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Strategic branding of destinations: a framework

2009, European Journal of Marketing Vol 43 side 611-629.

Travel and tourism is the second largest global industry with daily international revenues of approximately US$2 billion, and investments of 12 percent of world GDP. Though this is a highly competitive industry, there is a paucity of academic research on destination branding. This paper aims to present a branding framework for designing successful destination strategies. This exploratory study seeks to determine key factors that affect the strategic branding of destinations. Similar fields like place marketing, destination marketing, services, product and corporate branding were reviewed along with destination case studies. Based on this review and its extrapolation to the destination context, a framework for strategic branding of destinations was formulated. Successful strategic branding of destinations is dependent on several inter-related components, which are discussed. The paper highlights key issues in destination branding and provides a platform for future research. The value of the paper is high as it provides a practical framework for governing bodies to consider when investing time, money and effort when creating a global destination..

Electronic community factories: the model and its application in the tourism sector

Akoumianakis, D. , Electronic Commerce Research Vol 10 side 43-81.

The electronic community factory (ECF) is proposed as an archetype for value creating cross-organization virtual communities of practice in which members engage actively and through domain-specific tools in the practice the community is about. In an ECF the reason for building the community is to appropriate the benefits of virtual networking for developing new products of added-value and collective ownership. In terms of engineering an ECF, the normative perspective adopted is that community management is distinctively different from engaging in the practice the community is about. Respectively, the tools needed for each function should embody this philosophy and be designed accordingly. The paper elaborates on the concept of the ECF and demonstrates its value through a pilot in regional tourism. Virtual ethnographic studies provide insights to operational aspects of the ECF and how it fosters community and practice management. Collectively, the results reported in the paper constitute an alternative model for community-based electronic commerce suitable for value-creating cross organization virtual communities of practice engaging in high quality product assembly in information based industries. [PUBLICATION ABSTRACT].

Evaluating the Adoption and Use of Internet-based Marketing Information Systems to Improve Marketing Intelligence (The Case of Tourism SMEs in Jordan)

Al-allak, B. , International Journal of Marketing Studies Vol 2 side 87-101.

The study investigates the nature of marketing information systems within tourism small- and medium- sized enterprises and focuses on the usefulness of the Internet for external information gathering. The findings indicate that tourism SMEs make use of informal marketing information systems which concentrate on immediate operating data at the expense of external data, and that the Internet has not yet been recognized as an important source for marketing intelligence despite having the benefits of providing much of the necessary data for good decision- making more quickly and at a lower cost compared with many other sources. The study identifies obstacles and challenges that reduce the uptake of the Internet, and suggests practical solutions. [PUBLICATION ABSTRACT].

Tourist expenditure and quality: Why repeat tourists can spend less than first-timers

Alegre, J.C., M. 2010, Tourism Economics Vol 16 side 517-533.

In the tourism and marketing literature, repeat visitation/repeat purchasing is assumed to be desirable behaviour. However, consumer expenditure might decrease with purchase repetition. Thus, expenditure by repeat visitors could actually be lower than that of first-timers. This result can be explained using limited information models and consumers' perceptions of prices as a signal of product/service quality. This paper estimates the effect that quality as a motivation may have on tourist expenditure, distinguishing between first-time and repeat visitors. The hypothesis is that quality as a motivation has a higher positive effect on tourist expenditure for first-timers than it does for repeat visitors. It is more likely for new visitors to regard higher prices as a signal of higher quality than repeat visitors, given their greater uncertainty about the characteristics of the destination..

Tourism as a mixed industry: Differences between private, public and not-for-profit festivals

Andersson, T.D.G., D. 2009, Tourism Management Vol 30 side 847-856.

This paper discusses important policy and management implications of tourism as a mixed industry in which public, not-for-profit, and private organisations such as festivals both compete and collaborate in creating the tourist product. To illustrate, four samples of festivals from the UK, Australia, Norway and Sweden are systematically compared in terms of their ownership, governance, structure, and content. Although the festivals offered a similar product and had similar mandates, they differed considerably in terms of revenue sources, cost structure, use of volunteers, corporate sponsorship, and decision-making. These differences are potentially important to destinations that view festivals as attractions and use them in place marketing. Implications are drawn for festival management and tourism policy, and recommendations are made for extending this line of inquiry to the tourism industry as a whole. © 2008..

Toward a product-based typology for nature-based tourism: A conceptual framework

Arnegger, J.W., M.; Job, H. , Journal of Sustainable Tourism Vol 18 side 915-928.

The traditional view of nature-based tourists as a relatively homogeneous group has been questioned, and several scholars have suggested various segmentation typologies. This paper discussesmarket and industry changes and notes key trends, as Fordist tourist products have been replaced by post-Fordist and neo-Fordist products, with both Mc-Donaldization and McDisneyization developments. A range of visitor-based typologies are reviewed, and the conflict between capturing the diversity of today's nature-based tourists while offering management bodies simple tools to segment visitors, identify core groups and improve their marketing is noted. In an attempt to overcome this conflict, the paper presents a conceptual framework which focuses on nature-based tourism products instead of tourist types, therefore incorporating aspects of both the demand and supply sides of the nature-based tourism industry market. A two-dimensional matrix is suggested, linking four basic travel motivations (nature conservation, nature experience, sports/adventure and hedonistic) to four different types of tourist products (independent, à la carte, customized and standardized), giving a total typology of 16 different types. The matrix should help protected area managers to better understand tourist needs, suggest management measures and help to create more sustainable forms of tourism. Empirical testing is suggested as a next step. © 2010 Taylor & Francis..

Entering scapeland: yoga, fell and post-sport physical cultures

Atkinson, M. , Sport in Society Vol 13 side 1249-1267.

In this paper, I draw on ethnographic data collected among Ashtanga yoga practitioners in Canada and fell runners in the United Kingdom as a means of discussing the lived phenomenological experience of ?scapelands?, and post-sport lifestyles. 1 The men and women with whom I participate in these athletic ?heterotopias? share incredibly similar penchants for being projected into athletic contexts of existential throwness as a response to late-modern boundary-crossing tendencies.2 In particular, they share preferences for entire physical cultural styles of life which consciously subvert the idea that health, movement and athletics are merely technological or rational modernist ?things?. As interpreted through the lens of intertwined post-structuralist theories in this paper, fell-running and Ashtanga practitioners purposefully immerse themselves into the loosely defined wilderness of the outdoors, or wilderness of the meditative mind. ? la Foucault, their participation in the respective sporting scapelands becomes a lifestyle technique for engaging alternative ethics of self care in boundary crossing, and boundary imploding, societies.3.

Luxury brand marketing - The experience is everything!

Atwal, G.W., Alistair 2009, Journal of Brand Management Vol 16 side 338-346.

Although the definition of a 'luxury' brand is open for debate, the natural evolution of luxury, with luxury brands first being adopted by the affluent and wealthy before inevitably being translated and reinterpreted down to mass markets, raises new challenges for marketing strategists. Luxury brands need to stay in front of luxury consumers, through the discovery of new and different ways to give expression to their desires. This paper discusses the fundamental difference between communication and connection, and identifies a means of assuring the greatest long-term success for luxury marketers by connecting with the luxury consumer using brand-related experiences. [PUBLICATION ABSTRACT].

Collaborative innovation in tourism: managing virtual communities

Baglieri, D.C., R. 2009, TQM Journal Vol 21 side 353-364.

Purpose - This paper seeks to focus on the role of virtual communities as a means to boost tourist product innovation by leveraging customer relationships. Its purpose is to offer a deeper and clear-cut understanding of the collaborative innovation paradigm in order to analyze its impact on tourism firm management. Design/methodology/approach - First, previous work in tourist innovation and the role of lead users as a source of learning are examined. Then, virtual communities and their development process are explored. Last, the case of CTS's virtual community, an Italian-based tour operator firm is analyzed. Strategic and managerial implications conclude the paper. Findings - Data and insights gathered from interviews lead one to suggest that tourism firms may strategically leverage virtual communities to build strong customer relationships; customers may provide useful information on their needs; and collaborative innovation is a useful lens to take into account internet opportunities and customers' knowledge. Research limitations/implications - The main limitation of the study is that the findings cannot be extended to the other industries. The approach has been to compare only the collaborative innovation schemes with tourism industry. Originality/value - Despite a number of limitations, the work offers a deeper picture on how virtual communities may be managed strategically in order to enhance quality and product innovation. It also presents managerial implications since managers may put in practice the planning and managing model of online communities successfully. [PUBLICATION ABSTRACT].

Critical success factors in destination marketing

Baker, M.J.C., Emma 2008, Tourism and Hospitality Research Vol 8 side 79-97.

As a consequence of globalization, the marketing of places has grown in importance as countries, regions and individual destinations compete with one another to attract investment and visitors. In order to compete effectively, it is essential to identify the critical success factors (CSFs) and ensure these are incorporated into one's strategic planning. An extensive review of the literature covering place and destination marketing indicates that image and identity play an important role in differentiating between objectively similar alternatives. Accordingly, the branding of destinations has become of major importance and is analyzed in depth. Thirty-three factors are identified, clustered into four categories, that may be considered CSFs to be taken into account when developing tourism strategies and plans. [PUBLICATION ABSTRACT].

Strategic branding of destinations: A framework

Balakrishnan, M.S. 2009, European Journal of Marketing Vol 43 side 611-629.

Purpose: Travel and tourism is the second largest global industry with daily international revenues of approximately US$2 billion, and investments of 12 percent of world GDP. Though this is a highly competitive industry, there is a paucity of academic research on destination branding. This paper aims to present a branding framework for designing successful destination strategies. This exploratory study seeks to determine key factors that affect the strategic branding of destinations. Design/methodology/approach: Similar fields like place marketing, destination marketing, services, product and corporate branding were reviewed along with destination case studies. Based on this review and its extrapolation to the "destination context", a framework for strategic branding of destinations was formulated. Findings: Successful strategic branding of destinations is dependent on several inter-related components, which are discussed. The paper highlights key issues in destination branding and provides a platform for future research. Originality/value: The value of the paper is high as it provides a practical framework for governing bodies to consider when investing time, money and effort when creating a global destination. © Emerald Group Publishing Limited..

Wine consumers information search: Gender differences and implications for the hospitality industry

Barber, N. 2009, Tourism and Hospitality Research Vol 9 side 250-269.

Marketing has always looked for new ways to sell consumer products or enhance loyalty, and in this consumer-driven economy, it is important to look for effective ways to market products. This study examines the relationship of market segmentation and consumer characteristics, in particular, product knowledge and gender differences during purchase decisions. By segmenting consumers in this manner, it is possible to better understand their concerns and motivations, which should aid wine producers and those in the hospitality industry, such as restaurants, and retailers in directing their marketing and advertising efforts. Using wine as the product for this study, the results indicate that men have greater actual and self-assessed wine knowledge compared with women. Yet, men use limited sources of information during purchase situations; thus, with the proper staff training and target marketing strategies, market share and brand loyalty could increase by focusing on men as wine consumers. ©2009 Palgrave Macmillan..

Maverick's: big-wave surfing and the dynamic of ‘nothing’ and ‘something’

Beal, B.S., Maureen Margaret , Sport in Society Vol 13 side 1102-1116.

In this piece we explore one specific big-wave company, Mavericks Surf Ventures, and how it creates and distributes a distinct lifestyle product. We draw from Ritzer, who examines the tension in late capitalist processes between increased rationalization and increased distinction, or what he refers to as the dynamic between ?nothing? and ?something?. We elaborate on the dynamic by discussing Ritzer and Stillman's analysis of ?re-enchantment? techniques that are used to counter the negative ramifications of overly rationalized consumer spaces. Nonetheless, these new spectacular, more intimate and ?authentic? postmodern spaces, which re-engage the consumer, are under-girded by modern rationalization strategies to maximize profit. In this case, Mavericks Surf Ventures exemplifies the tensions in late-modern capitalist processes: it creates a distinctive and ?authentic? brand by drawing on the unique geographical break; it celebrates the spectacle of big-wave riding; and it uses discourses that challenge modern rationality, especially how nature provides a transcendent experience. Yet, it uses very rational and standardized means to package and distribute the event and associated products..

Recreating heritage in the Southwest of Scotland

Bhandari, K. , Current Issues in Tourism Vol 14 side 669-683.

This paper studies the role of heritage tourism in the creation of uniform identity. The recently developed heritage tourism products in the southwest of Scotland are encouraging the promotion of the dominant heritage of Scotland, largely marginalizing the regional one. This paper examines the cases of the heritage of Robert the Bruce that stresses Scotland's militaristic tradition, the eventful organisation of the Border Gathering which showcases Highland culture and the marginalisation of the Covenanting heritage of the region. The data are gathered through a questionnaire survey, in-depth interview, non-participant observation, archival records and other secondary sources. It shows how tourism is gearing towards recreating and establishing heritage which is largely new to the region. The paper argues that the promotion of dominant heritage is meaningfully directed towards forming a uniform and homogenous identity. The introduction of the dominant heritage in the region is important because it encourages commonality within Scotland, which plays an enormous part in advancing Scottish nationalism. This study helps us understand how tourism can be a medium to advance a nationalistic message. © 2011 Taylor & Francis..

Size matters! Increasing DMO effectiveness and extending tourism destination boundaries

Bieger, T.B., P.; Laesser, C. 2009, Tourism Vol 57 side 309-327.

In traditional community type of destinations, destination management organizations (DMOs) provide local services for visitors and fulfill destination marketing functions. On the demand side, they focus their activities on image and reputation building, product bundling and sales and distribution management. On the supply side, they are involved in various functions like information services, coordination among the tourist SME's, infrastructure operation or support as well as destination planning functions. Traditionally these local DMOs, often to be found in mature tourism destinations, are organized as more or less public administrations and authorities or as public-private-partnerships, mostly covering the territory and being responsible for services in one or more municipalities. As traditional community type of destinations have to compete with company type of destinations like resorts, theme parks or even cruise boats, the respective DMOs have to transform themselves into modem, market oriented service centers. The current challenges require a critical budget and product-oriented regions, with a rather centralized marketing and management. Therefore, the reach and boundaries of destination areas must be evaluated and in many cases redefined. With the aim of deepening the understanding of destinations economics and delivering a structure for analyzing and organizing destination functions, this paper analyses the criteria for defining the boundaries of destinations and consequently budgets for the respective DMOs by looking at the case of the Swiss canton of Grisons. The conceptual paper is based on a single case study and demonstrates the link between type of destination and its life cycle position with its DMOs tasks, activities and budgets..

Destination branding: Insights and practices from destination management organizations

Blain, C.L., S. E.; Ritchie, J. R. B. 2005, Journal of Travel Research Vol 43 side 328-338.

Although the concept of branding has been applied extensively to products and services, tourism destination branding is a relatively recent phenomenon. In particular, destination branding remains narrowly defined to many practitioners in destination management organizations (DMOs) and is not well represented in the tourism literature. Consequently, this study has three goals. First, it attempts to review the conceptual and theoretical underpinnings of branding as conveyed by leading authors in the marketing field. Second, it seeks to refine and enhance the definition of destination branding (acceptable to and understood by tourism destination managers) to more fully represent the complexities of the tourism product. Third, and most importantly, it seeks to improve our understanding of current destination branding practices among DMOs. The findings indicate that although DMO executives generally understand the concept of destination branding, respondents are implementing only selective aspects of this concept, particularly logo design and development. © 2005 Sage Publications..

Identifying rural tourism markets: A practical tool

Cai, L.A.L., J.; Huang, Z. 2008, Journal of Hospitality and Leisure Marketing Vol 17 side 418-434.

Product attributes of rural tourism are inherently green, and have the potential to appeal to the increasingly overstretched consumers who are in search for a personalized response to their need for physical, emotional, and social appreciation in a simpler environment. The same consumers also become more independent, involved, and discriminatory in the destination selection process. Despite their rich green assets, rural communities face marketing challenges in both financial and human resource terms in the highly competitive tourism marketplace. This study introduces a five-step practical tool that rural destinations can affordably use to engage in a critical marketing task of identifying viable segments of driving market. The tool was developed by applying the geographic concepts of distance decay and clock directions to examine the tourists' movement from their generating places to a rural destination. The tool's validity was statistically tested in exponential, logarithm, inverse, and cubic regressions. The study addressed a practical need for rural communities to gain a greater benefit from consumer demands for green products and services, and illustrates the importance of understanding the tourists' movement patterns in developing effective marketing programs. © 2008 by The Haworth Press..

Managing induced tourism image: Relational patterns and the life cycle

Camprubí, R.G., J.; Comas, J. 2009, Tourism Vol 57 side 241-258.

The tourism image is an element that conditions the competitiveness of tourism destinations by making them stand out in the minds of tourists. In this context, marketers of tourism destinations endeavour to create an induced image based on their identity and distinctive characteristics. A number of authors have also recognized the complexity of tourism destinations and the need for coordination and cooperation among all tourism agents, in order to supply a satisfactory tourist product and be competitive in the tourism market. Therefore, tourism agents at the destination need to develop and integrate strategic marketing plans. The aim of this paper is to determine how cities of similar cultures use their resources with the purpose of developing a distinctive induced tourism image to attract tourists and the extent of coordination and cooperation among the various tourism agents of a destination in the process of induced image creation. In order to accomplish these aims, a comparative analysis of the induced image of two cultural cities is presented, Girona (Spain) and Perpignan (France). The induced image is assessed through the content analysis of promotional brochures and the extent of cooperation with in-depth interviews of the main tourism agents of these destinations. Despite the similarities of both cities in terms of tourism resources, results show the use of different attributes to configure the induced image of each destination, as well as a different configuration of the network of tourism agents that participate in the process of induced image creation..

Press media coverage effects on destinations - A Monetary Public Value (MPV) analysis

Castelltort, M.M., G. 2010, Tourism Management Vol 31 side 724-738.

The present study examines the extent, source and nature of reporting about Spain as a tourist destination among Swiss German language newspapers. By testing a method based on the Monetary Publicity Value (MPV) the media coverage is quantified in order to arrive at a positive image of Spain among German Swiss print press. Results confirm that: a) familiarization-trips account for an important volume of positive news; b) culture and travel news are predominantly positive, a trend not pointed out by journalist researchers because generally they focus mainly on political or disaster reporting; c) effectiveness of destination image management among print media can be measured and therefore targeted. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd..

Technological advancements and change in management of tourism destination organizations

Cetinkaya, A.S. 2009, International Journal of Knowledge, Culture and Change Management Vol 9 side .

A tourism destination is a marketplace in which many different companies, large and small,compete against each other and at the same time collaborate in a restricted space. The products and services provided by individual tourism companies constitute a multi-optional offer for tourists. Guests are able to choose from a variety of products and services for such tourism functions as accommodation and catering. While the tourism companies are competing each other, individual suppliers are forced to work together at the level of the destination. Initially, they delegated the promotional activities for the destination to the local tourism organisation. The classical tourist offices are the oldest form of vertical co-operation in tourism. In many countries Destination Management Organisations (DMOs)form a hierarchical network. Traditionally, these DMOs focus on destination internal tasks such as monitoring, planning, support in product creation and education as well as external tasks such as promotion and marketing. Yet, the diffusion of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT),and especially the enormous spread of the internet, enabled and encouraged DMOs to extend their activities by means of e-business. Following the remarks from above, destinations are some kind of virtual enterprises which require a lot of internal coordination and networking, apart from their external marketing oriented activities. Initially, DMOs' limited their online tasks to marketing. This is deemed no longer sufficient as the consumer, once identified the proper product or service, and wants to book it. In many countries tourist boards are not in the legal position to do that. In order to overcome these limitations, tourist boards set up partnerships with private companies, or their own companies dedicated to these tasks. However, this raises the question of a changed financial model and competition with private companies performing similar tasks. This descriptive study seeks to determine the radical changes occurring in the management of DMOs due to the technological improvements in a theoretical framework. © Common Ground..

The effectiveness of environmental claims for services advertising

Chan, R.Y.K.L., T. K. P.; Wong, Y. H. 2006, Journal of Services Marketing Vol 20 side 233-250.

Purpose - The purpose of this study is to explore how different types of environmental claims may affect the communication effectiveness of environmental advertising. Two two moderating variables include the perceived eco-friendly image of the originating country and consumer involvement. Design/methodology/approach - The examination involves the analysis of the responses of 1,200 subjects in Shanghai, China, to mock advertisements containing environmental claims using a 2 × 3 factorial design. Findings - Environmental claims enhance the communication effectiveness of advertisements for both high- and low-involvement services. For highinvolvement services, substantive environmental claims generate more favorable attitudinal responses than do associative environmental claims. Research limitations/implications - This research focused on a single Chinese city and on two service categories with contrasting degrees of involvement. While such a confinement can enhance the internal validity of the findings, their external validity has yet to be established. Pra ctical implications - These findings suggest that marketers should adopt a situational perspective by taking into account environmental claim type, country disposition, the degree of environmental consciousness of their target consumers, and service type when designing their environmental advertising campaigns. Originality/value - Although a number of previous studies have focused on the application of environmental claims to advertise products, similar investigation into how these claims may help advertise services is virtually non-existent. In this respect, the present study can be viewed as the first empirical work devoted to closing this research gap..

Activity-based segmentation of Canadian domestic pleasure travelers to New Brunswick

Choi, H.S.C.M., I.; Kwan, K. 2011, International Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Administration Vol 12 side 202-224.

The purpose of the study was to conduct a distinctive analysis for segmenting the New Brunswick travel market through empirical examination. Data was obtained from the Consumer Interests, Motivators and Attitudes (CIMA) Surveys conducted by the New Brunswick Ministry of Tourism and Parks. This study examined the travel characteristics, benefits sought from travel to New Brunswick, intention to revisit, interest in various travel activities when traveling and sociodemographic characteristics of 655 visitors and nonvisitors from Quebec, Ontario, Nova Scotia, and Prince Edward Island. The results showed that the activity-based travelers are classified in three clusters: outdoor lovers, active explorers, and cultural shoppers. Statistically significant differences among three clusters were found in sociodemographic, travel pattern, activity participation, trip planning, and benefit-related variables. The study results indicated that activity was a viable basis for market segmentation and implications existed for product packaging, promotional strategies, and advertising strategies when attracting domestic pleasure travelers in Canada to New Brunswick. © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC..

Experiences as gifts: from process to model

Clarke, J. 2008, European Journal of Marketing Vol 42 side 365-389.

The purpose of this paper is to examine the giving and receiving of gifts that are experiences rather than physical goods, and to illuminate how the behavioral processes in the selection, exchange and consumption of such intangible gifts might differ from the generic understanding of gift giving. A trio of qualitative research methods - depth interviews, self-completion written instrument, and semi-structured telephone interviews - captured donor, recipient and industry expert perspectives, yielding a total of 189 real life incidents of experience gift exchange. The model of experience gift-giving behavior encapsulates the behavior of donors and recipients with sufficient flexibility to incorporate purchased, modified and donor-created experiences, differing donor decision-making styles, and immediate or delayed consumption. It is structured around the process stages of decision making, exchange, and post-exchange/consumption/post-consumption. The empirical evidence is drawn from the UK, and is biased towards close personal relationships and experience gifts of higher monetary value. Consumers in Western societies are actively giving gifts that are experiences. Greater understanding of their behavior in this marketplace - as evidenced in the paper - will enhance marketing practice for those service organizations recognising the gift potential of their products. This research is believed to be the first to examine the phenomenon of experiences as gifts - a theoretical contribution that starts to close the gap between real world consumer behavior and corresponding academic knowledge. [PUBLICATION ABSTRACT].

Different to 'dust collectors'? The giving and receiving of experience gifts

Clarke, J.R. 2006, Journal of Consumer Behaviour Vol 5 side 533-549.

Gift giving theory has evolved around the giving and receiving of physical goods, yet experiences as gifts are increasingly important in modern Western economies. This research generating data from consumer informants focuses exclusively on experiences. The donor, recipient, occasion and gift, and the three gift giving process stages provide a synthesising framework for the findings. The concepts of donor sacrifice of time and effort, alongside gift surprise emerge as especially pertinent to experience gift giving, and notions of sharing, suspense and recipient sacrifice reinforce the proposition that experience gifts are deserving of researcher effort to better understand the phenomenon. [PUBLICATION ABSTRACT].

A battle for control: exchanges of power in the subculture of snowboarding

Coates, E.C., B.; Humberstone, B. , Sport in Society Vol 13 side 1082-1101.

This article uses a Gramscian perspective to explore the subculture of snowboarding, suggesting that cultural power is both resisted and reproduced. It examines the impact of commercialization on a snowboarding subculture from a participant perspective, gained from semi-structured interviews with boarders and skiers at a resort in British Columbia, Canada. The paper discusses new ways that snowboarders differentiate themselves from wider sporting cultures, in addition to how they do not outrightly reject the ideologies of mainstream sport but instead attempt to involve themselves more in the snowboarding industry. Through linking themselves with traditionally non-snowboarding institutions and creating alternatives to them, snowboarders become actively involved in the organization of snowboarding..

RELATIONSHIP MARKETING IN THE TOURIST SERVICES SECTOR

Cosic, M.D., Milenko D. 2010, UTMS Journal of Economics Vol 1 side 53-60.

Marketing concept is widely applied in the contemporary conditions of business operations at the tourist market. However traditional marketing concept is more and more subjected to essential changes, firstly through strategic orientation of tourist companies and tourist destinations which are focused at developing relationships with potentional consumers as well as at maintaining and improving relationships with active consumers and stakeholders at the market.This paper is dealing with pointing out essential differences between traditional and relationship marketing, as well as analysing fields of activities in which key changes towards need for relationship marketing implementation are taking place and will take place. [PUBLICATION ABSTRACT].

Marketing practices and performance of small service firms: An examination in the tourism accommodation sector

Coviello, N.W., H.; Hamilton, K. 2006, Journal of Service Research Vol 9 side 38-58.

Marketing practices have been examined in many studies, yet the literature is dominated by a focus on larger firms offering a service that is often contractual or potentially continuous in nature. To contrast with this, the authors identify the practices of smaller firms likely to provide a noncontractual service and then test the link between marketing practices and firm performance. Results from 242 firms in the tourism accommodation sector indicate that success requires an emphasis on both transaction marketing and interaction-based relationship marketing to acquire customers and achieve sales growth. More contemporary practices such as database marketing, e-marketing, and network marketing are in evidence, but they are not found to influence performance. Furthermore, it is success with customer acquisition rather than customer retention that leads to profitability for these firms. The implications of these and other results are discussed and begin to provide a more balanced perspective to the literature. © 2006 Sage Publications..

Best practice marketing for regional tourism destinations

Cox, C.W., M. , Journal of Travel and Tourism Marketing Vol 28 side 524-540.

This article reports on destination marketing best practices from 21 regional destinations around Australia. The results advocate an integrative approach to destination marketing that aligns with destination management and development objectives. From this, a framework is developed, within which nine best practice principles are identified as essential to successful and sustainable marketing of regional destinations. The key initiatives used to achieve success are discussed in detail, highlighting the need for destination stakeholders to foster a cooperative and strategic approach and ensure consistent design and delivery of a destination brand and image which is supported by tactical advertising and promotional strategies, effective visitor information services, and events to support the destination brand and image to target appropriate visitor markets. © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC..

Joining the in-crowd: symbols for backpacker identity

Currie, R.R.C.-T., Tamara; Seaton, Sheilagh 2011, International Journal of Culture, Tourism and Hospitality Research Vol 5 side 47-56.

Purpose - The authors of this paper examine the role of the guidebook as a symbol and the implications of symbols in relation to tourist behaviors. The objective of the researchers is to determine if guidebooks act as a symbol for group identity within the backpacker community. Design/methodology/approach - The researchers conducted ten in-depth interviews in a Halifax youth hostel in Nova Scotia to collect data for analysis. The data obtained in this study is analyzed through a thematic analysis that involved grouping background information with the data that related to each criterion for a symbol. Findings - From the analysis of information obtained from the eight respondents, guidebooks accomplish three functions equivalent to the three criteria of symbols: facilitating communication, providing the basis for attitude development and acceptable modes of behavior, and facilitating collaboration and conformity of the group. Research limitations/implications - There are several limitations to this study that includes sample size, location, and time restrictions. Consequently, generalization of results beyond the specifics of this sample is limited. Originality/value - The subculture of backpackers is able to survive because the social interaction within the backpacker community preserves and develops the meaning of symbols. An examination into the symbolic meanings held by backpackers provides implications in predicting backpacker behaviors and destination marketing. [PUBLICATION ABSTRACT].

The tourist experience: Exploring the relationship between tourist satisfaction and destination loyalty

Da Costa Mendes, J.D.V., P. O.; Guerreiro, M. M.; Silva, J. A. 2010, Tourism Vol 58 side 111-126.

Previous studies show that the quality of the tourist experience is affected by a large set of factors, many of which not directly related to the acquisition of specific products or services. Research also shows that tourist satisfaction is a determinant of destination loyalty. This study explores this topic by empirically analysing how the relationship between the satisfaction with the tourist experience and destination loyalty is affected by personal factors, such as socio-demographic characteristics and travelling motivations. This study is based on a small region representing an important destination in Algarve, Portugal, and uses data from a survey conducted on tourists of different nationalities during peak season. We identify the reasons leading to dissatisfaction with the tourism experience and, based on structural equation modelling, ascertain the relationship between satisfaction levels with the tourism experience and tourist destination loyalty. Then, a multiple group analysis provides a detailed overview of this relationship by establishing in which groups of tourists the relatedness between satisfaction and destination loyalty is stronger or weaker. In this sense, this study provides an important backdrop for destination managers looking to offer more effective and targeted marketing strategies..

Photographic images, culture, and perception in tourism Aadvertising: A Q methodology study of Canadian and Chinese University students

Dewar, K.L., W. M.; Davis, C. H. 2007, Journal of Travel and Tourism Marketing Vol 22 side 35-44.

Different cultural groups perceive photographic images of travel products and destinations differently. This creates a challenge for tourism marketers, who need to communicate specific messages to specific groups. In this paper, we describe group-specific perceptions of photographic images of travel destinations among university students in Canada and China. Although most educated travelers in their twenties seem to be motivated primarily by novelty seeking and the experience of the unfamiliar, the cultural background of the traveler largely determines what is considered novel or unfamiliar. © 2007 by The Haworth Press, Inc. All rights reserved..

Management learning exercise and trainer's note for market segmentation in tourism

Dolnicar, S. 2007, International Journal of Culture, Tourism and Hospitality Research Vol 1 side 289-295.

This paper aims to show how researchers can develop learning exercises for training analysts and executives in market segmentation techniques. The empirical example of a tour operator specializing in adventure tourism is used as an illustration. Segments are constructed on the basis of tourists' stated willingness to pay a price premium for certain aspects of the tour. Stability analysis is conducted to choose the number of clusters, topology representing networks are used to construct segments and Bonferroni-corrected χ2 tests provide insight into the external validity of segments. Four market segments are constructed which differ significantly with respect to external variables. Market segmentation can be used by any entity in the tourism industry to select a suitable part of the entire market, customize the tourism service to suit such a segment, and spend marketing budget more efficiently by using communication channels and advertising messages most effective for the selected segment. Market segmentation provides managers with insight into market structure. Knowledge about the market structure, in turn, is the basis of successful strategic planning. While the concept of segmentation is not new, each application is unique to its context. The present paper focuses on price premium segments in the adventure tourism context. [PUBLICATION ABSTRACT].

Travel Agency Marketing Strategy: Insights from Switzerland

Dolnicar, S.L., Christian 2007, Journal of Travel Research Vol 46 side 133-146.

This article provides insight into alternative strategies for travel agencies in a matured travel market with a high Internet penetration. Discounting arguments that claim that there will be no need for travel agents in the future, two possible roles for travel agents can be derived from theory and prior studies in the field: travel agents can survive if they focus on specific specialized services, such as travel consultation (specialization; hypothesizing that systematic differences exist between the usage of travel agents for different travel contexts); and travel agents can survive if they focus on specific segments of the market, such as older travelers (segmentation; hypothesizing that systematic differences exist between the usage of travel agents depending on the personal characteristics of travelers). Results indicate that the use of travel agencies is indeed associated with specific services related to package holidays, transport services, beach or city holidays, as well as destinations travelers are not familiar with. In contrast, no clear association between travel agent use and sociodemographic characteristics of travelers exists. Hence, the findings from this study support the notion that the most promising future for travel agents will lie in specializing in travel contexts and travel components where other booking channels and media are unlikely to be able to offer a full substitute for travel agent services..

Storytelling research on international visitors

Drew, M.W., Arch G. 2011, Qualitative Market Research Vol 14 side 27-54.

Using brand netnography (analyzing consumers' first-person on-line stories that include discussions of their product and brand use), this article aims to probe how visitors interpret the places, people, and situations that they experience while traveling in Japan. Through analysis of online consumer stories about their trip experiences, Heider's balance theory is applied to visitors' trip experiences. Follow-up contact with the consumers allows application of autodriving methodology to gather additional post-trip insights. The results show immediate and downstream positive and negative associations of concepts, events, and outcomes in visitors' stories. Maps of consumer stories identify kernel concepts and include descriptions of how visitors live a specific destination's unique promises (e.g. distinct cultural history). Using the kernel concepts as a basis, Holt's five-step strategy for building icons is applied to the travel destination to show how a destination can create a brand identity. Bloggers reporting their travel experience may not be representative of the population of travelers. On the other hand, travel blogs potentially can influence trip planning by other visitors collecting travel information. Blog reports represent an unobtrusive method of collecting emic interpretive information from consumers. Emic reporting provides deep insights about consumers' trip interpretations. Tourism and hospitality managers can use this information to improve service experiences and design communication strategies to strengthen positive iconic imagery reported by consumers. Emic and etic interpretations of travel experiences create a bricolage of the travelers' experiences. Autodriving methodology is extended to tourism research to gather additional insights and to better clarify informants' interpretations. This article also expands on a revisionist proposal to Holt's five-step strategy for building destinations as iconic brands and suggestions for tourism management..

Commercialization and lifestyle sport: lessons from 20 years of freestyle BMX in ‘Pro-Town, USA’

Edwards, B.C., Ugo , Sport in Society Vol 13 side 1135-1151.

Recent research on lifestyle sport and commercialization reveals a problematic and complex relationship. The analysis presented here examines the development and impact of commercialization on a unique and influential local BMX scene over a 20-year period. Three forms of commercialization ? paraphernalia, movement and mass market ? are identified and their varying influences on the mobilization and development of this lifestyle sport are analysed. Findings reveal that lifestyle-sport insiders actively collaborate in each form of commercialization, especially movement commercialization which has the potential to build alternative lifestyle-sport institutions and resist adverse commercial influences. This research conceptualizes freestyle BMX as a social movement within the resource-mobilization perspective and relies upon a combination of direct and participant observation recorded through field notes and augmented by 25 in-depth interviews. The combination of analytical tools and methodological approach can help shed further light on the complex dynamics of commercialization in lifestyle sports..

Cultural heritage across borders? - Framing and challenging the Snapphane story in Southern Sweden

Eskilsson, L.H., E. 2009, Scandinavian Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Vol 9 side 65-80.

Cultural heritage has developed into an important tool in marketing and destination development projects. Cultural heritage, as well as multiplicity, is also a political concept that has become important in the academic and public debate. The aim of our study is to analyse cultural heritage as a tourism and marketing product in relation to multiplicity. The discussion focuses around how the story of cultural heritage is constructed, whom it is for and what is incorporated and what is not. These questions are discussed using a marketing project in southern Sweden aimed at developing attractive activities related to the story of the Snapphanes (a resistance group active in the Swedish-Danish war in the 17th century) as a case study. The conclusion highlights how local identity-making is not always easily combined with place marketing processes. The article claims that it is important to leave space for the "bottom-up" to keep a more diversified storytelling..

The impact of satisfaction and image on loyalty: the case of Alpine ski resorts

Faullant, R.M., Kurt 2008, Managing Service Quality Vol 18 side 163-178.

Customer satisfaction is seen to be one of the main determinants of loyalty. However, the relationship between customer satisfaction and loyalty does not seem to be linear, many researchers have reported doubts about the predictability of loyalty solely due to customer satisfaction ratings which ignore image as predictor of loyalty. This paper aims to address the issues. The authors report a study of ski resorts where they first established a causal model of customer satisfaction and image predicting customer loyalty, and then map the scores in a four-fields-grid. Additionally the authors conducted a moderator analysis to assess the relative importance of image and satisfaction for loyalty intentions between two different groups (first-time-visitors, and regular guests). The results show that those ski resorts with the highest satisfaction ratings and the highest image ratings have the highest loyalty scores. Among first-time-visitors overall satisfaction is more important than image, with increasing number of repeat visits the importance of overall satisfaction declines and that of image relatively augments. Besides measuring customer satisfaction, managers must assess also image ratings in order to get a realistic view of the loyalty intentions of their customer base. The scores can than be mapped together with the ratings of other ski resorts, and serve as a benchmark study. Second order analysis of image (comprising three different dimensions), the image-satisfaction-grid, moderating effect of experience to relative importance of satisfaction and image on loyalty. [PUBLICATION ABSTRACT].

A global culture of cool? Generation Y and their perception of coolness

Ferguson, S. , Young Consumers Vol 12 side 265-275.

Purpose - This paper seeks to explore whether the global market segment Generation Y shares a common perception of a specific consumption activity, namely bungy jumping, and how perceptions of cool operate around that. Design/methodology/approach - A qualitative methodology is adopted, appropriate to the exploratory aims of the research, which utilises existing filmed interviews to elicit responses from other members of Generation Y. The research explores shared identification, meaning and knowledge of a specific consumption practice, namely commercial bungy jumping. Findings - The actual form of consumption, bungy jumping was widely accepted as being "cool" but a global consensus on a "cool" consumer and their story could not be reached. The research concludes by proposing a hierarchy for the attribution of cool from one Generation Y member to another; thus extending theoretical discussion and knowledge by investigating an established concept in a specific context to illustrate the complex and uneven nature of cultural globalisation. Research limitations/implications - This research interprets global Generation Y culture from a small convenience sample from America, Ireland, Scotland and England, thus generating avenues for further research as discussed. Originality/value - These findings have value for businesses that create consumption experiences for Generation Y customers and scholars seeking insight into the plural and complex function of cool..

Determinants of visitor expenditures in mountain tourism

Fredman, P. 2008, Tourism Economics Vol 14 side 297-311.

In this study, determinants of expenditures are estimated for downhill skiers, backpackers, snowmobilers and general visitors to the Swedish mountain region. The study is based on a national sample of mountain visitors. It is shown that duration of stay, household income, choice of activity, occupation, participation in an organized trip and choice of accommodation have an effect on expenditures at the destination, while gender, mode of travel, distance and 'significance of activity' are additional determinants of expenditures outside the destination. The study will contribute to our understanding of the economic values associated with the future development of mountain tourism, including values beyond primary expenditures..

Local people a critical dimension for place brands

Freire, J.R. 2009, Journal of Brand Management Vol 16 side 420-438.

Branding has become one of the most powerful tools in marketing strategy and its application has reach undreamed of areas. There has been a general agreement among academics and practitioners that places can be branded in the same way as consumer goods and services. Place branding is, however, a relatively new concept and there is a lack of empirical academic research on the topic. It can be assumed that place brands will have some unique characteristics that are quite different from products or services. This exploratory research reveals that local people are relevant and important for a destination brand-building process. Consumers use this factor to evaluate differences in destinations and to support their decisions about tourism consumption. It can be concluded that much of a place's image is likely to be created by stereotyping the typical local people. © 2009 Palgrave Macmillan..

Customers' perceptions of ski resorts' images: Implications for resorts' positioning strategies

Frochot, I.K., Dominique 2008, Tourism and Hospitality Research Vol 8 side 298-308.

Image is a core element in a communication strategy especially in regards to destination branding and positioning strategy. The present study aims at investigating to which extent French ski resorts can develop different positioning strategies, based on tourists' perceptions of a set of pictures taken from brochures and representing the resorts in which they are staying. The results indicate that, regardless of their characteristics, resorts share a core of common and recurring images that represent the ethos of skiing holidays. A second set of images can then be used to ascertain different communication strategies and position the resort on different markets. [PUBLICATION ABSTRACT].

Integrating management and marketing strategies at heritage sites

Fullerton, L.M., Kathleen; Stephens, Simon 2010, International Journal of Culture, Tourism and Hospitality Research Vol 4 side 108-117.

Purpose - This paper aims to examine the integration of management and marketing practices at heritage sites in Ireland. Design/methodology/approach - The research process involved: phase one, a survey of 224 heritage attractions in Ireland and phase two, semi-structured interviews with the six organizations that represent the heritage sector on the island of Ireland. Findings - The findings suggest that market research and marketing communication are vital in achieving a balance between targeting cultural tourists and tourists with no specific interest in heritage. Research limitations/implications - The study has the restriction of being limited to the Irish case. However, these findings provide scope for further investigation, namely extending to other destinations and to sites which use different techniques. Originality/value - A combined commitment to visitor research by the individual heritage sites could provide information to the representative organizations to facilitate target marketing and improved onsite management. However, a change of mindset is required among heritage practitioners in Ireland regarding the use of marketing and the implications for onsite management. The authors propose that this is achievable through education linked to the study of models of best practice. [PUBLICATION ABSTRACT].

Integrating management and marketing strategies at heritage sites

Fullerton, L.M., Kathleen; Stephens, Simon , International Journal of Culture, Tourism and Hospitality Research Vol 4 side 108-117.

Purpose - This paper aims to examine the integration of management and marketing practices at heritage sites in Ireland. Design/methodology/approach - The research process involved: phase one, a survey of 224 heritage attractions in Ireland and phase two, semi-structured interviews with the six organizations that represent the heritage sector on the island of Ireland. Findings - The findings suggest that market research and marketing communication are vital in achieving a balance between targeting cultural tourists and tourists with no specific interest in heritage. Research limitations/implications - The study has the restriction of being limited to the Irish case. However, these findings provide scope for further investigation, namely extending to other destinations and to sites which use different techniques. Originality/value - A combined commitment to visitor research by the individual heritage sites could provide information to the representative organizations to facilitate target marketing and improved onsite management. However, a change of mindset is required among heritage practitioners in Ireland regarding the use of marketing and the implications for onsite management. The authors propose that this is achievable through education linked to the study of models of best practice. [PUBLICATION ABSTRACT].

Destination marketing: Future issues -- Strategic challenges

Fyall, A.L., Anna 2006, Tourism and Hospitality Research Vol 7 side 50-63.

Although pivotal to the travel and tourism system, the destination is widely acknowledged to be one of the most difficult products to manage and market. This paper utilises an exploratory framework that brings together issues deemed to be of significance to the future marketing of the destination product and examines the extent to which the framework can be applied to the marketing of two major destinations in the UK: London and Edinburgh. Both London and Edinburgh represent significant destinations for both domestic and international tourists and have been impacted by forces external and internal to the UK in recent years. The one consistent finding - and the one that perhaps best encapsulates those 15 challenges identified in the proposed framework - is the issue of collaboration and the need for those within the destinations to work together in solving problems deemed too demanding to solve in isolation. For collaboration to succeed in the context of destinations, the destination management organisation needs to act as a strong unifying force that is able to bring all component parts of the destination together and develop the wider destination in its entirety. Collaboration is key to the achievement of such targets as is the need to continue to diversify markets..

SERVQUAL and the Northern Ireland hotel sector: a comparative analysis - part 1

Gabbie, O.O.N., Martin A. 1996, Managing Service Quality Vol 6 side 25-32.

In the first part of a 2-part investigation, the relationship between quality service and customer expectations and the relationship between quality service and customer expectations in the Northern Ireland hotel industry are explored. It is noted that, in line with customers' demands for higher and higher service quality, the province's tourism sector has recognized the need to raise its profile from the backseat position it has taken for some years. The Northern Ireland Tourism and Hospitality Training Council's introduction, in conjunction with the northern Ireland Quality Center, of the TQM program, is detailed. The findings of a study are reported on using the SERVQUAL instrument, carried out on 2 hotels within the province, one of which has successfully implemented the new program..

Unfolding and configuring two decades of research and publications on place marketing and place branding

Gertner, D. 2011, Place Branding and Public Diplomacy Vol 7 side 91-106.

In the past few decades, a growing number of communities, cities, states/provinces, nations and regions have adopted marketing and branding concepts and tools to attract investors, visitors, residents, events and so on. The prolific body of literature on 'place marketing' and 'place branding' produced and the vast number of venues for publication of articles on these subjects corroborate the growing importance of the area for both scholars and practitioners. This article unfolds and configures 212 articles on 'place marketing' and 'place branding' produced by 280 authors and published by 43 periodicals over a two-decade period. It concludes that, in spite of the fact that 'place marketing' and 'place branding' research have steadily intensified, the assessment of the articles published between 1990 and 2009 on these topics, conducted for this investigation, gives rise to some questions about the future of the field. [PUBLICATION ABSTRACT].

Stages in the development of market orientation publication activity

Goldman, A.G., Amir , European Journal of Marketing Vol 44 side 1384-1409.

Market orientation (MO) is at the center of the marketing discipline and has been the focus of one of the longest and richest research efforts in the field. This paper aims to study the development of the MO research area and changes in its nature, and the implications these have for MO research in particular as well as for the marketing discipline as a whole. The study is guided by sociology of science research and studies of the history of the marketing discipline. It is based on a review of all MO articles and references in the period 1957-2005. The findings reveal three periods in the development of MO research: 1950s-late 1970s, late 1970s-early 1990s, and early 1990s until today. In terms of diffusion over time, MO research has diffused from marketing mostly to management, from generalist to specialist journals, from higher to lower quality journals, and from the USA only to Europe. Over time more scholars have become involved in MO research and the number of co-authored MO articles has increased. The paper also finds that the MO research knowledge base and impact continue to be limited to marketing and management. While the study involves a large effort to collect longitudinal data on MO publication activity, its main limitation is its descriptive nature. Unlike previous research in marketing that has typically studied articles, authors and reference data to gain insight into the intellectual developments of specific marketing journals, here the authors use these sources for studying the structure and evolution of a specific and important research area such as MO. Also, the study is based on rich and longitudinal data, enabling a variety of longitudinal analyses. The link between the MO area and the marketing discipline is of value, showing how the development of MO mirrors key developments in the marketing discipline at large and is influenced by many of the same forces that shape the discipline..

Destination Competitiveness: A Framework for Future Research

Gruescu, R.N., Roxana; Pirvu, Gheorghe 2009, Zagreb International Review of Economics & Business Vol 12 side 83-96.

The paper envisages aspects concerning identification of the competitive advantage of a tourist destination from a double perspective: the critical contribution of the employees and the ICT impact on promoting and selling the destination. Research methodology includes 'bottom to top' analysis of the mentioned indicators. Thus, results include the eficientisation of tourist businesses and destinations due to both human element development and ICT technologies. Two essential basis of the competitive advantage are isolated: differentiation and cost advantage. ICT creates a series of new working types through new applications and its use in management and distribution of key functions such as yield. [PUBLICATION ABSTRACT].

Factors affecting outbound tourists' destination choice: The case of Hong Kong

Guillet, B.D.L., A.; Law, R.; Leung, R. 2011, Journal of Travel and Tourism Marketing Vol 28 side 556-566.

Trip expenditure, length of stay during the trip, size of the travel party, monthly household income, discovering new places and/or things, and getting away from daily routine, role, obligation, stress and troubles have significant influence on Hong Kong residents' destination choice. Hong Kong residents' destination choice is highly associated with trip characteristic in comparison to socio-demographics and travel motivation factors. Destinations close to Hong Kong can focus on packaging their products with shorter trip lengths and making the packages attractive to travel companions in addition to the travelers. Destinations that are relatively far away from Hong Kong should focus on packaging their products to attract the Hong Kong outbound travelers with longer trip lengths and plan activities that cater to individual needs. © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC..

Place branding research: A cross-disciplinary agenda and the views of practitioners

Hankinson, G. 2010, Place Branding and Public Diplomacy Vol 6 side 300-315.

After years of separate development, there has recently been a convergence between the academic domains of urban policy, tourism and mainstream branding resulting in the emergence of a new domain of place branding. This convergence has, in part, been assisted by developments in the mainstream branding domain associated with corporate and services brands. At the same time, at least one book and several articles have been published, setting out agendas for future research. However, these might be regarded as deficient in two ways. First, they take no account of the conceptual development of mainstream branding theory, and second they take no account of the views of practitioners. In both these cases, further opportunities for research might be identified. This article addresses these deficiencies by supplementing the recently published research agendas with a thematic review of the mainstream branding and place branding literatures, and field interviews with 25 senior managers in place branding organisations. The identified themes are compared with recently published place branding research agendas and a cross-disciplinary agenda for future research is discussed. [PUBLICATION ABSTRACT].

Branded content: A new model for driving tourism via film and branding strategies

Horrigan, D. 2009, Tourismos Vol 4 side 51-65.

Branded content is described as a fusion of advertising and entertainment into one marketing communications product that is integrated into an organisation's overall brand strategy intended to be distributed as entertainment content with a highly branded quality. A history of product placement, branded entertainment, and film tourism is presented to identify the effective elements of each strategy in order to inform a more cohesive brand strategy for destinations. A branded content model is offered that will give destination marketing organisations a road map for better coordination, integration and measurement with their tourism, film, marketing communications and branding strategies. © University of the Aegean..

Wooing zoomers: marketing to the mature traveler

Hudson, S. , Marketing Intelligence & Planning Vol 28 side 444-461.

Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to highlight consumer trends relating to the baby boomer generation and identify the relevant marketing communications required to connect with these travelers. Design/methodology/approach - This study involved a thorough review of recently published marketing research and new reports dedicated to the baby boomer generation and the travel industry. Findings - Traveling boomers are looking for a memorable experience rather than a holiday, seeking authenticity, spiritual and mental enlightenment, nostalgia, convenience and spontaneity, all packaged in a safe, customized, healthy, green wrapping and delivered with great customer service. To connect with these boomers, marketers should emphasize youth, use nostalgia, show how to improve boomers' lives, provide detailed information, promote the experience, and use a variety of media. Research limitations/implications - The literature on marketing to baby boomers is fragmented and sometimes contradictory. This could be because the boomer market is not homogenous. Further research is needed to understand the different segments of the boomer market. Recognizing the differences among these segments and understanding their motivations and desires, can help tourism marketers craft products, strategies and messages that will resonate with this generation. Practical implications - The key to securing and retaining this growing lucrative segment is better understanding of how they behave, their buying motivations and their needs as they get older. This paper has moved one step forward in this understanding by identifying the key psychographic nuances of the traveling boomer and suggesting how to connect with them. Originality/value - This is an original contribution in that it is one of the first academic papers to address the traveling baby boomer. It will be of significant value to those marketing tourism services in the twenty-first century..

Wooing zoomers: marketing to the mature traveler

Hudson, S. 2010, Marketing Intelligence & Planning Vol 28 side 444-461.

Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to highlight consumer trends relating to the baby boomer generation and identify the relevant marketing communications required to connect with these travelers. Design/methodology/approach - This study involved a thorough review of recently published marketing research and new reports dedicated to the baby boomer generation and the travel industry. Findings - Traveling boomers are looking for a memorable experience rather than a holiday, seeking authenticity, spiritual and mental enlightenment, nostalgia, convenience and spontaneity, all packaged in a safe, customized, healthy, green wrapping and delivered with great customer service. To connect with these boomers, marketers should emphasize youth, use nostalgia, show how to improve boomers' lives, provide detailed information, promote the experience, and use a variety of media. Research limitations/implications - The literature on marketing to baby boomers is fragmented and sometimes contradictory. This could be because the boomer market is not homogenous. Further research is needed to understand the different segments of the boomer market. Recognizing the differences among these segments and understanding their motivations and desires, can help tourism marketers craft products, strategies and messages that will resonate with this generation. Practical implications - The key to securing and retaining this growing lucrative segment is better understanding of how they behave, their buying motivations and their needs as they get older. This paper has moved one step forward in this understanding by identifying the key psychographic nuances of the traveling boomer and suggesting how to connect with them. Originality/value - This is an original contribution in that it is one of the first academic papers to address the traveling baby boomer. It will be of significant value to those marketing tourism services in the twenty-first century..

Promoting destinations via film tourism: An empirical identification of supporting marketing initiatives

Hudson, S.R., J. R. B. 2006, Journal of Travel Research Vol 44 side 387-396.

Film tourism is a growing phenomenon worldwide, fueled by both the growth of the entertainment industry and the increase in international travel. This article proposes a model for exploiting film tourism marketing opportunities. It identifies the optimum marketing factors that encourage film tourists to visit destinations that appear (or are depicted) in the movies. Factor analysis reveals four types of marketing activities in which destinations can engage to promote film tourism: proactive efforts to encourage producers and studios to film at the location, efforts to generate media publicity around the film and its location, marketing activities that promote the film location after production, and peripheral marketing activities that leverage film tourism potential. Results of a stepwise multiple regression analysis indicate a high correlation between film tourism success and one of the four factors: the proactive efforts of destinations that encourage producers and studios to film at their location. © 2006 Sage Publications..

Lights, camera, action...! Marketing film locations to Hollywood

Hudson, S.S.T., Vincent Wing 2010, Marketing Intelligence & Planning Vol 28 side 188-205.

Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to understand and identify the marketing strategies and specific promotional tools used by film commissions to attract the production of films and television. Design/methodology/approach - The paper involves in-depth interviews with film commissions worldwide and a content analysis of their promotional materials. Findings - Film commissions employ three key strategic marketing approaches when promoting their locations to film producers - product differentiation, service differentiation, and cost advantages. They use six main specific promotional tactics - advertising, sales promotions, joint promotions, public relations, online marketing, and direct marketing and personal selling. A model explaining the relationship between film commissions and film producers involving these strategies and promotional tools is suggested. Research limitations/implications - The marketing of film locations is under-researched and has to be further addressed in the marketing literature. Future research can seek to identify the specific marketing activities that will lead to success for the marketing of film locations. Practical implications - Examples of the best marketing practices amongst film commissions are highlighted. Originality/value - This is an original contribution in that it is the first academic paper to address the marketing of film locations. It will be of significant value to film locations seeking to attract production to their locations. [PUBLICATION ABSTRACT].

Mountain biking is for men: consumption practices and identity portrayed by a niche magazine

Huybers-Withers, S.M.L., Lori A. , Sport in Society Vol 13 side 1204-1222.

Studies have shown that alternative sports have been a site for new constructions of masculinity. Rather than forming a physically dominating hegemonic masculinity that limits female involvement, alternative masculinities that allow for egalitarianism of participation may be created in these newer, lifestyle sports. The current study analysed the images and discourses in issues, published post-2000, of a technology-focused mountain-bike magazine. The examination revealed how this magazine represents the gendered identities being created through consumption practices. Male members of the sport are the main focus of this magazine resulting in very little space being provided to female mountain bikers. Furthermore, mountain biking is portrayed as a male-domain whereby mountain-biking products are to be developed for and used by men. Along with its description of the male consumption of mountain-biking equipment, this magazine creates a narrow picture of masculinity similar to the physically dominant form found in mainstream sport. This paper provides a discussion of the possible consequences of such a narrow portrayal of masculinity, including marginalization of females and risk-taking of males. It does, however, note a need for further research into this largely under-examined lifestyle sport..

Tourist images of Greenland and the Arctic: a perception analysis

Hübner, A. 2009, The Polar Record Vol 45 side 153-166.

ABSTRACT Within the scope of climate change and the worldwide shift in travel patterns, the Arctic has become a highly favoured tourist destination. However, the literature on studying destination images of the northern polar regions lacks analysis of prevailing perceptions and of corresponding images held by tourists without previous travel experience. Therefore, this research, recently carried out in Germany, attempts to delineate tourists' perceptions of Greenland on the one hand and the Arctic as a whole on the other as destinations. Similarities, positive and negative differences of the cognitive and affective stages are generated and an overview of perceived dimensions and factors influencing the images are given. Although the results strongly coincide with each other, there are minor differences found in favour of Greenland. With the findings it is hoped to provide a better insight into the images held by potential visitors to the Arctic and to help those engaged in marketing Greenland as a tourist destination to identify an efficient strategy. [PUBLICATION ABSTRACT].

Marketing of tourism: a paradigm shift toward sustainability

Jamrozy, U. 2007, International Journal of Culture, Tourism and Hospitality Research Vol 1 side 117-130.

The purpose of this paper is to suggest a shift in the tourism marketing paradigm away from economic profit priorities toward sustainability. The sustainability approach adopts a holistic, integrated view of marketing, considering social equity, environmental protection, and economic livability. The paper seeks to examine the evolving model for the tourism marketing environment. The paradigm shift naturally occurs by tracing the evolution of marketing approaches from production, sales, and a consumer orientation toward marketing alternatives such as societal, causal, green, responsible, and relationship marketing. Adapting a living system theory to tourism marketing, a sustainable tourism marketing model integrates tourism into a larger holistic context and focuses on marketing a quality of life for all stakeholders in the system. While alternative approaches to tourism marketing include societal consideration such as tourism impacts and environmental segmentation strategies, this paper considers the triple bottom line as more sustainable objectives in tourism marketing and adopts an integrated view on tourism marketing. The model suggests a paradigm shift that needs to be explored further. The paper illustrates how tourism marketing can be integrated into more sustainable urban marketing strategies. Instead of viewing tourism as a separate for profit industry, the model suggests an integration of tourism into a holistic, sustainable, quality of life marketing approach of living communities. [PUBLICATION ABSTRACT].

Market segmentation and the prediction of tourist behavior: The case of Bornholm, Denmark

Johns, N.G., Szilvia 2002, Journal of Travel Research Vol 40 side 316-327.

Data from a visitor survey on the Danish Island of Bornholm were analyzed using multivariate techniques. Factor analysis of visitors' preferences and behavior patterns indicated three main goals: relaxation, nature, and local culture. Two distinct clusters, "active" and "inactive" vacationers, were derived from the data. Actives tended to be Germans, to plan their vacation carefully to exercise autonomy in their booking of transport and accommodation, and to value the provision of amenities on the island. Inactives were mostly Scandinavians, and though they made fewer plans, they were more likely to visit the island's most popular attractions. On the basis of logistic regression analysis, it is suggested that the most important differentiating factors between clusters were: 1. the importance accorded to amenity provision; 2. nationality; 3. age; 4. activity participation; 5. planning behavior; 6. attraction visiting behavior; 7. autonomy; and 8. gender..

Modeling tourist and community decision making. The save market

Kask, S.K., C.; Lamoureux, K. 2011, Annals of Tourism Research Vol 38 side 1387-1409.

The Scientific, Academic, Volunteer and Educational (SAVE) tourist markets seek destinations that offer a highly educational experience, provide opportunity to meet and work with local residents, and require little tourism infrastructure. Because of the 'low-maintenance' nature of the SAVE market, it is a good seed market for developing countries and rural areas of developed nations wishing to increase tourism traffic and receipts. However, little is known about how the SAVE market makes travel decisions, or about the real impacts it has on community development. This conceptual paper models the choices made from both the demand (tourist) and supply (destination) side of the tourism industry within the context of the SAVE market. The application for community-based planning and development is discussed. © 2011..

Place marketing: how did we get here and where are we going?

Kavaratzis, M.A., Gregory 2008, Journal of Place Management and Development Vol 1 side 150-165.

Purpose - This paper serves two purposes. First, to identify the stages of the historical development of place marketing, because place marketing has developed over time through discrete phases, which differ in their sophistication as well as in their approaches and objectives. Secondly, to identify and articulate significant issues, which will determine the "way forward" for place marketing. Design/methodology/approach - Place marketing has been shaped by developments within marketing science and cognate disciplines but also by the external historical contexts at various spatial scales that determined its assumptions, goals and priorities. A concordance of a number of approaches to the evolution of place marketing is attempted and from this, conclusions are drawn about the current assumptions upon which place marketing is based. Findings - Seven issues are identified that appear to hinder marketing implementation from delivering its full contribution and are suggested here as significant for the future of place marketing. The most important ones refer to the need for a collective understanding and appreciation of place marketing, the achievement of wide cooperation and clear role allocation, the implementation of marketing as a long-term process and the expansion of marketing understanding to fields other than tourism development. Originality/value - The originality of this paper lies in the clear articulation of the historical episodes of place marketing development and, at the same time, the identification of the issues mentioned above, which will determine the effectiveness of place marketing practice. Therefore, the paper is of great value to both academic commentators and practitioners of place marketing. [PUBLICATION ABSTRACT].

From destination brand to location brand

Kerr, G. 2006, Journal of Brand Management Vol 13 side 276-283.

Destination marketing organisations, often with government support, have traditionally been responsible for promoting their respective locations. A number of authors are now suggesting a review of this responsibility. The claim is that destination marketing and the destination brand have the limitation of being tourism focused only and often preclude major stakeholders in a location. The more holistic approach of location or place brand management is gaining interest. The aim of this paper is to identify the literature calling for reform of destination marketing practices as well as the growing body of literature addressing location brand management. A distinction between destination brand and location brand is made, followed by the identification of potential areas of research relevant to the brand management of locations. [PUBLICATION ABSTRACT].

Stakeholder perceptions of green marketing: The effect of demand and supply integration

Kirchoff, J.F.K., C.; Nichols, B. S. 2011, International Journal of Physical Distribution and Logistics Management Vol 41 side 684-696.

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to extend the stream of thought regarding the concept of demand and supply integration (DSI) within the domain of environmental responsibility and green marketing. Design/methodology/approach: Conceptual application of theory to strategic-level concepts is used to develop propositions representing a theoretical approach to the integration of green marketing and green supply chain management (SCM). Findings: Based on stakeholder theory, the authors propose that greater value will be perceived by customer stakeholders when the firm is able to successfully manage and coordinate demand (marketing) and supply (SCM) functions, ensuring that customer stakeholders receive what they are promised in regard to environmental products and services. For this relationship to offer competitive advantage and higher firm performance, the authors contend that it is necessary to better understand how customer stakeholders perceive firms' environmental initiatives, and to investigate if the degree to which a firm's demand and supply functions are integrated influences these perceptions. Research limitations/implications: Scholars will benefit from ideas and questions put forth in this paper as it suggests specific avenues to pursue empirically in order to understand stakeholder perceptions of a firm's environmental responsibility activities. Practical implications: Managers will benefit from the results of this paper by better understanding the benefits of DSI in creating marketing campaigns for environmental products and services that stakeholders perceive as legitimate. Originality/value: The authors introduce the concept of DSI to the green marketing and green SCM literature and position DSI within the broader rubric of environmental commitment in the firm. © Emerald Group Publishing Limited..

Rhizomatic bodies, gendered waves: transitional femininities in Brazilian Surf

Knijnik, J.D.H., Peter; Cruz, Lívia Oliveira , Sport in Society Vol 13 side 1170-1185.

Surfing, practised along the whole Brazilian coast, was previously viewed as a man's sport; women are now taking to the waves and are among the best professional surfers in the world. This article focuses upon a group of women surfers using data gathered from semi-structured interviews with them. From the interviews it became apparent that at all times, in or out of the surf, the female surfer's body is always a contested terrain, particularly in the economic context and when dealing with sponsors. In this context tensions emerge from the clash of traditional patriarchal mindsets regarding newly emergent femininities. Women in sport and their supporters reject the paradigm that considers them to be merely decorative and subservient to men, Brazilian female athletes are beginning to imagine and construct their bodies differently. As part of the first generation of professional Brazilian female surfers, this group represents a new site for the liberation of Brazilian women..

Using ski destination choice criteria to segment Finnish ski resort customers

Konu, H.L., T.; Komppula, R. 2011, Tourism Management Vol 32 side 1096-1105.

The purpose of the paper is to segment Finnish ski resort visitors according to ski destination choice attributes using data-driven segmentation. In addition, segments are compared in order to ascertain possible differences in personal (gender and age) and situation-specific (type of visitor and traveling companion) characteristics between customer segments. The data were collected from visitors to five different ski resorts in Lapland Finland during the years 2006 and 2007 by self-administered questionnaire. Altogether 1827 responses were collected of which 1529 were acceptable for use in this study. Six different customer segments were identified using the factor-cluster method: passive tourists, cross-country skiers, want-it-all, all-but-downhill skiing, sports seekers, and relaxation seekers. At the end of the paper conclusions are drawn and managerial implications discussed. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved..

The purchase of equipment in consumer production of outdoor experiences

Larsen, E.R. 2003, Journal of Consumer Policy Vol 26 side 351-371.

Consumers use combinations of goods to produce experiences. In order to produce outdoor experiences, consumers include environmental amenities as production factors in addition to purchasable instruments such as equipment. While amenities are not marketed, equipment is. Inspecting consumer purchases of the latter may uncover attitudes towards the former. Purchases of equipment are realized money outlays in a market and constitute lower bounds for the willingness to pay for one factor in outdoor experience production. This study investigates income and demographic effects in the demand for outdoor equipment over time in Norway, and examines the proportion of purchasing households for each year. Results show that equipment is a luxury item, and that it becomes more popular over time. The findings are relevant to policymakers in two ways since use of equipment may entail environmental degradation, but purchases of equipment may reflect a willingness to pay for environmental standards. [PUBLICATION ABSTRACT].

Place-product or place narrative(s)? Perspectives in the marketing of tourism destinations

Lichrou, M.O.M., L.; Patterson, M. 2008, Journal of Strategic Marketing Vol 16 side 27-39.

This paper utilises a narrative approach to appraise critically the challenges and paradoxes faced by tourism destination marketing, and the inherent weaknesses of the traditional marketing management framework to adequately address them. In so doing, the treatment of place as a set of attributes is contrasted with its conceptualisation as a set of meanings. In perceiving place as a set of meanings, the focus of attention shifts to a number of different issues, such as the role of culture and symbolic meanings in the construction and experience of place and the contested 'realities' involved in the making of a tourism destination. © 2008 Taylor & Francis..

Trend analysis of motivation-based clusters at the Chilkoot Trail National Historic Site of Canada

Légaré, A.M.H., W. 2008, Leisure Sciences Vol 30 side 158-176.

This study combines data from three cross-sectional surveys (1993, 1998, and 2004) to explore how hikers at the Chilkoot Trail National Historic Site of Canada were affected by the introduction of several restrictive management policies. The analysis revolves around motivation-based segments defined via one single principal component and cluster analysis over all three years of data. The results document similarities and differences between the three motivation-based segments over time and as a reaction to the restrictions. Clusters also differed in the reaction to indicator variables such as advance booking time, perceived management problems, encounters, and satisfaction. Future longitudinal data collections and investigations as part of visitor monitoring protocols are suggested..

The Need for Capitalizing on the Value of a Brand Name: The Case of Sabah State in Malaysia

Man, M.M.K.A.-B., Leopoldo 2007, The Business Review, Cambridge Vol 9 side 153-158.

The need for branding the state of Sabah within the ecotourism industry is proposed. Like consumer products, states are increasingly trying to brand themselves in order to appeal to the tourism market. Consumers continue to rely on country and state images to pick their tourism destinations. Brand association continues to be a critical aspect for a consumer prior to engage in a purchasing decision. According to the literature review, effective state branding should reinforce positives images and thus provide a competitive advantage in world markets. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the various aspects of branding theory, with particular application to branding Sabah state ecotourism. The conceptual study begins by addressing theory and practice of country branding and further continues with recommendations for Sabah state ecotourism branding. The proposed study proposes Sabah to be associated with its natural beauty. As a result, offers a number of recommendations derived from branding theory. [PUBLICATION ABSTRACT].

Customer satisfaction with alpine ski areas: The moderating effects of personal, situational, and product factors

Matzler, K.F.l., J.; Renzl, B.; Herting, S.; Späth, S. 2008, Journal of Travel Research Vol 46 side 403-413.

In highly competitive markets, customer satisfaction is a key driver of performance, making its measurement and management crucial. Most studies on customer satisfaction take an aggregate standpoint and do not consider segment-specific differences in attribute importance. In this article, the authors report on customer satisfaction with alpine ski resorts. They hypothesize that personal, situational, and product factors moderate the relationship between attribute performance and overall satisfaction. The results show that these factors indeed influence the attribute-performance-satisfaction relationship. Theoretical and managerial implications of these findings are discussed. © 2008 Sage Publications..

Food tourism as a viable market segment: It's all how you cook the numbers!

McKercher, B.O., F.; Okumus, B. 2008, Journal of Travel and Tourism Marketing Vol 25 side 137-148.

This study examines whether food is a special interest or mainstream tourism product. Much of the research on special interest tourism examines the activity in isolation of the broader suite of products available in the destination mix. Such a myopic approach may produce impressive looking numbers, but may not define viable market segments. Instead, based on their research findings, the authors argue that a more holistic approach is required to examine food tourism within the context of other products in the destination to determine its value. Overall, this study suggests that consuming food may be a ubiquitous activity for most visitors to sophisticated urban destinations and may not be representative of a specialist segment. © 2008 by The Haworth Press. All rights reserved..

Segmenting the nature-based tourists based on travel mode choice

Mehmetoglu, M. 2006, Journal of Hospitality and Leisure Marketing Vol 14 side 47-67.

This paper examines the diverse nature tourism market in terms of two broad segments: package and independent types. Based on a number of theoretical assumptions obtained from the general tourism literature, four research models (main hypotheses) were developed to assess the relationship between the travel mode choice of nature tourists and a series of socio-demographic characteristics, trip features, travel activities and travel motives. The necessary data for the study were subsequently collected from 162 visitors at two separate nature-based attractions (wilderness centres) located in Northern Norway that played host to independent and package tour visitors. To test the proposed hypotheses, four separate logistic regression analyses were carried out. Results indicated that independent and package nature tourists differed significantly in terms of gender, age, annual household income, trip expenditure and trip length as well as for most of the travel activities and some of the travel motivations. © 2006 by The Haworth Press, Inc. All rights reserved..

Typologising nature-based tourists by activity - Theoretical and practical implications

Mehmetoglu, M. 2007, Tourism Management Vol 28 side 651-660.

The purpose of the current inquiry was to develop a typology of nature tourists based on trip activities. Data were collected by means of a questionnaire at two nature-based attractions located in Northern Norway. The results indicated that the trip activity segmentation criterion enabled the classification of nature-based tourists into three clusters: "culture and pleasure activity oriented", "nature activity oriented", and "low activity oriented". The main finding was that while other trip motivations distinguished the "nature activity oriented" segment from the other two in the current study, "nature" as a trip motivation, surprisingly, did not. Additionally, there were only minor significant differences between the clusters in terms of demographic and trip features. Theoretical and practical implications of the study are also discussed. © 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved..

Accurately identifying and comparing sustainable tourists, nature-based tourists, and ecotourists on the basis of their environmental concerns

Mehmetoglu, M. 2010, International Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Administration Vol 11 side 171-199.

The current study, using a confirmatory factor analysis, developed a multi-item scale consisting of 3 dimensions that exhibited necessary reliability and validity. Based on this Nature-Based, Eco- and Sustainable Tourists (NES)-scale, and by utilizing a cluster analysis, the study identifies 4 distinct segments among a sample of the Norwegian population: nature-based tourists, ecotourists, sustainable tourists, and mass tourists. The analysis shows that while the ecotourists make up the largest segment, the mass tourists represent the smallest segment. Using Analysis of Variance (ANOVA), the resulting 4 segments are later compared on the basis of their environmental concerns. The findings suggest that the ecotourists are the most environmentally concerned whereas the mass tourists are the least environmentally concerned. Finally, based upon the overall findings of the study, a new inductive model is developed. This model highlights the interaction between different types of alternative tourists and mass tourists, by showing, inter alia, that nature-based tourism has over the years become a form of mass tourism. Theoretical and practical implications of the study are also discussed. © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC..

Effects of Gender Differences on Perceptions of Destination Attributes, Motivations, and Travel Values: An Examination of a Nature-Based Resort Destination

Meng, F.U., Muzaffer 2008, Journal of Sustainable Tourism Vol 16 side 445.

This study examines the perceptions of the potential tourist market to a nature-based resort destination from the gendered perspective. The research reveals that significant gender differences exist about the perceived importance of destination attributes and travel values when potential nature tourists consider destination choices. After controlling for demographic and travel behaviour variables, such as age, marital status, education, household income, preference of price quote and length of stay, most gender differences remain significant. In addition, more significant distinctions between men and women are demonstrated after controlling for age and income level. The study provides insights into gendered perceptions of nature-based tourism settings. Specific marketing implications are discussed in an attempt to successfully attract nature tourists and provide a high-quality nature destination experience. [PUBLICATION ABSTRACT].

An exploratory study of types of special interest tour preferences and preference demographic variables analysis

Ming-Jian, S.M.-C., Chen 2008, International Journal of Culture, Tourism and Hospitality Research Vol 2 side 271-284.

The paper research objectives are: to investigate into the classification of special interest tour preferences in terms of their types and to compare whether consumers with different demographic attributes result in discrepancies in special interest tour preferences. Those collected questionnaires that had incomplete answers and that had a significant response tendency or were left blank with no answers were eliminated. The required statistical methods are explained thus: this study conducts analysis on special interest tour preferences by factor analysis to distinguish between the categories of special interest tour preferences; this study adopts correlation analysis to examine the ratio scale of the study's demographic variables, including age and education level; this study adopts one-way ANOVA to examine the variables of categorical or nominal scale, such as gender, marital status, and occupation. After collecting the questionnaire data, factor analysis is used to conduct classification of the types and a total of four types emerged: recreation type, nature/ecology type, physical adventure type, historical/artistic activity type. Furthermore, in the verification of the demographic variables of each type preferences: age and nature-eco type preferences constitute a significant positive correlation, and age has also formed a significant negative correlation with physical adventure type; gender differences result in a significant difference in recreation type preferences and a significant difference in physical adventure type preferences; marital status has a significant variation regarding physical adventure preferences. Special interest tours are gradually on the rise and the previous literature is still lacking a systematic method for investigative analysis. Accordingly, conducting a systematic categorization of special interest tour preferences and to examining the background of the consumers of each type of special interest tour preference is essential. The necessity for special interest tours to conform to consumer interests, and the existence of special interests, require that those in the travel industry conduct market segmentation, prior to designing travel itineraries, so as to have an understanding of the target market. Furthermore, the types of special interest tour preference this study provides can offer the basis for discussion of relevant issues for those travel business industry operators in the industry and future researchers. [PUBLICATION ABSTRACT].

The personality of freestyle snowboarders: Implications for product development

Mueller, S.P., M. 2009, Tourism: An International Interdisciplinary Journal Vol 56 side 339-354.

bSeveral approaches with reference to customer involvement in the product development process can be found in the research literature. The majority of studies, focusing primarily on customer involvement in the product or service development process, are based on research in the area of new product development. However, these studies did not describe which customers or groups of customers are suitable to be involved in the product development process of services. Meanwhile some researchers have drawn their focus on this topic. The empirical personality psychological traits approach as well as the differential psychology put the individual in the focus of the analyses. To this end, a research of snowboarders personality profile and their involvement in product design was carried out on a sample of 50 respondents active in the alpine region of Austria, Switzerland and Italy. The results have revealed that snowboarders differ from general population. The standard deviations of all five scales are lower for the freestyle snowboarders than for those of the reference population. Freestyle snowboarders are scoring higher on dimensions of extraversion, open ness to experience, compatibility and conscientiousness. This research is an attempt to bring together psychology and social leisure sciences and to derive new findings regarding this underinvestigated extreme sport segment, which in many cases displays typical lead user consumers in the field of sport tourism..

Tourist-created content: rethinking destination branding

Munar, A.M. 2011, International Journal of Culture, Tourism and Hospitality Research Vol 5 side 291-305.

Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to analyze the relationship between tourists' user-generated content on the web and destination branding, as well as to discuss the online strategies used by destination management organizations. Design/methodology/approach - The research adopts an exploratory study of social media sites and destination brands, relying on qualitative research methods, content analysis and field research. Findings - Tourists are largely contributing to destination image formation, while avoiding the use of the formal elements of the brands. The most popular strategies used by destination management organizations exhibit some crucial weaknesses. However, a strategy based on analytics brings new opportunities for destination branding. Originality/value - The study provides an innovative analysis of tourist-created content and its impact on destination branding and presents a theoretical model of generic web-based strategies. [PUBLICATION ABSTRACT].

Tourist-created content: rethinking destination branding

Munar, A.M.a. , International Journal of Culture, Tourism and Hospitality Research Vol 5 side 291-305.

Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to analyze the relationship between tourists' user-generated content on the web and destination branding, as well as to discuss the online strategies used by destination management organizations. Design/methodology/approach - The research adopts an exploratory study of social media sites and destination brands, relying on qualitative research methods, content analysis and field research. Findings - Tourists are largely contributing to destination image formation, while avoiding the use of the formal elements of the brands. The most popular strategies used by destination management organizations exhibit some crucial weaknesses. However, a strategy based on analytics brings new opportunities for destination branding. Originality/value - The study provides an innovative analysis of tourist-created content and its impact on destination branding and presents a theoretical model of generic web-based strategies. [PUBLICATION ABSTRACT].

Celebration of extreme playfulness: Ekstremsportveko at voss

Mykletun, R.J. 2009, Scandinavian Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Vol 9 side 146-176.

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Causes and outcomes of satisfaction in business relationships

Mysen, T.S., Göran; Payan, Janice M. , Marketing Intelligence & Planning Vol 29 side 123-140.

This study includes relationship marketing concepts (i.e. trust, commitment, and satisfaction) as precursors to transaction cost theory outcomes (i.e. specific investments, opportunism, and formalization) which are rarely, if ever, included together. Trust and commitment lead to satisfaction and satisfaction in turn leads transaction cost outcomes. The paper aims to address these issues. The random sample is 600 small- to medium-sized Norwegian manufacturers. Confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modelling was used to examine the responses from 212 key informants. The strongest positive associations are from the relationship marketing portion of the model including trust satisfaction and commitment satisfaction. The highest negative association in the model is satisfaction opportunism. Contrary to predictions, satisfaction did not have a significant association with either specific investments or formalization. Both relationship marketing and transaction cost theory concepts are examined because it is likely that business success may be motivated by both theories. Limitations of the study are that it only includes small- and medium-sized companies in Norway. Second, it does not cover all business-to-business relationships (i.e. only manufacturer-supplier relationships are included). Finally, additional concepts should be included (i.e. dependence, cooperation, and control). The results suggest that managers should work developing high levels of satisfaction in business relationships to dampen the likelihood that business partners will be opportunistic. In this regard, working on a relationship serves as a safeguard against possible future risks (e.g. opportunism). This study is a seed for future research about the causes and outcomes of satisfaction in business relationships..

Mediatized tourism

Månsson, M. 2011, Annals of Tourism Research Vol 38 side 1634-1652.

This article aims to apply convergence, a new media concept, to tourism studies in order to enhance the understanding of tourists' agency in destination marketing. Tourists create media products/images which circulate online through various channels like social media. These products are then available for consumption by other tourists, which in turn influences new media products. They all become part of destination marketing processes. Further, by applying convergence to social media networks (Facebook, Twitter, blogs, YouTube and Flickr) related to Rosslyn Chapel and 'The Da Vinci Code', this article shows how tourists are active, alone or in collaboration, in an ongoing consumption and production process relating to tourist spaces. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd..

Regional destination marketing: A collaborative approach

Naipaul, S.W., Y.; Okumus, F. 2009, Journal of Travel and Tourism Marketing Vol 26 side 462-481.

This article explores how small neighboring destinations with limited tourism products and resources can collaborate in marketing their destinations. Based on a critical literature review, a conceptual framework was developed and empirical data was collected via document analysis, a focus group interview as well as in-depth semi-structured interviews with senior executives of three convention and visitors bureaus (CVBs) in Ohio. The research findings suggest that forming partnerships among neighboring destinations is beneficial for all participating CVBs in terms of enhancing product portfolio, cost reduction, and efficiency. However, there can be major challenges in developing and sustaining such long-term partnerships which include differing priorities, different marketing directions, and limited resources. The research findings further suggest that achieving results from such a partnership may take a considerable amount of effort and time. The research findings imply that executives of CVBs need to be informed and educated not only about advantages of forming such partnerships and how they can form such partnerships but also how they can overcome potential challenges together in this endeavor. The research results also suggest that informal working relationships and trust among executives of neighboring CVBs are crucial in forming and maintaining such a partnership. Discussions and implications based on the study results are also provided..

Destination brand components

Nekhili, R.L., Clifford 2011, International Journal of Culture, Tourism and Hospitality Research Vol 5 side .

Purpose - This study matches destination brand components with motives and identifies those components that are most important for the consumer during various stages of the decision process. This study also aims to classify various functional and symbolic brand components. The findings take the customers' point-of-view in identifying those descriptors that affect consumer choice preference and create destination loyalty. Design/methodology/approach - The research is exploratory. Through a detailed literature review, destination brand components are identified, simplified and then classified as symbolic or functional. They are also classified by motive. The review is followed by a quantitative study that uses open-ended questions to find the relationship between destination brand components and the stage of decision making. This study also presents a conceptual model with taxonomy of brand components. Findings - Functional brand components seem to play a major role in a consumer's description of place brands during the various decision making stages. This finding highlights the importance of stressing functional components in the destination's branding strategy. Originality/value - This study is the first of its type and can serve as a platform for future research, practically helping destinations create more effective communication. [PUBLICATION ABSTRACT].

The historical mediatization of BMX-freestyle cycling

Nelson, W. , Sport in Society Vol 13 side 1152-1169.

This paper traces the mediatization of BMX-freestyle cycling over the past four decades through an examination of the centrality of particular media of communication and particular texts within this sport. It is argued that the history of BMX is inseparable from the history of the activity's mediation. Indeed, the historic rise and fall of the sport with regard to industrial success can be correlated with the appearance and disappearance of disseminating institutions such as particular special-interest magazines. Furthermore, these magazines have been the site of introductions to, and negotiations with, other competing media throughout the history of the activity. In the early twenty-first century, digital media have increasingly challenged the dominance of older media that have served/exploited this sport. It is probable that this particular activity, and the media that serve and exploit it, will continue to have a complex, co-dependent relationship..

Self-catering accommodation in Switzerland

Nicod, P.M., A.; Henwood, J. 2007, International Journal of Hospitality Management Vol 26 side 244-262.

This article examines the situation of self-catering accommodation in the light of tourist experience in Switzerland. Swiss tourism is currently declining, and so are traditional forms of accommodation such as hotels. At the same time there is evidence that the demand for self-catering holiday properties is increasing. Yet very little is known about this sector in Switzerland. The present paper attempts to identify the number of Swiss self-catering properties and presents the results of interviews and an on-line survey, which shed light on this industry and allows the situation in Switzerland to be compared with that in other countries. The number of holiday homes in Switzerland has increased steadily since the 1980s, and could provide a valuable source of rented property and local income. The Swiss self-catering industry is highly seasonal, although rental properties are mostly available all year round. Swiss accommodation is relatively small and expensive, partly because the rent usually includes laundry and other services, not offered in other countries. Owners often rent to offset the cost of upkeep, rather than to make a profit, and this attitude is reflected in the fragmented and rather unprofessional nature of marketing, representation and communications in the sector. A number of recommendations are made for developing the industry, based on the findings. © 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved..

Customer empowerment in tourism through consumer centric marketing (CCM)

Niininen, O.B., Dimitrios; March, Roger 2007, Qualitative Market Research Vol 10 side 265-281.

Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to explain consumer centric marketing (CCM) and adopt this new technique to travel context. The paper seeks to outline the benefits and disadvantages of the CCM together with warnings of typical caveats. Design/methodology/approach - The paper provides an exploration of the CCM concept and demonstrates several applications in the tourism, travel and hospitality industries. Findings - CCM will be expected as the norm in the travel industry by customers of the future, yet it is only the innovators who gain real tangible benefits from this development. Practical implications - The paper offers tangible examples for the travel industry on how to utilise this new technology. The technology is already available and the information communication technologies (ICT) companies are keen to establish ways as to how consumers can utilise it, i.e. by providing "content" for these ICT products the travel industry can fully gain from these developments and also enhance consumers' gains from it. This can result in more satisfied customers for the travel (as well as ICT) companies thus truly adopting the basic philosophy of marketing. Originality/value - The paper outlines current and future opportunities to truly place customers at the centre and provide organisations with some real savings/gains through the use of ICT. [PUBLICATION ABSTRACT].

The use and perceived usefulness of information sources among Japanese overseas tourists

Nishimura, S.W., Robert; King, Brian 2006, Tourism and Hospitality Research Vol 6 side 284-295.

This investigation into the use and perceived usefulness of information among Japanese outbound travellers reports on the findings of a survey conducted with over 1,200 Japanese travellers. The research examines information use by travellers about a range of travel components including restaurants, attractions and accommodation at both the before and during travel phases. It was found that travel guidebooks were the most heavily used source of information and their usefulness was evaluated as one of the highest during both phases. Using correspondence analysis, it is shown that while travel guidebooks were used heavily for finding out about most travel components, the only component that did not show significant reliance on information from travel guidebooks at either the prior to or during travel phases was accommodation. [PUBLICATION ABSTRACT].

Innovative marketing in SMEs

O'Dwyer, M.G., Audrey; Carson, David 2009, European Journal of Marketing Vol 43 side 46-61.

The purpose of this paper was to investigate the concept of innovative marketing and how it manifests itself in the context of small-to medium-sized enterprises. The literature relating to the characteristics of SMEs, and innovative marketing are reviewed to identify the key elements of innovative marketing and SMEs. This review and the key elements identified contribute to an overall conceptualisation of innovative marketing for SMEs. Findings - The discussion considers and provides a description of innovative marketing in SMEs. Innovative marketing does not just relate to products, new product development, and technological development but is also evident in other aspects of marketing related activities and decisions and is very specific to the context and needs of the SME. The focus of this paper is on taking the relevant themes from the literature and considering them in the light of SME marketing and in the context of SME business activities. [PUBLICATION ABSTRACT].

‘Your Wave, Bro!’: virtue ethics and surfing

Olivier, S. , Sport in Society Vol 13 side 1223-1233.

Exclusionary and sometimes violent behaviours have historically been tacitly accepted in surfing under the banner of ?localism?, or territorialism. In competition for an increasingly scarce resource (waves), vice is often celebrated and glorified within the subculture. Attempts at codifying acceptable behaviour have failed, not least because of an ingrained antipathy towards bureaucracy and formal organization. In rejecting the notion of surfing being able to operate in a special moral context, this paper proposes that the practice of virtue ethics holds the most likely chance of reversing moral decline. Virtuous action could operate in an exponential process, through replication and reciprocation, and might result in changing the current moral climate in which harmful acts of localism are tacitly accepted..

The role of electronic commerce in creating virtual tourism destination marketing organisations

Palmer, A.M., Patrick 2000, International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management Vol 12 side 198-204.

Cooperation is crucial to the successful marketing of tourism destinations, and e-commerce offers exciting new opportunities for cooperation among tourism suppliers. This article examines the reciprocal linking of web sites to create virtual tourism destination organizations, whereby consumers can access information and purchase multiple components of a holiday online. This paper examines the theoretical and practical benefits of virtual cooperation and reports on a survey, which examines the extent to which e-commerce is superseding or complementing traditional hierarchical marketing organizations. Based on a sample of tourism suppliers' web sites in Northern Ireland, very little cooperation was observed. The reasons for this are discussed and recommendations are made for future cooperation..

Analyzing printed media travelogues: Means and purposes with reference to framing destination image

Pan, S.R., C. 2007, Tourism, Culture and Communication Vol 7 side 85-97.

Travelogues have long been recognized as a useful resource for travel literature, destination image creation and promotion, geography learning, and tourism education. However, the selection criteria and analytical framework of travelogues are underresearched. Image creation is itself a product of framing (i.e., selection and emphasis of certain attributes while omitting others). Therefore, it is important for stakeholders to understand this framing process in order to gain an in-depth and objective appreciation of destination image formation. As a conceptual framework, this article proposes criteria for analyzing travelogues published in newspapers and magazines that are supposed to create favorable destination imagery while simultaneously providing readers with information about destination attributes through vicarious travel. It also presents a framework to aid extraction of objective and balanced information from travelogues that may be of use to destination marketing organizations. Excerpts from 200 travel stories are used to explain the analytical results. Copyright © 2007 Cognizant Comm. Corp..

Tourism sense-making: The role of the senses and travel journalism

Pan, S.R., C. 2009, Journal of Travel and Tourism Marketing Vol 26 side 625-639.

The tourist experience is corporeal and multisensory. Tourism organizations, therefore, need to pay attention to the sensual content of promotional messages conveyed to potential tourists to provide incentives for seeking enriched experiences of place. Together with other image formation agents, travelogues (travel articles published in newspapers and magazines) offer information on and prompt imagination about destinations that help frame visitors' expectations and influence their subsequent travel decisions and behaviors. This article content-analyzed 199 travelogues about New Zealand to identify relationships between regions and perceptions based on sensory allusions. It was found that the reporting of New Zealand as a whole by visiting journalists tended to utilize an appeal to all senses, but this was not true of individual destinations. It is suggested that urban destinations such as Auckland and Wellington possess potential for a wider sense appeal than is currently used through products based on urban adventure tourism and culinary tourism. An "ideal" itinerary is proposed that would permit journalists to capture a sensory experience of New Zealand..

Visualizing e-brand personality: Exploratory studies on visual attributes and e-brand personalities in Korea

Park, S.E.C., D.; Kim, J. 2005, International Journal of Human-Computer Interaction Vol 19 side .

The brand personality of an online product and service, usually represented by a Web site, is known as its e-brand personality. In the competitive conditions of online markets, e-brand personality is agreed to be an important factor in securing distinctive identity; however, few studies have suggested how to establish e-brand personality through the visual design of Web sites. This study explores the feasibility of constructing target e-brand personalities for online services by using visual attributes. It consists of 3 consecutive studies. The 1st study identified four major dimensions of e-brand personality on diverse Web sites. The 2nd study used 52 experimental home pages to identify key visual attributes associated with those 4 personality dimensions. The 3rd study explored whether those findings from the 2nd study can be applied in constructing Web sites for online services. The results showed that 2 visual attributes - simplicity and cohesion - are closely related to a bold personality. Three attributes - contrast, density, and regularity - can be used to create a Web site that has an analytical personality. Contrast, cohesion, density, and regularity are closely related to a Web site that is perceived to have a friendly personality. Regularity and balance were expected to be related to the sophisticated personality dimension, but no such relation was identified in the 3rd study. The article concludes with a discussion of implications, limitations, and future research directions. Copyright © 2005, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc..

Domestic vs outbound booking and channel choice behavior: evidence from New Zealand

Pearce, D.G.S., Christian 2011, International Journal of Culture, Tourism and Hospitality Research Vol 5 side 112-127.

This paper seeks to analyze the extent to which New Zealand domestic and outbound travelers' book components of their trip in advance or at their destination and to explore the factors that influence this. Furthermore, the paper compares the distribution channels used by domestic and outbound travelers to purchase different travel products and to examine why these channels have been selected. The study involves the collection and analysis of data on the profiles, trip characteristics and distribution behavior of domestic and outbound travelers based on a nationwide telephone survey of 1,000 respondents. Little variation was found in the profile characteristics of domestic and outbound travelers but significant differences occurred in terms of the trip characteristics, the extent of booking in advance and at the destination, reasons why advance bookings were not made, how bookings were made and the channels used all exhibited significant differences according to domestic or outbound travel. This pattern was less consistent with regards to the factors influencing how the bookings were made and the factors affecting channel choice. The findings illustrate the complexity of travel decision-making issues, underline the need to take account of differences between domestic and outbound travel and across trip components, and to examine the factors that underlie distribution related behavior. The value and originality of this paper lie in the systematic comparison of the booking and channel choice behavior of domestic and outbound travelers, the search for factors influencing this behavior and a sectoral approach that differentiates transport to and at the destination..

The resource-based and the market-based approaches to cultural tourism in alpine destinations

Peters, M.S., L.; Matzler, K. 2011, Journal of Sustainable Tourism Vol 19 side 877-893.

This study focuses on the relevance of cultural resources in tourism, including cultural heritage sites, cultural landscapes, events or festivals. It seeks to reveal the differences between two management strategy perspectives, the market-based view or approach (MBV) and the resource-based view or approach (RBV), of involved destination stakeholders and the impacts of those differing approaches on their perception of cultural tourism development. The literature on the strategy orientation of organizations/ destinations is reviewed and serves as the theoretical background. Data were gathered from 38 semi-structured interviews with experts and key stakeholders in alpine destinations of cultural tourism in Northern Italy, using GABEK, a tool for analyzing complex qualitative data. The results indicate differences between destinations with diverse strategy-perspectives in terms of authenticity perception, standardization, leadership and sustainability orientation. The MBV requires larger financial resources to create an effective brand image. Authenticity was found to be very important and the VRIO framework (valuable, rare, inimitable and organized) a valuable tool. The RBV is best related to niche market products. The RBV also leads to more sustainable strategies for resource use but requires strong vision and network management skills. © 2011 Taylor & Francis..

Sami tourism in northern Sweden: Measuring tourists' opinions using stated preference methodology

Pettersson, R. 2002, Tourism and Hospitality Research Vol 3 side 357-369.

A declining and restructured reindeer herd is forcing some Sami into other permanent or temporary occupations. In the Swedish parts of Sami land, Sapmi, an increasing number of Sami are involved in small companies dealing with tourism that focuses on their culture. The purpose of this paper is to analyse which factors matter when tourists make their decisions. Using the stated preference method, respondents were requested to evaluate a number of hypothetical alternatives. The tourists' opinions and considerations were measured in respect of three attributes: the companies' offers, the prices for these products and access. The study shows that there seems to be a considerable potential in these kinds of activity and that there is, in some respects, a gap between supply and demand..

Tourists' evaluations of destination image, satisfaction, and future behavioral intentions-the case of mauritius

Prayag, G. 2009, Journal of Travel and Tourism Marketing Vol 26 side 836-853.

Empirical studies have analyzed the relationship between destination image and other evaluative constructs such as perceived value and service quality. However, the role and influence of destination image on future behavioral intentions have been of lesser interest. Consequently, this article examines the relationship between destination image, satisfaction, and future behavioral intentions of visitors to the island of Mauritius. A theoretical model is tested on a sample of 705 international visitors using structural equations modeling. The results show that destination image has a direct and an indirect influence over future behavior. Satisfaction and overall image play a mediating role between destination image and future behavior. As a result, important theoretical and practical implications for destination image research and marketing are offered. © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC..

I'm not a typical tourist: German tourists' self-perception, activities, and motivations

Prebensen, N.K.L., Svein; Abelsen, Birgit 2003, Journal of Travel Research Vol 41 side 416-420.

This study focused on individuality as expressed by German tourists in Norway. Based on the survey data, German tourists were divided into two groups: those who perceived themselves as typical German tourists and those who did not. These two groups were compared with regard to their views on the characteristics of a typical German tourist, the activities of the two groups during their stay, and their self-reported motives for coming. Results indicate that while 89.5% of the respondents viewed themselves as nontypical tourists, the two groups' views of what constituted a typical German tourist did not differ significantly. Interestingly, the data showed no differences between the two groups with respect to their activities during their journeys or their motives for traveling to Norway. Results are discussed in view of current perspectives on individuality..

Local Economic Role of Nature-based Tourism in Kuhmo Municipality, Eastern Finland

Rinne, P.S., O. 2005, Scandinavian Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Vol 5 side 89-101.

The study was carried out to examine and quantify the economic role of nature-based tourism on a local, municipality level. In contrast to mass tourism, nature-based tourism is characterized by individualism, small tourist groups and geographically scattered supply of services, which makes economic and regional development evaluation difficult. Kuhmo municipality in the Eastern Finland wilderness has a long tradition in small-scale nature-based tourism. A so-called Nordic model was applied to quantify direct, indirect and induced income and employment impacts. The model was developed further in order to track income leakage. The data consisted of 385 tourist groups, i.e. people travelling together, and 100 tourism companies interviewed in Kuhmo. The gross income impact amounted to 3.45 million Euros a year, equalling exactly half of the total tourism income. The share of income leakage was 48%, leaving 1.98 million Euros as a net income impact. Nature-based tourism employed 53 man-year-units in Kuhmo, which was 48% of tourism jobs and 1.6% of total employment. Compared to general tourism, there was no major difference in the amount of daily expenditure. Yet, the pattern of expenditure was different and generated less direct and more indirect effects. The results show that nature-based tourism already plays a role in maintaining the population in peripheral, rural locations and in bringing precious additional jobs to regions suffering from heavy structural unemployment..

Understanding the motivation and travel behavior of cycle tourists using involvement profiles

Ritchie, B.W.T., A.; Faulks, P. 2010, Journal of Travel and Tourism Marketing Vol 27 side 409-425.

Bicycle tourism is a growing niche tourism market which has potential economic, social, and environmental outcomes for individual participants and host communities. However, there has been a lack of research into heterogeneity of this market and their respective motivations and behavior. This article applies the concept of enduring involvement, in conjunction with tourist motivational theory, to segment and better understand cycle tourist behavior and intentions. A total of 564 completed questionnaires was collected from an online survey of bicycle club members in Australia. Respondents were segmented into five initial clusters by their level of enduring involvement. A number of significant differences were found on their travel motivations, travel behavior, and behavioral intentions, as well as their sociodemographics and cycling behavior. The results lend support to the application of enduring involvement in a tourism context to better understand the behavior of niche markets which include popular leisure pursuits. Recommendations as a result of the findings are made for product development and marketing communication, while future research opportunities are also outlined. © Taylor and Francis Group, LLC..

Marketing standardisation: tour operators in the Nordic region

Roper, A. 2005, European Journal of Marketing Vol 39 side 514-527.

This paper aims to evaluate the marketing decisions made by European tour operators. It seeks to assess the extent of marketing standardization/adaptation across and within the Nordic region and to identify the centric profiles of the sample firms in terms of marketing decision-making. A multiple case study approach was employed and the research design combined a range of empirical data gathered from regional headquarters and one subsidiary. These indicate that the case study firms manage marketing regionally, at the same time; certain activities are adapted to local market and competitive conditions. It is clear that the think regional-act local philosophy or cooperative centralization is a challenge for tour operators to manage and that the level of international marketing standardization is affected by situation-specific factors such as product and industry characteristics..

Film-Induced Tourism: Benefits and Challenges for Destination Marketing

Saltik, I.A.C., Yesim; Kozak, Metin , European Journal of Tourism Research Vol 4 side 44-54.

This paper aims at a qualitative-based empirical investigation of how TV series influences the economic structure and stimulate the publicity of places where it was filmed and which are about to be considered as a visitor attraction in domestic tourism. In order to reach this objective, we have chosen Bozuyuk, a small town of Mugla and located in the south-west part of Turkey. Within the scope of the field study, three excursions were arranged to the town of Bozuyuk where the series was shot, and an on-site observation was made by witnessing both interviews and shooting of the series. Despite the fact that the importance of shooting a series in the region was not understood by the local people in the beginning, all the participants, whom we made interviews with, empasized the contribution of the series in terms of the local economy and publicity. There are some tradesmen approaching the issue particularly in terms of cost-benefit analysis in the light of environment and sustainability. As in Bozuyuk, TV series and movies could aid to counterbalance the lack of causal advertisements for the promotion of places and become a centre of attraction, as a single product itself or as an integrated multiple product, catering for people who like to take short visits. Choosing such a method has an equal impact of spending million dollars for publicity. A further consequence of this study is that gaining a widespread coverage in domestic media and tourism depends on the power of film producers or directors. [PUBLICATION ABSTRACT].

National Park Visitor Segments and their Interest in Rural Tourism Services and Intention to Revisit

Sievanen, T.N., M.; Pouta, E. 2011, Scandinavian Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Vol 11 side 54-73.

The study aims to understand national park visitors' interests to use tourism services provided in the vicinity of Linnansaari, Seitseminen and Repovesi national parks in Southern Finland. Separate visitor groups were identified based on their use of tourism services and their intention to revisit the area. Data were generated from a questionnaire survey of 736 visitors to the national parks. The analyses revealed five dimensions of interest in tourism services from which five visitor groups were identified: Countryside and outdoor friends, who were interested in recreation services; safari riders, interested in renting snowmobiles and similar services; guided visitors, who were interested in guided tours; room and rental seekers, whose main interest was accommodation and rental services, and uninterested, who had no interest in services. The strongest intentions to revisit the parks and the regions were recorded among "countryside and outdoor friends" and "safari riders". The results of this study may help tourism enterprises, municipality decision makers and park managers in rural communities surrounding national parks to understand and recognize visitors' overall needs of tourism services..

Segmenting special interest visitors to a destination region based on the volume of their expenditures: An application to rail-trail users

Spencer, D.M. 2010, Journal of Vacation Marketing Vol 16 side 83-95.

Various general tourist markets have been successfully segmented based on the volume of tourists' expenditures in destination areas. However, the approach has been rarely employed in more narrowly defined 'special interest' tourist markets. This study tested the viability of expenditure-based segmentation in the case of a special interest market comprised of visitors to a rail-trail in the Black Hills of South Dakota, USA. Nonresident visitors were classified as light, medium, and heavy spenders based on their total expenditures in the region. Although heavy spenders comprised only 33% of the Trail's market, their spending accounted for 65% of the expenditures of the market as a whole. Compared to their counterparts, heavy spenders were more likely to have been mountain biking aficionados, to have had higher incomes, and to have had longer lengths of stay and greater involvement with recreation in the study region. Findings suggest how heavy spenders can be successfully reached, attracted, and served. © The Author(s) 2010..

‘I just eat, sleep and dream of surfing’: when surfing meets motherhood

Spowart, L.B., Lisette; Shaw, Sally , Sport in Society Vol 13 side 1186-1203.

In this paper we draw on in-depth interviews with six women to examine the construction of surfing mums' subjectivities. We are interested in what discourses surfing mums draw on to constitute their subjectivities; in the conditions that make possible the constitution of surfing mums; in how the women negotiate the oft-contradictory dictates of motherhood and surfer; and in the different modes by which women render themselves as viable subjects. Furthermore, we examine the extent to which the dispositions and practices of surfing mums can be regarded as technologies of the self, affording disruptive potentialities or spaces of freedom. We suggest that contemporary individualist, healthist and familial discourses afford a range of subject positions, yielding opportunities for surfing mums to occupy shifting positions of power and resistance, some of which potentially transform and re-work traditional constructs of motherhood. Furthermore, we argue that practices of self stylization, and a critical and reflexive attitude towards their own practices and positioning as ?mothers? and ?surfers?, can be discerned in the stories of the women..

Surface and substructure: beneath surfing's commodified surface

Stranger, M. , Sport in Society Vol 13 side 1117-1134.

This article discusses the important role that surfing's own ?culture industry? plays in the internal dynamics of the surfing subculture and at the nexus between the subculture and mainstream society. It looks at the ?Big Three? surfing culture companies ? Quiksilver, Billabong and Rip Curl ? and their trajectory from grass-roots, cottage-industry businesses to global corporations. An alternative model to Marx's modern (economic) base and (social) superstructure is proposed; i.e., an (economic) surface and (social) substructure. This alternative model provides a useful framework for examining the dynamic between the postmodern surfing subculture and the economy (both its own and the mainstream economy). The model depicts a substructure consisting of surfing's social formations and sectors, based upon shared foundational experience of transcendence? a sublime loss of self in the act of surfing. Surfing's culture industry is shown to provide goods for insiders and present a commodified surface of symbolic tokens for mainstream consumers of surfing style, and in the very process act both as a bulwark against mainstream subsumption and an agent of postmodernization within the mainstream..

Leisure and tourism services and the older innovator

Szmigin, I.C., Marylyn 2001, The Service Industries Journal Vol 21 side 113-129.

In the light of changing demographics this study seeks to identify whether older consumers are innovative in their consumption behavior. A domain specific scale is used among up-market consumers for leisure and tourism services. This scale has been extensively applied to consumers to identify predisposition towards innovative behavior for specific products and services. A postal survey identified older consumers as having a relatively high level of domain specific innovativeness. This research suggests that as people age they do not necessarily become less interested in consumption and it is a mistake to ignore or alienate such a potentially lucrative market..

Why Do People Purchase Nature-Based Tourism Activity Products? A Norwegian Case Study of Outdoor Recreation

Tangeland, T. 2011, Scandinavian Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Vol 11 side 435-456.

This paper addresses the need for a better understanding of why people purchase nature-based tourism activity products as a basis for management decisions. In order to satisfy the tourist's needs, wants and goals, businesses must first understand the tourist's motivations for purchasing such products. A factor-cluster segmentation approach was employed for a survey among members from two of Norway's largest nongovernmental outdoor recreation organisations. Four motivation factors: quality improvement, skill development, new activity and social, and five segments: Want-it-all, Try new activity, Social, Performer and Unexplained were identified. These segments differed in terms of their purchase motivation, socio-demographic characteristics and travelling behaviour. Understanding the differences in these segments will help managers of nature-based tourism businesses to target more profitable segments, develop products that better satisfy the needs in targeted segments, and to develop better market communication..

Considerations regarding quality management in services as a marketing instrument for increasing customers' satisfaction in tourism products

Teodorescu, N.S., A. F.; Mitu, A. 2009, Consideraţii privind managementul calitǎţii în servicii ca instrument de marketing pentru creşterea satisfacţiei utilizatorilor de produse turistice Vol 26 side 412-418.

The development of service sector - as a defining trait of modern market economy - demands permanent improvement of theory and applications in the domain of quality. Following this statement one can notice a considerable evolution of the advanced approach associated to the concept of quality management in services of specialists bringing to attention modalities and instruments that are more and more sophisticated with the intention to give consistent answers to the management teams of all activities included in the field of services. In this context modern marketing is able to give specialists from academic or real economic environment scientific fundamental approaches that are capable to bring closer together the desired efficiency and efficacy to real consumers' requests and perceptions. The quality management approach at tourist's services level underlines important particularities, creating a symbiosis between percepts and theoretical concepts and the practical need to fundament decisions in the tourist's services quality management. In a modern vision these are approached gradually, in four steps: quality control, quality insurance, total quality control and total quality management. For each step are specified the operational type of quality, level of approach considering marketing activities and users typology. According to each step of knowledge there are developed the instruments, techniques and work methods, fact that amplifies the opportunities to detail this kind of approaches to operational level - with special address to tourism management..

Branding Europe - between nations, regions and continents

Therkelsen, A.G., M. , Scandinavian Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Vol 10 side 107-128.

The aim of this paper is to explore a common European tourism marketing initiative orchestrated by the organisation European Travel Commission (ETC) and communicated via www.visiteurope.com. Particular focus is given to the position of the Nordic countries - how they are depicted and which imagery is used to represent these countries. The paper raises the question whether it makes sense to name the initiative a "Brand Europe" as suggested by the president of ETC and whether common denominators are sought thereby facilitating the creation of a European brand profile, or whether the website is just a collection of links to national websites thereby functioning as a medium for national tourism destination promotion. Theoretically the point of departure is taken in place-branding theory, and scrutinising this literature it appears that attention has centred on branding the city and the nation whereas little attention has been paid to branding supra-national entities. In this article focus is on stakeholder interests and consumer images and their implications on communicative choices in place-branding efforts. The analysis shows that www.visiteurope.com, on the one hand, is a shared European platform which thematically sketches experiences to be had in Europe, and which constitutes more than just the marketing from national destinations in Europe. On the other hand, it is hardly possible to term this initiative "a brand" as it lacks a holistic approach not only to promotion but also product development. Keywords in the shared profile are diversity, history, culture and nature that, taken together, stand out as quite a generic catch-all presentation of Europe, however, there seems to be potential in the place-branding concept that can be exploited more extensively in future, also at the supra-national level of Europe as a destination. The Nordic countries appear as a region "in the far corner of Europe" presented as primarily a location with extreme nature conditions and exotic cultural habits combined with peaceful, sunny café environments which only links up marginally with the overall European profile. Still, for a relatively unknown region in the global tourist market, it is deemed relevant for the Nordic countries to be part of a European brand in future, but the integration of a regional profile into a future European brand needs substantial development. © 2010 Taylor & Francis..

Branding Europe - between nations, regions and continents

Therkelsen, A.G., M. 2010, Scandinavian Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Vol 10 side 107-128.

The aim of this paper is to explore a common European tourism marketing initiative orchestrated by the organisation European Travel Commission (ETC) and communicated via www.visiteurope.com. Particular focus is given to the position of the Nordic countries - how they are depicted and which imagery is used to represent these countries. The paper raises the question whether it makes sense to name the initiative a "Brand Europe" as suggested by the president of ETC and whether common denominators are sought thereby facilitating the creation of a European brand profile, or whether the website is just a collection of links to national websites thereby functioning as a medium for national tourism destination promotion. Theoretically the point of departure is taken in place-branding theory, and scrutinising this literature it appears that attention has centred on branding the city and the nation whereas little attention has been paid to branding supra-national entities. In this article focus is on stakeholder interests and consumer images and their implications on communicative choices in place-branding efforts. The analysis shows that www.visiteurope.com, on the one hand, is a shared European platform which thematically sketches experiences to be had in Europe, and which constitutes more than just the marketing from national destinations in Europe. On the other hand, it is hardly possible to term this initiative "a brand" as it lacks a holistic approach not only to promotion but also product development. Keywords in the shared profile are diversity, history, culture and nature that, taken together, stand out as quite a generic catch-all presentation of Europe, however, there seems to be potential in the place-branding concept that can be exploited more extensively in future, also at the supra-national level of Europe as a destination. The Nordic countries appear as a region "in the far corner of Europe" presented as primarily a location with extreme nature conditions and exotic cultural habits combined with peaceful, sunny café environments which only links up marginally with the overall European profile. Still, for a relatively unknown region in the global tourist market, it is deemed relevant for the Nordic countries to be part of a European brand in future, but the integration of a regional profile into a future European brand needs substantial development. © 2010 Taylor & Francis..

Alternative sport and affect: non-representational theory examined

Thorpe, H.R., Robert , Sport in Society Vol 13 side 1268-1291.

This paper is our concerned response to the tendency in critical studies of physical culture and alternative sport to reduce experience to language, discourse, texts or representation. We consider the potential of British social theorist and cultural-geographer Nigel Thrift's ?non-representational theory? for shedding new light on the lived, affective and affecting experiences of participants in contemporary sport and physical cultures. In this paper we discuss Thrift's seven tenets of non-representational theory, offering numerous examples from the literature relating to an array of alternative sport cultures. We also introduce the constructs of ?politics of affect? and ?politics of hope?, which combine, amalgamate and extend the seven tenets ? and are the essence of Thrift's most recent work. These two politics hold great promise for revealing some of the complexities of the nexus(es) between power, power/knowledge, affect, experience, movement, consumption, representation and new forms of politics, in sport and physical culture, in the early twenty-first century. Here we are particularly interested in the implications of these constructs for understanding the developments of various social justice movements (e.g., health, educational, environmental, anti-violence) that have recently proliferated within alternative sport..

Nationality as a segmentation criterion in tourism research: the case of international tourists' expenditures while on trips in Norway

Thrane, C.F., Eivind 2012, Tourism Economics Vol 18 side 203.

The practice of using nationality or its equivalents as a segmentation criterion in tourism research has been both warned against and advocated among tourism scholars. Whenever a nationality, country-of-residence, country-of-origin or similar variable has been included in multivariate statistical modelling, however, its role has tended to be that of one of many control variables. The main purpose of this paper is to quantify and describe more comprehensively than in past research how variations in expenditure levels are associated with the nationality of foreign tourists in Norway during the summers of 2007 and 2009. The results show that nationality has both gross and net (unadjusted and ceteris paribus) effects on expenditures, and that this variable solely accounts for over 35% of the overall explained variance in tourism expenditures. The implications of the results are discussed. [PUBLICATION ABSTRACT].

Tour operators and alternative tourism in Italy: Exploiting niche markets to increase international competitiveness

Trunfio, M.P., L.; Nigro, C. 2006, International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management Vol 18 side 426-438.

Purpose - The paper sets out to analyses the approach of Southern Italian regions in the way they are developing different types of tourist products. Design/methodology/approach - In an attempt to measure tour operator preferences that impact the offer features, the tour operators' profiles have been traced, through a cluster analysis, in order to develop the market of new tourist products in Southern Italy. Findings - The findings prove that the attitude of foreign tourists in choosing Southern Italian destinations is influenced not only by seaside location and cultural products but also by alternative features, such as natural resources and enogastronomic traditions, which represent the differentiating and value-creating elements of the basic product. Moreover, the accommodation chosen confirms international tour operator loyalty. Research limitations/implications - The cluster definition helps in identifying collective strategies to promote macro destinations, connecting similar places linked by tourist need satisfaction. Future research should consider the different typologies of tour operators and try to compare different areas of Europe with Italy. Practical implications - New forms of tourism require specific and differentiated strategies supported by forms of international market penetration. The marketing thrusts should focus on the place vocation and a local hospitality system, developing and marketing local tourist products. Originality/value - This paper analyses the role of tourist operators in developing and marketing new destinations and typologies of tourism. © Emerald Group Publishing Limited..

A model of multidestination travel: Implications for marketing strategies

Tussyadiah, I.P.K., T.; Morisugi, H. 2006, Journal of Travel Research Vol 44 side 407-417.

Because tourists derive utility from the enjoyment of destination characteristics, Lancaster's approach is putatively appropriate to address the particular structure of the tourism industry. Most research efforts regarding tourism destination, including those applying Lancaster's model, specifically address the choice of a single destination. This article is intended to explain multiple destination choice using Lancaster's characteristics model and a discussion of model implications of some marketing strategies for destinations as well as for tour operators. The model developed herein explains that packages of multiple destinations can create preferable combinations of characteristics for certain travelers. Furthermore, the model provides useful strategies for tour operators in combining destinations into a travel menu or package. © 2006 Sage Publications..

Competitive advantage, knowledge and relationship marketing: where, what and how?

Tzokas, N.S., Michael 2004, The Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing Vol 19 side 124-135.

An organization's ability to enjoy long-term competitive advantage is closely related to its capacity for knowledge creation, dissemination and use. From a practical point-of-view the value of this statement could be increased if suggestions could be made to managers as to what kind of knowledge to seek for their organization, where and how to look for it. This article provides tentative answers to these questions from a relationship marketing perspective. In doing so the scope, processes and technologies of relationship marketing are discussed and their knowledge content and potential outlined. Finally, a conceptual framework for knowledge generation and dialogue in relationship marketing is proposed and directions for further research, alongside their practical implications for contemporary firms, delineated.[PUBLICATION ABSTRACT].

Aligning sales management and relationship marketing in the services sector

Tzokas, N.S., Michael; Kyziridis, Panayiotis 2001, The Service Industries Journal Vol 21 side 195-210.

This study explores the selling job in the relational sales context of the services sector and highlights a number of key issues for the development of the theory and practice of relationship oriented sales management..

Movies as a tool of modern tourist marketing

Vagionis, N.L., M. 2011, Tourismos Vol 6 side 353-362.

The contemporary tourist market hosts intense competition amongst countries and particularly amongst those that their economy is supported, to a rather critical extent, by tourism business. All countries try to promote their tourist products using various marketing techniques. International experience reveals that movies constitute an important marketing tool which can effectively serve the strategy for promotion of tourism destinations. Landscapes, significant heritage sites, festivals, attractions and historical monuments have quite often been selected as film shooting locations. Evidence shows that such films may, under certain circumstances, induce "film tourism", a phenomenon where local economies eventually enjoy an increase in visitor numbers and related benefits after the circulation of the relevant movie. © University of the Aegean..

Hospitality and Tourism Marketing (2d edition)

Van Hoof, H.B. 1997, Journal of Travel Research Vol 36 side 97-97.

Hospitality and Travel Marketing, by Alastair M. Morrison, is reviewed..

Tour operators' insight into the Russian nature-based experience market

Vespestad, M.K. 2010, European Journal of Tourism Research Vol 3 side 38-53.

The understanding of nature and nature-based tourism products might differ according to tourists nationality. Existing knowledge is often based on Western tourists view and relation to nature-based tourism. Eastern European tourists, however, might not share the same understanding. The Eastern European tourist market is increasing and destinations compete to attain their share, while it is evident that further knowledge is needed to apprehend what this market expects from nature-based experiences. Tour operators play a crucial role in imparting knowledge of destinations and tourism products to potential consumers. This article attends to the issue through interviews of six tour operators in Russia, to inform on how Russian tourists relate to nature-based experiences. The article also addresses intermediaries' influence upon tourists meaning formation through their communication of nature-based tourism experiences. The content analysis reveals four main content areas that relate to the overall objective of the study: 1) Russians' relation to nature, 2) what Russian tourists emphasize as important for nature-based tourism products, 3) the meaning of nature-based experiences to Russians, 4) promoting nature-based experiences to Russians. The analysis demonstrates there is discrepancy in the conception of what nature-based experiences are; hence an understanding of national differences is encouraged. © 2010 International University College. All rights reserved..

Promoting norway abroad: A content analysis of photographic messages of nature-based tourism experiences

Vespestad, M.K. 2010, Tourism, Culture and Communication Vol 10 side 159-174.

Growing interest in tourism experiences is evident in the tourism industry. The concern with creating memorable experiences is an area of increasing importance for both the industry and researchers alike. The focus within the experience economy to date has been on culturally derived experiences, whereas the ones based on natural resources have been more scarcely debated. To maintain a position in the international tourism market, there is clearly a need to develop promotion strategies that will attract the attention of the increasing market of nature-based tourists. The intent of this study is to compare how Norwegian nature-based tourism experiences are visually communicated towards two international markets. The visual aspect of promotion is addressed by analyzing and comparing photographs used in brochures and on websites, directed at the Russian and the British market. As a result of the literature review a matrix is introduced as a framework for further research on photographic messages. The content analysis of the photographs shows minor differences in the way the Russian and British market is addressed, demonstrating that the analyzed material is nearly standardized. Tangible attributes are emphasized as well as natural features of landscape. The article adds to existing literature as it provides a framework, within which to study promotion and perceptions of photographic messages. Furthermore, the article contributes to increased knowledge on how nature-based tourism is advertised. © 2010 Cognizant Comm. Corp..

Collaborative destination marketing: Understanding the dynamic process

Wang, Y. 2008, Journal of Travel Research Vol 47 side 151-166.

Collaborative initiatives are voluntary arrangements between tourism organizations involved in managing and promoting destinations. In the tourism domain, although collaboration issues have been studied from various perspectives, relatively little research has been conducted on the process of collaborative marketing at the destination level. This study attempts to examine the process of collaboration formation in the context of a destination within the domain of theories of interorganizational relations. The study chooses a destination as a case of investigation with a focus on marketing activities between and among the local tourism industry facilitated by the local destination marketing organization. Implications are discussed from both theoretical and practical perspectives. © 2008 Sage Publications..

Web-based destination marketing systems: Assessing the critical factors for management and implementation

Wang, Y. 2008, International Journal of Tourism Research Vol 10 side 55-70.

The Web-based destination marketing system (DMS) has been widely used as a distribution channel and marketing tool by destination marketing organisations (DMOs) at different levels in the promotion and management of tourism destinations. However, successful Web marketing requires a systematic approach in understanding key factors supporting the management and implementation of the DMS both from business and technical perspectives. The purpose of this study is to assess the critical factors of the Web-based DMS used by DMOs in the USA on the following five areas: website function design, website promotion, Website-performance measurement, Web-marketing impact assessment and organisation technology environment. Discussions of the study results and implications for Internet destination marketing and management are also provided. Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd..

Collaborative destination marketing: A case study of Elkhart county, Indiana

Wang, Y.F., D. R. 2007, Tourism Management Vol 28 side 863-875.

The fragmented nature of the tourism industry requires a substantial degree of coordination and collaboration among the variety of different players in destination marketing. However, the studies on partnerships and collaboration have taken very narrow perspectives of cooperation relationships and therefore, none of them individually can explain the nature of marketing alliances and networks among tourism organizations. Based upon the results of previous research and a case study of Elkhart County, Indiana, this paper proposes a more integrative theoretical framework in an attempt to better describe and explain the nature and dynamism of collaborative destination marketing. The implications of this framework are provided from both practical and theoretical perspectives. © 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved..

Examining the nature and dynamics of At-destination recommendations: The local experts' perspective

Wang, Y.S., D.; Rompf, P. 2006, Journal of Hospitality and Leisure Marketing Vol 13 side 139-160.

At-destination referrals from local experts play a critical and complementary role in information sourcing and venue decision strategies by visitors of a destination. This context-specific form of word-of-moulh communication is widely practiced, yet remains an under-researched phenomenon when taking into consideration the broad range of locals utilized by visitors when making at-destination decisions on travel-related services. Most word-of-mouth studies have examined its influence on consumer's purchase behavior, but few attempts have been made to investigate the local experts' perspective. This exploratory study attempts to contribute to the understanding of the phenomenon from the local experts' perspective from two aspects: (1) examining the nature and significance of at-destination recommendations; and (2) developing and testing a motivational construct of locals making recommendations. The results provide further evidence of a broad range of residents within a community being involved in the provision of venue information and direct property referrals. A test of motivational scale items reveals that five themes emerge as the underlying constructs driving the local experts' referral behavior. Discussion and implications are also provided based on the study results. © 2005 by The Haworth Press, Inc. All rights reserved..

Chancing your arm: the meaning of risk in rock climbing

West, A.A., Linda , Sport in Society Vol 13 side 1234-1248.

This paper explores the relationship between risk-taking and risk management by examining meanings attached to risk by a group of lifestyle sport participants. Drawing from in-depth interviews with male and female rock-climbers in the UK, it outlines the ways in which climbers' construction of risk and risk management were intimately related to broader discourses of risk and self-reflexivity in contemporary western society. 1 Analysing the data through reference to Douglas' work on risk and identity2 shows how climbers' discursive practices surrounding risk management are intrinsically related to their assumed identity as a competent, experienced and good climber. Consequently, this group of climbers established their credentials not by daring or risk-taking actions on the rock face but instead by demonstrating their competence in the way they managed and controlled risk..

Introducing the consumption and representation of lifestyle sports

Wheaton, B. , Sport in Society Vol 13 side 1057-1081.

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Tourism and hospitality marketing: fantasy, feeling and fun

Williams, A. 2006, International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management Vol 18 side 482-495.

Experiential marketing is arguably marketing's most contemporary orientation, but as with many marketing innovations it has been largely overlooked by those involved in tourism and hospitality marketing and promotion. Whilst in many industries companies have moved away from traditional features and benefits approaches, to putting experiential marketing centre-stage, marketing in the tourism and hospitality sectors does not appear to have explicitly engaged the theoretical issues involved. This raises the question what, if anything, does experiential marketing have to offer marketers in the disciplines of tourism and hospitality? In this paper, I will seek to introduce the experiential marketing debate and demonstrate how the questions raised by the concept are critical to an understanding of marketing theory and research within the tourism and hospitality sectors. Following the authors previous publications which sought to investigate alternative paradigms for studying hospitality consumers, this research attempts to consider the practical applications of one such model. The tourism and hospitality sectors cannot be seen to be immune to fundamental changes in the orientation of marketing. Innovative experience design will become an increasingly important component of tourism and hospitality firms core capabilities. Those who go beyond service excellence, and market experientially will lead the creation of value in the sector. This paper provides a framework as to how organisations might usefully implement an experiential marketing strategy..

Capturing the essence of a brand from its history: The case of Scottish tourism marketing

Yeoman, I.D., Alastair; McMahon-Beattie, Una; Palmer, Adrian 2005, Journal of Brand Management Vol 13 side 134-147.

History has a habit of repeating itself but many people tend to forget this. This paper sets out to show how the history of Scottish tourism becomes a pattern for the future. In a climate of consumer trends, such as escapism, wellbeing and culture, the past becomes a retrospect of the future. By focusing on experience, cultural capital and authenticity, a marketing proposition is created through a brand essence that reinforces the philosophy that history is the future. [PUBLICATION ABSTRACT].

The future of Scotland's international tourism markets

Yeoman, I.G., C.; McMahon-Beattie, U. 2009, Futures Vol 41 side 387-395.

This paper explains the rationale behind a tourism marketing strategy prepared for Scotland, as an example of a small-nation destination. In 1985, a typical international tourist to Scotland would have been be described as 'American, over-50 and interested in heritage', whereas today the typical tourist is 'European, under-35 and interested in culture'. The change can be explained within the context of global tourism trends, which provide an insightful explanation of this transformation. Looking to the future, the prospects up to 2025 are assessed in this paper, based upon future trends and UN WTO projections. Is that future to be based upon arrivals from North America, European or the Rest of the World? Whatever the scenario, a strategy is presented that captures the essence of Scotland's international tourism expectations based upon key drivers and market prospects. In a highly competitive market, Scotland should focus on markets that it can win and that can contribute towards the industry's ambition to grow the economic value of tourism by 50% by the year 2015 through strong branding and a focused marketing proposition. © 2009..

Developing a scenario planning process using a blank piece of paper

Yeoman, I.M.-B., Una 2005, Tourism and Hospitality Research Vol 5 side 273-285.

VisitScotland is the national tourism organisation for Scotland, primarily responsible for marketing Scotland as a destination. The agency is also the Scottish Executive's (Government) principal adviser on policy matters relating to tourism and has the ambition to be the best national tourism organisation in the world. In order to reach this goal, it is committed to futures thinking, in particular using scenario planning in order to frame this thinking. This paper describes how VisitScotland designed a scenario planning process based upon three clusters: A scenario planning group, environmental scanning; and a forecasting model/economic analysis. [PUBLICATION ABSTRACT].

Retail event: A comparative study between local residents and tourists in spontaneous purchase

Yeung, R.Y., W. M. S. 2011, Tourism Vol 59 side 169-182.

Research on festivals and cultural events draw considerable attention among academics and practitioners. The relationships between marketing influence and spontaneous purchase have been studied in general retail setting; however, there is dearth knowledge of purchase patterns in a festive setting. This study aims to identify what factors motivate attendees to spontaneous purchase and to investigate how local residents and tourists respond in their spontaneous purchase when exposed to stimuli at a special event held infrequently for a short period of time. The flower market at the Chinese New Year Festival was chosen as the study context as it is one of the most popular events in Macau, in which spontaneous purchases are made. A quota sample of 150 local residents and 100 tourists was recruited in November, 2007. The results indicate that product quality, price, and variety are the top three priorities among both local residents and tourists when making purchasing decision at the flower market. Significant differences of free sample tasting and cultural tradition were found between the two segments in purchase intention. The findings allow marketing activities to be highly targeted according to the difference response of local residents and tourists. Future research is also recommended..

Interactions Between Visual Appeals, Holiday Motivations, Destination Personality and the Self-Image: Implications for Destination Advertising

Yuksel, F.B., Yasin 2009, Journal of Travel and Tourism Research (Online) Vol side 75-104.

The concept of brand personality has come to the forefront of destination marketing thinking in recent years and a noticeable growth has been experienced in the number of brand personality research. Reviewed literature suggests that not only direct but also processing of indirect experiences with a destination (e.g., exposure to advertisements) would trigger ascription of a brand personality and influence emotions, attitudes and behaviors toward a destination. However, only little is known about how personality is created through indirect experiences with a destination and how the way a destination depicts itself in an ad influences interactions between motivation, destination personality, affective image, self-image and belief. Results of the Structural Equation Modeling analysis show that holiday motives play a strong role in the interpretation of the personality and the more similar the interpreted personality is to the individual's needs and the self-image, the more favorable his/her evaluations of the destination would be. In other words, when the visual information in an ad fits the individuals' holiday motivations and the self-image, it is more likely that the individual develops stronger belief that the destination could fulfill the experience that s/he seeks. The results of the subsequent multiple group analysis demonstrates that the nature of the appeal used in a destination advertisement influences the individuals' responses to the advertised destination, and this suggests that the visual appeals in a destination's advertisement should be prudently selected. Implications of the study are discussed and recommendations for further research are provided. [PUBLICATION ABSTRACT].

Travel trade shows: exploratory study of exhibitors' perceptions

Yuksel, U.V., Ranjit , The Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing Vol 25 side 293-300.

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the motivations for participating in international trade shows and perceptions of effectiveness and challenges faced by exhibiting firms. A multiple-methodology approach is adopted. Initially, interviews are conducted with travel trade exhibitors. These then serve as a foundation for a survey of senior tourism managers. Exhibitors perceive efficient and effective products/services being displayed on the stand as the central factor for success. The key motivation for participating in travel trade shows is to improve relationships with customers. The primary motivation in participating in specific travel trade shows was influenced by the reputation of the fair, and the key challenge relates to following up leads from the fair. As the study emphasises tourism and travel, generalising to other trade shows must be done with caution. The intangible and simultaneous nature of the offering emphasises empathy, responsiveness and reliability of the staff and will affect visitors' perceived service quality of the interaction. Furthermore, an explanation of the various motivations may aid exhibitors in their objectives for participating in travel trade shows. Although the tourism industry, and consequently travel trade shows, are booming, little research examines the motivations and effectiveness of travel trade from the exhibitor's perspective. Furthermore, the services nature of travel trade shows and its effects on marketing travel trade shows have seen only limited investigation..

Response quality of e-mail inquiries- A driver for knowledge management in the tourism organization?

Zehrer, A.P., H. 2006, Journal of Quality Assurance in Hospitality and Tourism Vol 7 side 53-73.

The growing world-wide competition of tourism regions, changing demand patterns, the claim for better products and offers, the decreasing attractiveness and increasing uniformity of offers consistently lead to new challenges for the quality assurance of destinations. High service quality enables tourism entrepreneurs to achieve decisive competitive advantages. Quality within a destination comprises all services which the guest is engaged in and is not limited by time or location of the stay. A crucial point is the first contact of a guest with the destination, which happens by e-mail inquiries in the majority of cases. The development of information technology has lead to more and more guests gathering pieces of information via the internet and has induced researchers to study this phenomenon (Buhalis and Licata, 2002; Raman-Bacchus and Molina, 2001). Therefore, response behavior becomes a key factor for the success of tourism organizations (Pechlaner et al. 2002). From the guest's point of view, the speed of response and breadth of information are to be seen as decisive factors for service quality and customer satisfaction. A mystery guest check by means of e-mail inquiries sent to selected tourism organizations was undertaken to determine the response behaviour and breadth of information provided by tourism organizations and to reveal potential gaps in the knowledge management and transfer of these organizations. According to elaborated quality criteria and standards, the paper reports a two-year mystery guest study of tourism organizations of an Alpine destination in Europe. Copyright © by The Haworth Press, Inc. All rights reserved..

INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGIES IN TOURISM - INFLUENCE, DYNAMICS, TRENDS

Zelenka, J. 2009, E+M Ekonomie a Management Vol side 123-132.

The ICT influences the tourism industry in a growing manner, both in quantitative and qualitative aspects, in many dimensions and non-predictable ways. What will be dominant are the different forms of E-business characterized by growing personalization, interactivity, complexity and services concentration, and at the same time usage simplification. New age of usage of the ICT in tourism will influence not only sophisticated presentation and online technologies but also cognitive and artificial intelligence applications, space oriented applications, intelligent sorting and information search, or virtual reality applications. In the near future, E-business in developed countries will have more consumers than in traditional personal trade. Tourism marketing will change itself more and more into online form with many competition and business subjects' fusion consequences..

The sustaining tourist - Results and conclusions from questioning tourists in German and Austrian National Parks and Biosphere Reserve regions

Ziener, K. 2006, Der nachhaltige tourist - Ergebnisse und Schlussfolgerungen einer Touristen-befragung in deutschen und österreichischen Nationalpark- und Biosphärenreservatsregionen Vol side 253-267.

Sustainable tourism is an important part of sustained regional development. In tourist regions especially there are varying possibilities and approaches to achieve sustainability. On the other hand, doubts have been raised again and again as to whether tourism is capable of sustainability at all. During the past decade numerous models, catalogues of criteria and strategies for sustainable tourism development have been elaborated but their transfer into reality has so far only partially taken place. This paper does not look at tourism supply but its demand. Based on results of questioning a total of some 3000 tourists in five German and Austrian National Parks or biosphere reserve regions respectively some questions of sustaining recreational and leisure utilisation have been more closely looked at, among them general holiday interests and environmentally friendly traffic. To characterise holiday makers on the one hand and day trippers on the other, varied methods of classification and arranging into types were used and comparisons between the regions were carried out. As regards sustainability it can be demonstrated that nature oriented recreation and use of leisure time is still greatly favoured, especially in landscapes still close to natural ones and in protected areas. Unfortunately only relatively few of those questioned showed an interest in nature and its protection and the use of public transport which is frequently cumbersome. The regional differences allow the drawing of interesting conclusions..

Do tourism providers know their visitors? An investigation of tourism experience at a destination

Zouni, G.K., Athanassios 2008, Tourism and Hospitality Research Vol 8 side 282-297.

Even dominant positivist researchers recognise the insufficiencies of traditional services research methodology and claim that the dominant models of service quality's measurement have failed to reveal the customers' prospective (Schembri and Sandberg, 2002). Whereas the customer is considered to be the focal point in contemporary marketing and services marketing , the customer's perspective is claimed to be missing from dominant theory (Grönroos, 1993, 2006a). This paper explores the potential for a modified gap analysis to serve as an alternative marketing tool. A research framework is constructed and tested using data produced by two surveys (tourists and tourism service providers) in a heritage destination. The purpose of the present study is to provide in favour of this gap an effective marketing tool for a better understanding of the customer's perspective. [PUBLICATION ABSTRACT].

Towards a framework for food tourism as an element of destination marketing

du Rand, G.E.H., E. 2006, Current Issues in Tourism Vol 9 side 206-234.

Local and regional food holds great potential to contribute to sustainable competitiveness in a destination. An analysis of the literature and promotional material of South African and key international destinations, however, indicate that the contribution of food to sustainable tourism and the marketing of destinations has received very little attention globally, as well as in South Africa. A framework and guidelines for developing and implementing food tourism could enable destination marketers and entrepreneurs to optimise the tourism potential of local and regional food. To this end a food tourism destination-marketing framework was conceptualised, which was based on the findings of a South African situation analysis and international trends and best practices. The South African situation analysis entailed an empirical investigation among regional and provincial destination marketing organisations to determine the current status and future potential and food tourism initiatives as a key component of destination marketing in South Africa. To support the food tourism destination-marketing framework, two key tools were developed, namely TOURPAT (a tourism and culinary atlas linked to a geospatial database) and PAT (a product potential and attractiveness tool). The framework and tools were tested in a South African destination and provided the stakeholders with mechanisms to develop and implement food tourism. This paper outlines the key components and an evaluation of the framework and tools that have been developed. Guidelines and recommendations for the development, packaging and marketing of local and regional foods are postulated. Proposals for future research are also outlined. © 2006 G. E. du Rand & E. Heath..