a crisis in the form of an entrenched organizational culture of stress. © 2005 by The Haworth Press, Inc. All rights reserved..

Some contemporary dynamics in the French anthropology of tourism

Roux, S. 2009, De quelques dynamiques contemporaines en anthropologic du tourisme francophone Vol 49 side 595-602.

The most reputable publications have long ignored the French anthropology of tourism. The science of tourism appears to be contaminated by the subject's lack of legitimacy and has trouble getting beyond the specialised-mostly Anglophone-publications, which lead the way in scientific writing. However, the recent publication of articles on the anthropology of tourism in a number of general interest publications, demonstrates that this long-neglected field is flourishing. By examining three francophone journals {Autrepart, Actes de la recherche en sciences sociales and Civilisations), this bibliographical record outlines a few of the trends that are currently in vogue in tourism research, and stresses the importance of this discipline in understanding contemporary phenomena..

Perceptions and adaptation strategies of the tourism industry to climate change: The case of Finnish nature-based tourism entrepreneurs

Saarinen, J.T., K. 2006, International Journal of Innovation and Sustainable Development Vol 1 side 214-228.

Climate change-related processes have emerged as major issues in tourism development and management, particularly with respect to nature-based tourism, which is seen as especially vulnerable and is the sector of the industry that is the main focus of this study. The aim of the paper is to identify the perceptions and adaptation strategies of Finnish nature-based tourism entrepreneurs on climate change. The case study was conducted by interviewing nature-based tourism entrepreneurs in northern Finland and the Finnish Lake District, south east Finland. In general, the entrepreneurs were aware of the issue of global climate change. However, half of the interviewees did not believe that the phenomenon actually exists and will influence the region's tourism industry in the future. The scepticism towards the climate change may explain the fact that there were almost no adaptation strategies. However, other adaptation mechanisms were used to cope with the 'normal' weather variation and market changes. Copyright © 2006 Inderscience Enterprises Ltd..

Kalymnos: A paradise of rock-climbing to the country of sponge divers

Scol, J. 2006, Kalymnos: Un paradis de l'escalade au pays des pêcheurs d'éponges Vol side 21-41.

In Kalymnos, in the Greek South-east Aegean archipelago of Dodecanese, the tourist development was since the years 1970, based as in many other islands of the area, on the model of the traditional triptych of the 3S. However, this island not very accessible and suffering of a lack of beaches, does not appear to be adapted best to fulfill the requirements of hélio-balneal tourism. Besides it records today an important retreat of its international tourist frequentation. However, for a few years, Kalymnos has made more and more speak about it by the sportsmen amateurs of rock climbing for which die island becomes a spot impossible to circumvent with an international reputation. If the development of this sport was ' first of all to put at the credit of sportsmen inthem, the local authorities but also too the professionals carrying out the opportunity which the phenomenon as regards for the tourist redeployment of the island offered. Today sporting tourism does not supplant the balneal one in Kalymnos but it starts to offer a complement to him which will undoubtedly be essential for him with its survival in a increasingly more competing and demanding tourist market..

Assessing the dynamic economic impact of tourism for island economies

Seetanah, B. 2011, Annals of Tourism Research Vol 38 side 291-308.

Using a panel data of 19 island economies for the years that span from 1990 to 2007, this study explores the potential contribution of tourism to economic growth and development within the conventional augmented Solow growth model. Since economic growth is argued to be essentially a dynamic phenomenon we employ GMM method to account for these issues. The results show that tourism significantly contributes to the economic growth of island economies. Moreover, the tourist-growth nexus is observed to be a dynamic phenomenon and granger causality analysis reveals a bi-causal relationship between tourist and growth. Comparative analysis with samples of developing and developed countries shows that tourism development on island economies may have comparatively higher growth effects. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd..

Modelling the uncertainty in monthly international tourist arrivals to the Maldives

Shareef, R.M., M. 2007, Tourism Management Vol 28 side 23-45.

The Indian Ocean tsunami of 26 December 2004 made clear the devastating short term impact in lost lives, as well as the longer term impact in lost livelihoods and an uncertain future. Tourism was one of the more obvious non-human casualties of this tragic natural phenomenon. Tourism is the principal industry in the Maldives, accounting for more than 30% of GDP and more than 60% of foreign exchange earnings. As over 55% of government tax revenue arises from tourism-related taxes, and monthly government budget financing depends largely on international tourist arrivals, the monitoring of daily, weekly and monthly international tourist arrivals is essential for fiscal policy evaluation. Over 600,000 tourists visited the Maldives in 2004. This paper examines the time series properties of monthly international tourist arrivals to the Maldives from eight major tourist source countries, namely Italy, Germany, UK, Japan, France, Switzerland, Austria and the Netherlands, from 1 January 1994 to 31 December 2003. Monthly international tourist arrivals and the associated uncertainty are estimated for the eight principal tourist source countries. Univariate and multivariate time series models of conditional volatility (or uncertainty) are estimated and tested. The conditional correlations are estimated and examined to ascertain whether there is specialization, diversification or segmentation in the international tourism demand shocks from the major tourism source countries to the Maldives. The estimated static conditional correlations for monthly international tourist arrivals, as well as for the respective transformed series, were found to be significantly different from zero, but also relatively low. This indicates that the government of the Maldives and the major tour operators that organise tourist vacations have to emphasise their marketing efforts independently of each tourist source country. © 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved..

Climate change in Nepal and its impact on Himalayan glaciers

Shrestha, A.B.A., R. 2011, Regional Environmental Change Vol 11 side 65-77.

Climate change can be particularly hard-hitting for small underdeveloped countries, relying heavily on natural resources for the economy and livelihoods. Nepal is one among these countries, being landlocked, with diverse physiographical characteristics within a relatively small territory and with rugged terrain. Poverty is widespread and the capacity of people and the country to cope with climate change impact is low. The country is dominated by the Asian monsoon system. The main occupation is agriculture, largely based on rain-fed farming practices. Tourism based on high altitude adventures is one of the major sources of income for the country. Nepal has a large hydropower potential. While only 0.75% of the theoretical hydropower potential has been tapped, Nepal can greatly benefit from this natural resource in the future. Climate change can adversely impact upon water resources and other sectors of Nepal. The source of water is mainly summer monsoon precipitation and the melting of the large reserve of snow and glaciers in the Himalayan highlands. Observations show clear evidences of significant warming. The average trend in the country is 0.06°C per year. The warming rates are progressively higher for high elevation locations. The warming climate has resulted in rapid shrinking of majority of glaciers in Nepal. This paper presents state-of-knowledge on the glacial dynamics in the country based on studies conducted in the past in Shorong, Khumbu, Langtang, Dhaulagiri and Kanchenjunga regions of Nepal. We present recent trends in river flow and an overview of studies on expected changes in the hydrological regime due to climate change. Formation, growth and likely outburst of glacial lake are phenomena directly related to climate change and deglaciation. This paper provides a synopsis of past glacial lake outburst floods impacting Nepal. Further, likely impacts of climate change on other sectors such as agriculture, biodiversity, human health and livelihoods are discussed. © 2010 Springer-Verlag..

Tourism in the sacred Indian Himalayas: An incipient theology of tourism?

Singh, S. 2006, Asia Pacific Journal of Tourism Research Vol 11 side 375-389.

Existing literature continues to perpetuate the notion that pilgrimages and tourism share several commonalities. From the literature, it is observed that visitors' engagement with the core value of pilgrimages, the nature of visitor sentiment per se or belief that motivates visitors to invest in their own life experience and reap meaningful benefits, are decisively comparable. This paper investigates the two phenomena of pilgrimages and tourism independently, with a view to understanding the analogue between them. Further, it is contended that place attributes of pilgrimage sites render them distinct from tourist destinations. After probing into these propositions, the remaining section of the article will delve into the theme of secular pilgrimages in the sacred Indian Himalaya by way of illustration. The case example suggests that contemporary tourism affords theological manifestations through the notion of geopiety..

The CEO gender pay gap in the tourism industry - Evidence from Norway

Skalpe, O. 2007, Tourism Management Vol 28 side 845-853.

This article compares the gender pay gap among chief executive officers (CEOs) in a sample of Norwegian tourism and manufacturing firms. More than 20% of the CEOs in tourism are women, as opposed to less than 6% in the sample of manufacturing firms. The results confirm that female CEOs are wage discriminated in both sectors. Nevertheless, the gender wage gap is larger in tourism because the female CEOs in this industry are employed in relatively smaller firms than is the case in manufacturing. The tourism industry offers women better odds of reaching the top, but the female CEOs are employed in smaller firms that offer less pay. This phenomenon could be evident at other levels and in other countries too. The results should induce the large female workforce in the tourism industry to pursue more challenging leadership positions. © 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved..

Hotel design in British Mandate Palestine: Modernism and the Zionist vision

Smith, D.O. 2010, Journal of Israeli History Vol 29 side 99-123.

From the early 1920s through the 1930s, an important yet forgotten avant-garde architectural phenomenon developed in the Zionist community of British Mandate Palestine. In cities and resort regions across the country, several dozen modernist hotels were built for a new type of visitor: the Zionist tourist. Often the most architecturally significant structures in their locales and designed by leading local architects educated in some of Europe's most progressive schools, these hotels were conceived along ideological lines and represented a synthesis of social requirements, cutting-edge aesthetics, and utopian national ideals. They responded to a complex mixture of sentiments, including European standards of modern comfort and the longing to remake Palestine, the historical homeland of the Jewish people, for a newly liberated, progressive nation. This article focuses on Jerusalem's most ambitious modernist hotel, the Eden Hotel, to evaluate how the architecture of tourism became a political and aesthetic tool in the promotion of Zionist Palestine. © 2010 Taylor & Francis..


Snow, M. 2009, Americas Vol 61 side 14-19.

Montgomery's 1908 story of a lovable adolescent girl's search for independence from the adult world won the author an international reputation, underscored by seven later novels describing Anne's career and marriage. Now part of Prince Edward Island National Park, the two-story house features turn-of-thecentury furnishings and roped off sections that include "Anne's room" along with the supposed rooms of Marilla and Matthew, the novel's elderly brother and sister who adopted the young orphan girl..

Network-based strategy making for events tourism

Stokes, R. 2006, European Journal of Marketing Vol 40 side 682-695.

Purpose - Seeks to understand the inter-organisational networks that influence events tourism strategy making by public-sector event development agencies in Australia. Design/methodology/approach - A qualitative methodology of convergent interviews, followed by multiple case research across six Australian states and territories, was employed. The inter-organisational relationships and networks of events agencies that impact on their strategy processes for events tourism were the "cases" in focus. Findings - Strategies of a reactive-proactive nature mostly guide events tourism development by Australia's corporatised event development agencies. These agencies maintain "soft", loosely formed networks that consist of relatively stable clusters of intra-governmental and corporate membership with a peripheral, ad hoc membership of other stakeholders. Research limitations/implications - Although the paper studies perceptions of strategy making at a single point in time, it provides valuable insights into the public sector environment, institutional settings and key relationships that impact on events tourism strategies. Practical implications - Event development agencies should consider how the unique requirements of event bidding, event development and expansion might facilitate different types of stakeholder engagement and network formation. Integration of regional, metropolitan and state strategies for events tourism may also widen the network of influence on strategies. Originality/value - The paper informs public sector operatives establishing or managing event development agencies, where tourist generation is a primary marketing goal. It contributes new knowledge in a tourism field that is under-researched. [PUBLICATION ABSTRACT].

Cruising, freighter-style: A phenomenological exploration of tourist recollections of a passenger freighter travel experience

Szarycz, G.S. 2008, International Journal of Tourism Research Vol 10 side 259-269.

Opportunities to participate in freighter cruises, which use cargo ships outfitted with a small number of passenger cabins, have been growing in recent years. In order to better understand the experiential characteristics of this phenomenon, 22 respondents were selected to take part in a phenomenological study based on their recollections of the activity. The respondents discussed the issues of remoteness and the often limited tourism facilities they were able to access during their travels. Mostly though, they reflected on friendships made, opportunities for learning and places visited as being an important and enjoyable part of the freighter cruise experience. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd..

Conceptualizing special interest tourism - Frameworks for analysis

Trauer, B. 2006, Tourism Management Vol 27 side 183-200.

To advance understanding of Special Interest Tourism (SIT), this paper will explore the complexities of this phenomenon in the early 21st century. First, a look at what is "out there", both from a supply and demand perspective, will serve to paint a broad picture at macro-level. The paper will present a discussion of the SIT phenomenon at the macro-level within a triangular relationship of supply, demand and media. Then, a more specific look at SIT attempts to clarify the ambiguity of the term. Finally, a look at micro-level from the consumer's perspective will introduce the concepts of enduring and situational involvement, and the nature of the product. Proposed frameworks are presented to provide structure and possible directions for future research and as a means of progressing conceptual development. © 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved..

Destination image, romance and place experience - An application of intimacy theory in tourism

Trauer, B.R., C. 2005, Tourism Management Vol 26 side 481-491.

In some forms of tourism, and perhaps particularly in the case of special interest tourism, it can be argued that tourism encounters are service relationships with emotional attachment through the special interest focus and a level of enduring involvement on the part of participants. This involvement is two-fold. First, an interest with the activity; second, a sharing with like-minded people in a social world that extends from home to tourist destination and return. Intimacies in tourism can thus be interpreted through the model of the relationship cycle that comprises the stages A, Aquaintance, B, Buildup, C, Continuation and D, Dissolution. The paper builds upon this concept by utilising ideas of other-centred and self-centredness in personal relationships, and extends the concept of other-centredness to host environments. It also suggests that, in the academic literature about place, location may be secondary in that the quality of experience is primarily determined by the intimacies that exist between people at that place, especially that existing between visitors. © 2004 Published by Elsevier Ltd..

Understanding nature-based tourist experiences: An ontological analysis

Vespestad, M.K.L., F. 2011, Current Issues in Tourism Vol 14 side 563-580.

The purpose of this article is to discuss and elaborate on contemporary research on nature-based tourism experiences. Recent studies on nature-based tourism and experiences are analysed within an ontological framework, with a focus on the view of tourists and their experiences, the nature phenomena, role of the presenter, and consequences of tourist presentations. We argue that four main perspectives can be derived based on the interpretation of recent tourism literature. In these texts, nature based tourist experiences can be described in terms of the following categories: (1) the genuine, (2) entertainment, (3) state of being, and (4) socio-cultural community. We discuss the features of each view and possible implications for understanding and managing nature-based tourism products and presentations. © 2011 Taylor & Francis..

Urban tourism and policies for its management in France and Spain

Violier, P.M., M. A. Z. 2007, Turismo urbano y políticas para su gestión en Francia y España Vol 68 side 321-347.

Across this article there are analysed the political ones of urban tourism inside the first two powers of the international tourism, France and Spain. In both cases, there appears the purpose that the public local actors assign to his political tourist ones and the strategies that they start, bearing in mind that the tourism of cities acquires increasing importance in a few societies increasingly urbanised and that the worry for the political urban tourist ones is a relatively recent phenomenon, The tourism reinforces his role as engine of local development, of functional change and of social interaction. From the 90s, the intensification of the economic changes, the affirmation of the urban power in the frame of the decentralisation of the State and the transformation of the culture in phenomenon of masses stimulate the urban tourism. Today, all the cities attack political tourist and the tourism is one of the principal worries of the persons in charge of the local management..

Second homes and residential tourism like generating of urbaization and new territorial imbalances in Cantabria

Viñas, C.D. 2008, Vivienda secundaria y turismo residencial como agentes de urbanización y segregación territorial en Cantabria Vol 12 side .

The purpose of this analysis, which is part of a much broader project, is to contribute to better understanding of the current processes of urban sprawl and the territorial effects which is inducing the spread of second homes. The study was done from observation of a particular case, the Cantabrian Autonomous Community, which has great similarities with the general pattern, but also quite a few distinctive features. A hurried process of expansion and dispersion of second homes is taking place in the Cantabrian Region; this process is causing an important real estate-residential phenomenon. The objective of my analysis and reflection is to show the territorial changes that are taking place so much in the coastal regions, where the phenomenon has happened before and with more intensity, like in the mountainous heartland areas, where the process is more recent and less aggressive. Qualitative inequalities are superposed to the quantitative differences and it is obligatory to stand out as much that significant specificities, new resistances and imbalances exist on regional as local scale, in spite of the common characteristics of many of the dynamic ones that affect these territories. © Copyright Scripta Nova, 2008..

Journey into parenthood: Commodification of reproduction as a new tourism niche market

Voigt, C.L., J. H. 2010, Journal of Travel and Tourism Marketing Vol 27 side 252-268.

This article examines the phenomenon of viewing life cycle stages associated with reproduction as commodities, and how this has paved the way for developing and marketing new tourism products and experiences. It traces the genesis of this trend and provides a conceptual review of this development by way of four examples-"babymoons," hotel baby programs, reproductive tourism, and procreation tourism programs. It argues that parents-to-be and new parents form a new tourism niche market, and that these new products occupy the moral boundary of tourism marketing-packaging up previously sacred and non-commodified events for tourist consumption. © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC..

Some characteristics of rural tourism in the region of Istria from 1999 to 2003

Vojnović, N. 2005, Neka obilježja ruralnog turizma Istarske županije od 1999. Do 2003 Vol 18 side 80-102.

The paper analyses the phenomenon, development and distribution of rural tourism facilities in the Region of Istria in the period from 1999 to 2003, as well as their position in relation to cities and coastal tourist centers. This phenomenon has been considered on the territory of nine cities and thirty municipalities and their belonging statistical urban areas. In the mentioned period, the number of rural tourist households grew from the original 13 complexes in 1999, to 155 in 2003. In the same period, the number of beds increased from 108 to 1450. The households and beds have been growing at the rate of about thirty percent a year. This phenomenon has affected nearly the whole region. The greatest number of complexes and beds is recorded in the municipalities nearest to the cities of Pula and Poreč, and only half of the entire accommodation capacity is located in municipalities and cities that are not near the coast. Due to the configuration of the territory, the most suitable area for the development of rural tourism is the northern and the central part of the region. This area had only 10 rural tourist complexes at the end of 2003. The distance from the coast gradually decreased in the studied period and reached 12,3 kilometers in the end. Rural households closer to the sea than this were at an average distance of 5,5 kilometers, and made up for half of the complexes and beds of the region. The distance from the cities at the end of 2003 was 14,2 kilometers. Rural households farther than this were located at an average distance of 20,3 kilometers. The largest number of beds in rural tourism can be found in the wider area of the cities of Pula and Poreč, making up for almost 50% of the total number of facilities and beds. According to the stated indicators we have two zones or areas of rural tourism that can be singled out in the region of Istria. The first area of rural tourism encompasses parts of northern and central Istria where tourism is based on its underlying attractiveness, with no connection to the urban and coastal contents. The second area encompasses the coastal and adjacent municipalities where rural tourism can be combined with the contents offered by urban tourism with events and bathing resort..

A comparison of Canadian and Chinese university students' travel motivations

Wang, X.W., G. J. 2010, Leisure/ Loisir Vol 34 side 279-293.

Although student travel is an important global phenomenon, few cross-cultural studies have examined this topic. Thus, this study examines Chinese (n = 352) and Canadian (n = 295) university students with respect to three questions: (1) are there similarities and differences in their travel motivations?; (2) are "escaping" motivations more important than "seeking" motivations? and (3) to what extent do gender and culture affect students' travel motivations? Analyses indicated that five of seven motivations (achievement, being different and new, risk-taking, learning and escape personal-social and physical pressures) differed significantly between Canadians and Chinese. Escaping was not significantly more important than seeking, and although the interaction between culture and gender was not significant, gender alone was significant for five of the seven motivations (learning, similar people, family togetherness, being different and new and risk-taking). Overall, this study examines the cross-cultural applicability of recreation experience preference scales and provides several recommendations for tourism practitioners. © 2010 Canadian Association for Leisure Studies..

Examining the nature and dynamics of At-destination recommendations: The local experts' perspective

Wang, Y.S., D.; Rompf, P. 2006, Journal of Hospitality and Leisure Marketing Vol 13 side 139-160.

At-destination referrals from local experts play a critical and complementary role in information sourcing and venue decision strategies by visitors of a destination. This context-specific form of word-of-moulh communication is widely practiced, yet remains an under-researched phenomenon when taking into consideration the broad range of locals utilized by visitors when making at-destination decisions on travel-related services. Most word-of-mouth studies have examined its influence on consumer's purchase behavior, but few attempts have been made to investigate the local experts' perspective. This exploratory study attempts to contribute to the understanding of the phenomenon from the local experts' perspective from two aspects: (1) examining the nature and significance of at-destination recommendations; and (2) developing and testing a motivational construct of locals making recommendations. The results provide further evidence of a broad range of residents within a community being involved in the provision of venue information and direct property referrals. A test of motivational scale items reveals that five themes emerge as the underlying constructs driving the local experts' referral behavior. Discussion and implications are also provided based on the study results. © 2005 by The Haworth Press, Inc. All rights reserved..

Contemporary tourism heritage as heritage tourism Evidence from Las Vegas and Gold Coast

Weaver, D.B. 2011, Annals of Tourism Research Vol 38 side 249-267.

Four categories of contemporary tourism heritage were identified in this exploratory study of Las Vegas (Nevada, USA) and Gold Coast (Queensland, Australia) based on location, originality and scale: (1) in situ representations that memorialize tourism and related phenomena through plaques, statues and/or festivals, (2) ex situ original items displayed and interpreted in museums, (3) in situ original nodes represented by preserved hotels and other facilities, and (4) in situ original corridors represented by preserved tourism strips. All are only partially articulated as heritage tourism, though potential for elaboration derives from its authenticity within tourism cities, its serious and interesting character, possibilities for accurate presentation due to artefact survival and personal experience, and the potential for current examples as foundations. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd..

A display of candy in an open jar: Portraying sexualised labour in the hospitality industry using expressive phenomenology as methodology

Wijesinghe, G. 2009, Tourism and Hospitality, Planning and Development Vol 6 side 133-143.

Scholars argue that there is a need for more qualitative research geared towards theory building to be employed in the study of tourism and hospitality phenomena in order for the knowledge within this field to progress further. The aim of this paper is to discuss the usefulness of this phenomenological study to advance knowledge in the field of tourism and hospitality. The paper introduces the expressive phenomenological research framework as a useful methodology to investigate real life experiences of practitioners and to gain plausible insights into their experiences. Expressive phenomenology which is a qualitative approach uses language to portray what an experience is like and to interpret its meaning in order to arrive at an in-depth understanding of the experience. This study outlines six steps that can be used to apply expressive phenomenology to a research inquiry. An illustrative example of how these steps are applied to an episode of practice from the hospitality industry is given. The example that is chosen here is a typical and significant episode relating to sexualised labour in the hospitality industry. A strong element in this experience is the way in which the hotel implicitly sexualises the receptionist-guest experience. Phenomenology is especially useful in studying this practitioner experience as there appear to be no "real-life stories" from the front desk that portray the experience of reception work in a scholarly way. The insights gained from this experience have implications for advancing research addressing sexual harassment in the workplace. The paper concludes by highlighting the importance of phenomenological studies to advance knowledge in the field of tourism and hospitality. © 2009 Taylor & Francis..

Measures against child sex tourism

Winkler, A. 2006, Maßnahmen gegen kindersextourismus Vol 46 side 305-329.

Child prostitution and child sex tourism represent serious problems for the worldwide tourism industry. In spite of the international efforts of those concerned, child prostitution is still rampant in many tourist destinations. The article focuses on explaining the background of this phenomenon, on illustrating measures to counteract it such as a code of conduct for the tourism industry, on the implementation of the code in various countries, and on analysing the results and challenges. The code turned out to be a practical and effective tool to create a broad awareness in both the tourist countries of origin and destination. The strength of the code is that it encourages a multisectoral cooperation. Deficits have been identified in terms of cooperation between both the tourist countries of origin and of destination, particularly with regard to the voluntary commitment of tourism industry to integrate this code in their policies..

Understanding ASEAN tourism collaboration - the preconditions and policy framework formulation

Wong, E.P.Y.M., N.; Dwyer, L. 2010, International Journal of Tourism Research Vol 12 side 291-302.

Intergovernmental collaboration in tourism among ASEAN nations has received little attention in the literature despite the significant contribution that tourism makes in the region. This paper helps improve our understanding of the phenomenon by providing empirical evidence that explains the preconditions that gave rise to ASEAN tourism and the formulation of its policy framework. It is suggested that, to truly realise the vision of economic integration and sustainable tourism development, continuous efforts are required to establish, promote and protect the common interests of member countries. Policy-makers should also strive for a good balance between pragmatism and mechanism when implementing policies. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd..

A framework for analyzing intergovernmental collaboration - The case of ASEAN tourism

Wong, E.P.Y.M., N.; Dwyer, L. 2011, Tourism Management Vol 32 side 367-376.

Intergovernmental collaboration in tourism among ASEAN nations has received little attention in the literature despite the significant economic contribution that tourism makes in the region. This paper helps to improve our understanding of the phenomenon by providing an overview of the progress made since 2002, and exploring the factors that facilitated and hindered progress. It was found that many of the suggested measures in the action plan, 'Roadmap for Integration of Tourism Sector', were either not implemented at all or are overdue, although relatively significant progress was made in travel facilitation and human resources development. The authors suggest that current theories of collaboration do not adequately explain the patterns of ASEAN tourism. The paper seeks to expand the boundaries of theory by presenting a framework of collaboration which dissects the facilitators and inhibitors along three dimensions: stakeholders, resources, and processes and mechanisms. Recommendations to expedite and strengthen the collaboration are then formulated. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd..

Destination Ireland: an ancestral and emotional connection for the American tourist

Wright, A.S. 2009, Journal of Tourism and Cultural Change Vol 7 side 22-33.

The direction of the research in this paper is dictated by the particular characteristics attaching to the special relationship that exists between Ireland and the USA. In order to understand the complexities that govern the motivating factors underlying American tourist interest in Ireland, this research examines the singular historical, psychological, emotional, and connectional dimensions that will afford us the knowledge from which deductible theories, conclusions, and recommendations can be extracted. This paper, therefore, seeks to outline the historical framework governing the development of the relationship between the USA and Ireland, and identifies the historical, ancestral, emotional, and connectional factors that bind the two nations. This research presents new empirical findings on the American tourist's quest for ancestral tangibility in destination Ireland. Destination Ireland is marketed in a highly competitive environment and the future of the Irish tourism industry will inevitably be dependent on the ability of tourism industry managers to deliver new viable options and motivations to travel to Ireland. A significant finding in this current research suggests that the development of an ancestral product would address this requirement in the market place..

From chaos to cohesion-Complexity in tourism structures: An analysis of New Zealand's regional tourism organizations

Zahra, A.R., C. 2007, Tourism Management Vol 28 side 854-862.

This paper discusses chaos theory and provides a brief description of chaos and complexity theory. It notes past applications in tourism research with specific reference to the work of Russell and Faulkner relating to Australia's Gold Coast. In this paper, the concept is discussed with reference to regional tourism organizations in New Zealand. Both cases provide examples of complexity, attractors and dampeners, and feedback loops that limit change. It is suggested that one important contribution of chaos and complexity theory is that it provides a language to help identify the components of, and change within, a social system. The paper concludes that inherent in a complex system lies the notion that truly complex social phenomena embrace the linear, stable and predictable along with change, the dynamic, new, and unpredictable and even symbolic meaning. © 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved..

Reflections on the research process: The researcher as actor and audience in the world regional tourist organisations

Zahra, A.R., C. 2005, Current Issues in Tourism Vol 8 side .

In an investigation of Regional Tourist Organisations (RTOs) in New Zealand the role and nature of research has been considered with reference to underlying epistemologies and paradigms. RTOs are not simple functional organisations with their sole aim being the promotion of tourism; they are subject to political processes, uncertainty and the influences of key personalities or the lack thereof. Consequently the researcher begins to exercise power as a conduit of information and as a source of knowledge, which factors in themselves require reflection about the multi-paradigmatic nature of such social science research. This paper examines approaches to tourism research within the context of a study of RTOs to illustrate the complexities of tourism research. It will be argued that no one research methodology or paradigm will accommodate the research phenomena and thus a multi-paradigmatic and bricoleur approach is preferable. © 2005 A. Zahra & C. Ryan..

Danger and opportunity in Katima Mulilo: A Namibian border boomtown at transnational crossroads

Zeller, W. 2009, Journal of Southern African Studies Vol 35 side 133-154.

Rapid construction of new 'transport corridors' across the SADC region is supposed to facilitate the free flow of commodities, tourism and investment between 'valuable places' in Southern Africa and global markets. Since the opening of a road bridge across the Zambezi in 2004, Katima Mulilo has become a busy stopover point along the Trans Caprivi Corridor (TCC), which links the Copperbelt of Zambia with Namibia's sea port of Walvis Bay. The new transport route has at last fulfilled the colonial dream that motivated the Anglo-German exchange of territory, which originally established the 'access corridor to the Zambezi' in 1890. Katima's current investment boom seems to give substance to the SWAPO government's official agenda of 'bringing development' to Caprivi, nearly a decade after an armed insurgency attempted its secession. But beyond the apparent success story, Katima Mulilo's boom is illustrative of a broader reconfiguration of the nature of state sovereignty, engendered by two distinct but interrelated processes. One of these processes changes the nature of state sovereignty from 'above'. The TCC is a space for global business and transnational governance over which the Namibian state authorities have de facto limited sovereignty. The other process changes state sovereignty from 'below'. It is manifest in the flourishing of illegal business activities in the Namibia-Zambia borderland, sprawling shanty towns and other societal phenomena that challenge SWAPO's idealised development agenda. The combined dynamics of opportunity for more-or-less legal private gain, on the one hand, and looming societal instability that accompany Katima Mulilo's current boom, on the other, continue the historical pattern of Caprivi as a site that threatens to colonise the centre of the state from its territorial and social margins..