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Tourism ecology: towards the responsible, sustainable tourism future

2011, Worldwide Hospitality and Tourism Themes Vol 3 side 210-216.

Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to provide an insight into the purpose and development of responsible and sustainable tourism. Moreover, to present a critique of existing approach taken and to provide industry solutions towards key aspects, such as nature area tourism, eco-tourism, and rural development/tourism. Design/methodology/approach - In doing so, the paper will reconcile elements of responsible tourism and ecology within destination management. Whilst within a context of the tourism industry, the article will present a best practice approach for industry. Findings - Sustainable and responsible rural tourism development is unachievable without the application of ecological thinking. Consequently, tourism ecology naturally helps develop the tourism of rural areas based on local natural, social and cultural resources. Nevertheless, it is also an expectation that actors of the system, i.e. tourists must continue an active and responsibly sustainable practice. Practical implications - Sustenance of tourism is a double task: industry has to provide long-term reservation and guarantee that entrepreneurs' input of capital will return and at the same time, improve their economic prospects. Sustainable tourism has to be endurable and economically executable on the long term, but at the same time, it has to be socially and ethically fair in relation to the host community. Originality/value - This viewpoint presents an insight into tourism ecology from a variety of disciplines to form a rational approach to contemporary sustainable tourism.[PUBLICATION ABSTRACT].

Promoting ecotourism through networks: Case studies in the Balearic Islands

Anderson, W. 2009, Journal of Ecotourism Vol 8 side 51-69.

For over four decades, the Balearic Archipelago has experienced excessive pressure from tourism activities on its resource. Using a case approach, this article focuses on three networks that promote ecotourism in the Balearics. Alcudia Network is recognised for its actions on environmental education and training programmes, management of wastes, and traffic and noise control. Similarly, the Network of Sustainable Hotels of the Balearic promotes green environments in the hotel establishments and serves as an engine of sustainable development. Network of Calvia focuses on indigenous development through ensuring active participation of hosts, control of tourism quality, and sustainable use of resources. The study also identifies the measures used to promote ecotourism in the Balearics including special laws for Natural Areas of Special Interest and Rural Areas of Landscape Interest, taxes, green cards, and sustainable discounts. Yet, ecotourism as a primary product in these Islands has not been in high demand. Ecotourism operations could spread throughout if the networks could be formed all over the Islands. However, developing networks costs time and material resources, but makes the destination more attractive; therefore, stakeholders should look at the resources incurred as investment. Finally, ecotourism can be practical if stakeholders avoid politicising the ecological policies. © 2009 Taylor & Francis..

Science and technology issues in coastal ecotourism

Assessment, U.S.O.o.T. 1993, Tourism Management Vol 14 side 307-316.

This is an abridged and edited version of a Background Paper prepared by the US Office of Technology Assessment (OTA) of the Congress of the United States. Using information from a wide variety of sources many perhaps not familiar to tourism specialists the paper focuses on ecotourism trends, identifies issues related to resource conservation, and ecotourism development, planning and management and presents questions for further consideration. Where possible it attempts to identify issues of special concern to US Atlantic and Caribbean coastal and island areas. Copies of the full paper are available from the US Government Printing Office, Washington, DC 20402-9325, USA. © 1993..

Resort ecotourism: A paradigm for the 21st century

Ayala, H. 1996, Cornell Hospitality Quarterly Vol 37 side 46-46.

International tourism is increasingly driven by destinations' natural and cultural resources. To combine quality with profitability, resorts in the 21st century should be "ecoresorts." Ecoresorts will augment their guests' experiences by providing interpretation of the location and by offering guests the opportunity to participate in the destination's preservation. The quality of the destination environment, the potential for learning, and the complexity and authenticity of the experience will be important in the traveler's destination choice. The challenge for ecotourism is to enhance the tourism value of the natural and cultural resources in a way that will produce a ripple effect through local and national economies and also sustain the character of those resources. The future of resort ecotourism depends on solutions that provide for an enjoyable, authentic, and enlightening ecotourism experience despite conservation efforts that limit access to the heritage attractions..

The third criterion of ecotourism: Are ecotourists more concerned about sustainability than other tourists?

Beaumont, N. 2011, Journal of Ecotourism Vol 10 side 135-148.

Ecotourism can be defined by three core criteria: nature, learning and sustainability. The ecotourist market has been segmented by the nature and learning criteria only. It has been assumed that ecotourists are environmentally concerned and therefore sustainability is a factor in their decision-making. However, little empirical research has confirmed this assumption. This study surveyed 243 respondents participating in an ecotourism experience in Australia. It identified ecotourists according to the nature and learning criteria as per previous segmentation studies. Pro-environmental attitudes were measured as an indication of their support for sustainability. Results revealed no significant differences in pro-environmental attitudes between those identified as ecotourists and those considered non-ecotourists. While demand exists for nature and learning experiences, compliance with the sustainability criterion seems to be no more a factor in ecotourist decision-making than for mainstream tourists. Implications are that market segmentation research should consider all relevant criteria when segmenting a market for a particular product to ensure supply matches demand. However, demand for certain products can be created by innovative marketing practices. This would enable the ecotourism industry to respond to the market's demand for nature and learning, but also influence the behaviour and structure of the market with regard to sustainability. © 2011 Taylor & Francis..

Wildlife tourism and natural sciences knowledge: Challenges and critical factors

Bertella, G. , Scandinavian Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Vol 11 side 97-114.

This paper investigates the challenges and critical factors for the development and management of a form of wildlife tourism that is based on an active and practice-near role of natural sciences knowledge, and that, ultimately, can contribute to sustainability. Based on the study of a specific firm located in northern Norway which has developed a scientific form of wildlife tourism, the main challenges are identified in the limited access to competent and dedicated human capital and the difficulties related to networking, especially in the local area. The case study suggests that the factors that contribute positively to the attractiveness of wildlife tourism are also the ones that tend to affect its development negatively. The peripheral location makes the tourist product exotic, but at the same time it makes the recruitment of qualified co-workers particularly challenging. Similarly, the peculiarities of the individual firm contribute to the uniqueness of the tourist product, but they can isolate the individual firm from the other actors of the local context. Based on the findings, policy implications and directions for further research are identified. © 2011 Taylor & Francis..

Improving the quality of tour guiding: Towards a model for tour guide certification

Black, R.H., S. 2005, Journal of Ecotourism Vol 4 side 178-195.

Professional certification is one mechanism used to assist in maintaining and improving professional or technical competence in numerous professions. It can potentially be used to assist in improving tour guide performance and raising and maintaining guiding standards. The aim of this research was to critically analyse the development of the Australian EcoGuide Program as a basis for building a model for tour guide certification as one mechanism of improving the quality of tour guiding. This was achieved through a review of the relevant literature, and by analysing the content, process, and elements of the EcoGuide Program, and selected industry stakeholders' views of the Program. A mixed methods approach was adopted and five data collection methods were used: a telephone survey, in-depth interviews, focus group interviews, on-site questionnaires and secondary data analysis. Data were collected from six research populations: nature/ecotour guides, nature-based tour operators, members of the EcoGuide Steering Committee, EcoGuide assessors, the Department of Industry, Science and Resources and Australian protected area managers. The results were triangulated to build an understanding of the content, elements, development process and stakeholders' views of the EcoGuide Program. The findings of this analysis are presented in a general model for tour guide certification. © 2005 R. Black and S. Ham..

Using a tourism importance-performance typology to investigate environmental sustainability on a global level

Bojanic, D. 2011, Journal of Sustainable Tourism Vol 19 side 989-1003.

A major issue surrounding the tourism industry is the trade-off between the positive and negative impacts of increased visitation. Countries welcome tourism's positive effects on their economy but fear tourism's impact on culture and environment. There is also debate about tourism's effectiveness in reducing poverty and sharing economic benefits across residents. In this study, 120 countries were grouped on the basis of the relative importance of tourism to their economies and their relative performance in terms of international tourism receipts per capita. Then, the profiles for the categories derived from this tourism importance-performance typology were examined, and their environmental performance compared across categories using indicators that measure environmental health and ecosystem vitality. The majority of countries fell into the categories with a consistent level of importance and performance (i.e. low importance/low performance and high importance/high performance). Overall, the countries in the two high performance categories (i.e. low importance/high performance and high importance/high performance) fared better in terms of environmental health and ecosystem vitality. The results are presented in detail and the policy implications for tourism managers are discussed. © 2011 Taylor & Francis..

Actor-oriented management of protected areas and ecotourism in Mexico

Brenner, L.J., H. 2006, Journal of Latin American Geography Vol 5 side .

This paper adopts a political-ecological approach to investigate the problems that recently-industrialized countries confront in the area of managing Protected Areas (PA) characterized by high indices of tourism. In the case of Mexico's "Monarch Butterfly Biosphere Reserve", structured and semi-structured interviews were carried out with visitors, entrepreneurs and key informants from numerous government and non-governmental organizations, in order to identify the interests, strategies and specific actions of a variety of actors involved in PA management and the tourism business. Special emphasis was placed on the spatial level(s) on which their actions take place and conflicts among different stakeholders. The study revealed that the existence of a large number of actors with conflicting interests and opposing strategies was not just an obstacle to a more integrated and participative form of PA management, but also to sustainable regional tourist development. It was further noted that tourism promoting activities launched by numerous government and non-governmental organizations are badly planned and poorly coordinated. Despite large amounts of investment, it has not been possible to develop high-quality, diversified and competitive ecotourism products or to enhance local participation. In order to solve these complex problems, a formalized "Round-Table" with crucial decision-making power should be installed, in which legitimate representatives from all involved and concerned stakeholder groups could express and negotiate their interests. In this way, an ecotourism "master plan" could be worked out jointly and implemented successfully..

Tourism, cultural diversity and sustainable development: The tourism dialogue at the Barcelona Forum 2004

Buckley, R. 2005, Journal of Ecotourism Vol 4 side 62-64.


Prospects of mountain ecotourism in Oman: The example of as sawjarah on al Jabal al Akhdar

Buerkert, A.L., E.; Dickhoefer, U.; Lohrer, K.; Mershen, B.; Schaeper, W.; Nagieb, M.; Schlecht, E. 2010, Journal of Ecotourism Vol 9 side 104-116.

The continued existence of Oman's unique oasis settlements depends on the productivity of their lush crop fields and orchards. In the course of the country's modernisation process, the more remote of these settlements are rapidly abandoned, if poc infrastructural conditions and limited opportunities for income generation prevai Given its potential to reconcile the cultural values and needs of oasis residents wit the interests of national and international tourists, ecotourism may offer opportunitie to slow down the widespread decline of Oman's traditional oasis agriculture an transform it into an asset, which offers additional income opportunities. This approac to tourism is in contrast to the mainstream of the country's current developmer policy, which increasingly favours beach hotels and easy access to remote area through day trips on paved, well-illuminated roads. Using the example of a village i the northern Jabal al Akhdar range, this study discusses how ecotourism may become an avenue to preserve Omani mountain oases as culturally unique, agro-pastoral livelihood systems, which, for millennia, have effectively coped with a fragili hyper-arid environment. © 2010 Taylor & Francis..

Natural capital and the advocacy of ecotourism as sustainable development

Butcher, J. 2006, Journal of Sustainable Tourism Vol 14 side 529-544.

This paper critically considers the role of the concept of natural capital (a term originating in the field of ecological economics) in the advocacy of ecotourism as sustainable tourism in the rural developing world. Natural capital is defined, and the sense in which it is employed to underpin the claim that ecotourism can constitute exemplary sustainable development is examined. In order to achieve the latter, the paper draws upon five case studies featuring NGOs that have been at the forefront of developing and commenting upon ecotourism as a strategy for integrating conservation and development. The paper concludes that, despite important differences within the advocacy of ecotourism as sustainable development, there is a shared 'strong sustainability' approach to the issue - one that assumes a very limited capacity for natural capital to be substituted by human created capital. Moreover, it is argued that this approach to sustainability is itself limited and limiting with regard to the prospects for development in some of the poorest areas on the planet. © 2006 J. Butcher..

Ecotourism as life politics

Butcher, J. 2008, Journal of Sustainable Tourism Vol 16 side 315-326.

Ethical consumption has been identified by many sociologists as an important nexus through which people make sense of and attempt to act upon the contemporary world. As a form of 'life politics' it involves action at the level of everyday life that connects to a wider social agenda, be it environmentalism, development or human rights. This paper argues that ecotourism has developed as a conspicuous form of life politics - the growth in demand for ecotourism not only reflects a certain sensibility amongst western tourists, but also an attempt to 'make a difference' to the societies visited. As such it is closely linked to people's aspiration to improve the lot of people in other countries and to promote sustainable development. The paper is exploratory, but suggests that such an outlook may be both limited and limiting with regard to human agency. © 2008 J. Butcher..

Synergies between Australian indigenous tourism and ecotourism: Possibilities and problems for future development

Buultjens, J.G., D.; White, N. E. 2010, Journal of Sustainable Tourism Vol 18 side 497-513.

This paper examines and finds synergies between indigenous tourism and ecotourism in Australia. Both were recognised in the 2003 Tourism White Paper as drawcards for international tourists; Tourism Australia markets both as two of the country's seven key visitor experiences. Despite this, and the proven need to assist indigenous peoples' socio-economic position, the indigenous tourism sector remains relatively immature. The paper, using a mixed-methods approach, including in-depth discussions with 26 indigenous tourism businesses, examines this problem and suggests ways forward. The results indicate that between 50% and 70% of indigenous tourism businesses are located in remote or very remote areas and utilise the environment to a substantial degree. Communities, couples and families dominate ownership patterns. Only 25% operate on a full-time basis. However, indigenous operators do not necessarily see themselves as being ecotourism businesses, despite their concern for and care of country. Very few are accredited: the ecotourism accreditation process is complex and expensive with guidelines based upon Westernised views of nature. Major changes in accreditation practice are suggested along with education and support for indigenous tourism businesses to ensure a stronger relationship between indigenous tourism and ecotourism and to improve Aboriginals' socio-economic status. © 2010 Taylor & Francis..

Ecotourism as a revenue-generating activity in South Carolina Lowcountry plantations

Campbell, G.A.S., T. J.; Franklin, R. M.; Wiggers, E. P. 2011, Journal of Ecotourism Vol 10 side 165-174.

The South Carolina lower coastal plain, locally called the Lowcountry, is an area of great ecological diversity with bottomland swamps and coastal marshes. The Lowcountry still contains many large tracts of land, privately owned as 'plantations'. These plantations tend to be self-supporting and many are seeking additional revenue sources, and ecotourism is developing as one of these sources. Tourism is the backbone of the Lowcountry economy. This study identified the level of existing ecotourism activities supported by Lowcountry plantations and their expectations for the future levels of natural resource-based activities. Ecotourism is blossoming as an income source, but hunting leases and timber harvests are the primary natural resource-based income sources. Owners did express interest in ecotourism activities as a source of future income. A lack of the management and business ability was the main obstacle to expanding ecotourism enterprises. © 2011 Taylor & Francis..


Carrier, J.G.M., Donald V. L. 2005, Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute Vol 11 side 315-334.

Ecotourism is a form of tourism that is highly visible and growing rapidly. It is commonly presented and understood as very different from conventional mass tourism because it is especially responsible, and even beneficial, environmentally and socioculturally. However, such a view may be inaccurate. The favourable image of ecotourism is a consequence of viewing it in an ecotourist bubble, analogous to the idea of the tourist bubble. Within this ecotourist bubble, the destinations and experiences sold to tourists are abstracted from their contexts, thus inducing a distorted image of them and of ecotourism itself. Aspects of what the bubble excludes are illustrated through a consideration of two destinations in the Caribbean. [PUBLICATION ABSTRACT].

Any closer and you'd be lunch! Interspecies interactions as nature tourism at Marine aquaria

Cater, C. 2010, Journal of Ecotourism Vol 9 side 133-148.

Marine aquaria continue to be popular tourist attractions, and while not ecotourism per se, they are clearly nature-based, and fulfil parallel tourist needs for interaction with animals. In recent years, some of these facilities have recognised that visitors desire an experience that goes beyond the visual and entertainment encounters that categorise the majority of their offerings, for example, the 'Animal Adventures' programme at Sea World™TM on Australia's Gold Coast. However, these interactions open up a whole new realm of performance management for these organisations, coordinating a range of actors from tourists, wildlife trainers, and the animals themselves. This paper examines why tourists are seeking such encounters, and shows how these interactions are contextualised and given meaning in tourist narratives, situated within an emerging social science discourse on embodiment. Observations suggest that society's over-anthropomorphising of the animals in question brings particular opportunity for dissonance. The broader significance of animal-human relations is explored through this interface, as are the implications for sustainable nature tourism in the future. There is potential here for a more enlightened approach to animal tourism, and a more nuanced categorisation of these activities in the literature. © 2010 Taylor & Francis..

Ecotourism as a Western construct

Cater, E. 2006, Journal of Ecotourism Vol 5 side 23-39.

Most of the burgeoning literature on ecotourism is essentially Western-centric, insofar as it accepts as given an approach that is deeply embedded in Western cultural, economic and political processes. Despite the plethora of definitions as to what actually constitutes ecotourism (Fennell, 2003; Page & Dowling, 2002), the most common denominator is that it is nature-based. However, in the same way that Macnaghten and Urry (1998: 95) suggest that 'there is no single "nature". only natures', it therefore follows that 'nature tourism' will be variously constructed by different societies and therefore that there will be multiple 'nature tourisms'. Despite the fact that it should be obvious that it is patently not the case that 'one size fits all' we have witnessed the internationalisation of ecotourism, as evolved from a Western 'classical conservationist' approach (suggested by Mowforth and Munt (2003) to be more akin to preservationism), and its apparent universality as a concept. This paper examines how this has come about before moving on to consider how uncritical acceptance of Western-constructed ecotourism and a failure to recognise that there is no universal or unique understanding win only serve to reinforce rather than reduce the very inequalities that it may attempt to reduce. © 2006 E. Cater..

Zoo tourism: Biodiversity conservation through tourism

Catibog-Sinha, C. 2008, Journal of Ecotourism Vol 7 side 160-178.

Zoos endeavour to meet their conservation role through captive breeding, education, research, animal welfare, environmental enrichment, reintroduction, and support for in situ conservation of species and their habitats. Zoo tourism can be a tool in promoting biodiversity conservation, especially through education and interpretation. This paper discusses the challenges and constraints faced by zoos in meeting their conservation role while at the same time providing opportunities for the public to learn more about and enjoy nature, albeit in artificial conditions. A case study of the captive breeding programmes that are implemented in the Philippines in collaboration with certain leading zoos overseas is also presented. It examines the potential contribution of tourism in sustaining these programmes. Zoos' ability to balance the need to remain economically viable and to play a major role in biodiversity conservation is a major challenge that requires sustained public support and collaboration with other zoos including relevant research and academic institutions. More research is needed to determine the contribution of zoos and captive breeding centres as tourism attraction/destinatoin towards the promotion of conservation ethos and sustainable zoo tourism practice. © 2008 Taylor & Francis..

Evaluation Method for Ecotourism in Nature Reserves Based on Principles of Ecotourism and Its Application

Cheng, K.Z., X. 2009, Journal of Northeast Forestry University/Dongbei Linye Daxue Xuebao Vol 37 side 102-104.

An evaluation method for ecotourism in nature reserves was put forward based on the basic principles for ecotourism. Ten indexes that the nature reserve possessed to satisfy the needs of ecotourism were determined as nature-based tourism, motives of appreciation and learning, environmental and social cultural impacts, tourists' environmental attitudes, community attitudes to resource protection, conservation benefit from ecotourism, economic benefit of community, community participation, tourists' understanding and respect to local culture. Ecotourism was classified into three grades according to the total score of each index. The method was applied to evaluate Zhalong Nature Reserve. Result shows that the ecotourism in Zhalong Nature Reserves belongs to grade II, namely part ecotourism. Some suggests were proposed to improve the ecotourism management, such as to provide more nature experience and environmental education, form community participation in ecotourism, and blend more local culture with ecotoriusm..

Tourism on organic farms in South Korea: A new form of ecotourism?

Choo, H.J., T. 2009, Journal of Sustainable Tourism Vol 17 side 431-454.

This exploratory research examines the potential of organic farms in South Korea to enable a distinct form of environmentally sustainable tourism. Case studies involving in-depth interviews with three organic farms and content analysis of the websites of 38 organic farms offering tourism-related activities were conducted. An analytical framework using key ecotourism principles was developed to guide an evaluation of activities and practices on the farms. Organic farmers in the study were concerned about ecological conditions on their land, possessed close ties to that land, and employed related knowledge to help preserve natural habitat and minimize adverse environmental impacts. Social-cultural gains were evident, for both visitors and local inhabitants. It is argued that this type of tourism on organic farms may be a potentially new form of ecotourism (eco-organic farm tourism). The study suggests that ecotourism principles may be usefully applied as a guiding sustainability paradigm for small scale, organic farms engaging in tourism. This new tourism type can be employed as a strategy for facilitating sustainable agriculture, local development, social-cultural and environmental conservation, wellbeing, and learning. Further research needs to be carried out both in Korea and elsewhere to develop this eco-organic farm tourism concept. © 2009 Taylor & Francis..

Rriparju Yidaki: Aboriginal social frameworks in a musical ecotourism business

Clark, P. 2009, Journal of Ecotourism Vol 8 side 176-192.

Rripanu Yidaki is a grassroots tourism business, dedicated to the craft and study of the didjeridu, initiated, owned, and maintained by one Aboriginal family in the far north of Australia. Its business model, while unconventional, is premised on long-standing local Aboriginal social frameworks, such as kinship networks and exchange customs. Field research and communication with the family and its visitors carried out over the past 2 years indicate that these social frameworks are uniquely suited to meet the stated needs and desires of this family enterprise and its self-selecting clientele. The family's business model also avoids the inequities inherent in the models of more developed and capitalised Aboriginal tourism enterprises seen elsewhere in Australia. While some visitors and promoters have described Rriparju Yidaki as an ecotourist enterprise, the term 'ecotourism' remains a foreign category to local Aboriginal systems of thought and valuation. Yet virtually all of Rriparju Yidaki's operations fit within accepted definitions of ecotourism, and the family accepts the label as a valid description of their business. This fully indigenous ecotourism venture, based on local social frameworks and visitor participation, could serve as a model for encouraging grassroots ecotourism in other indigenous communities without massive outside investment. © 2009 Taylor & Francis..

From whaling to whale watching: examining sustainability and cultural rhetoric

Cunningham, P.A.H., Edward H.; Wearing, Stephen L. 2012, Journal of Sustainable Tourism Vol 20 side 143.

This paper explores whaling and whale watching to determine the viability of their divergent practices -- and explains why they coexist in some cases. Whale watching is often viewed as an ecotourism product and presented as an activity that is fast growing, holds potential for local regeneration, promotes conservation and sustainable practice and is ecological and profitable. Whaling is currently under considerable scrutiny and relies on economic and increasingly cultural rhetoric to support its viability. Contrary to some statements, it is rarely a long-established practice. The paper uses Japan and Iceland as examples to examine the sustainability frameworks and political rhetoric surrounding these activities, and asks whether whale watching might offer an alternative economy for the whaling/fishing communities in an era of conflict over sustainable resource use. The paper finds that whale watching participation grew from 9 million tourists in 2001 to 13 million in 2008, with revenues rising from $1 billion to $2.1 billion per annum over that period. Whaling relies heavily on state and private subsidies. We also find, however, that whaling and whale watching can co-exist, that both use sustainability-based rhetoric, but that global trends in public opinion and taste favour whale watching over whaling. [PUBLICATION ABSTRACT].

What makes for memorable wildlife encounters? Revelations from 'serious' wildlife tourists

Curtin, S. 2010, Journal of Ecotourism Vol 9 side 149-168.

A meaningful understanding of the constituents of a memorable wildlife encounter is required to underpin wildlife tour operators' and destinations' marketing, product development and management strategies based on the premise that consumers' future expectations and behaviours are often based on memories of prior experiences. To this end, this paper presents the results of a qualitative study based on the stories and experiences of 'serious' wildlife tourists. When asked to describe their most memorable wildlife encounters, participants gave a wide range of responses which depended upon a number of key factors such as the charisma of the species, spontaneity, seeing something for the first time, the degree of close proximity, embodied experiences and species congregated in large numbers. On tour, 'wildlife moments' can vary in duration from lasting only a matter of seconds to long undisturbed views of wildlife. They can also come in close succession making the importance of what is being seen lost in the moment; it is only later that the true meaning becomes 'hard-wired'. Surprisingly, unforgettable wildlife experiences are not necessarily made up of the exotic. Highlights can also include endemic birds and animals which visit participants' wildlife-friendly gardens. © 2010 Taylor & Francis..

Nature, wild animals and tourism: An experiential view

Curtin, S. 2005, Journal of Ecotourism Vol 4 side .

An experiential view of wildlife tourism concerns the emotional, psychological and physical benefits of taking a wildlife holiday, and provides a different and important understanding of a significant and growing market. Key authors in this field of tourism studies agree that the nature of the tourist experience is a major research priority for the ultimate sustainable management of wildlife-based tourism attractions and destinations. What are the common attributes of a wildlife tourism experience? How does such an experience contribute to the overall psychological well-being of the visitor and what implications might this have for wildlife and wildlife operators? The purpose of this paper is to review the experiential aspects of wildlife tourism consumption that have been revealed to date. It highlights the ethnocentric and anthropomorphic attraction of animals; the human desire to interact with and interpret animal behaviour, and how urbanisation has had a profound affect on our psychological and physical relationship with nature. Particular attention is given to the notions of place, existential space, authenticity and anthropomorphosis. Understanding such concepts in relation to wildlife tourism implies a new phenomenological framework for research to further explore the experiences of wildlife tourists. © 2005 S. Curtin..

A code of ethics and guidelines for socially and environmentally responsible tourism

D Amore, L.J. 1993, Journal of Travel Research Vol 31 side 64-64.

Efforts at the global level, particularly in Canada, to develop guidelines and codes of ethics to shape ecotourism are described..

The carbon cost of polar bear viewing tourism in Churchill, Canada

Dawson, J.S., E. J.; Lemelin, H.; Scott, D. 2010, Journal of Sustainable Tourism Vol 18 side 319-336.

This paper examines the paradoxical issues surrounding long-distance tourism to view polar bears, a form of tourism which is disproportionately (on a per capita basis) responsible for greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions that are negatively affecting survival chances of the species. It also notes that the phenomenon of olast chance tourismo is influencing more tourists to visit the region. The paper describes and explains the evidence that climate change is causing a substantial reduction in sea ice, vital for Arctic wildlife species survival, particularly mega fauna, such as polar bears. Churchill, Canada is one of the few places where tourists can easily view polar bears. A total of 334 on-site tourist surveys and 18 in-depth interviews were conducted to help evaluate tourist perceptions of climate change and to estimate their GHG emissions related to polar bear viewing tourism. Polar bear viewing tourists perceive climate change to be negatively impacting polar bears but do not necessarily understand how they themselves contribute to GHG emissions, or understand offsetting possibilities. The polar bear viewing industry is estimated to contribute 20,892 t/CO2 per season. Mitigation strategies, including reduction and offsetting programs are outlined..

Development of a point evaluation system for ecotourism destinations: A Delphi method

Deng, J.B., M.; Selin, S. 2011, Journal of Ecotourism Vol 10 side 77-85.

Ecotourism destination criteria and indicators are not equally important. Based on this principle, an evaluation system by which ecotourism destinations can be evaluated and rated needs to be developed to reflect the relative importance of destination criteria/indicators. This case study evaluates a point evaluation system based on ecotourism destination criteria and indicators identified by ecotourism academics and ecotourism operators using a two-round Delphi survey for forest ecotourism in West Virginia. Results indicate that operators are less likely than academics to value local participation and involvement (43 points for operators vs. 84 points for academics) and socio-economic benefits to local communities (26 points for operators vs. 34 points for academics) while being more likely than academics to care about the conservation of cultural resources (107 points for operators vs. 48 points for academics). Research implications and future research needs are discussed. © 2011 Taylor & Francis..

Nature-conserving tourists: The need for a broader perspective

Dolnicar, S. 2006, Anatolia Vol 17 side 235-255.

The importance of environmental responsibility in tourism is widely accepted. Two main paradigms have emerged: ecotourism - a demand-driven concept limited to nature-based tourism - and sustainable tourism - a supply-sided view characterized by industry regulations. Unfortunately, ecotourism is limited in size, and supply-sided measures implicitly contradict the short-term aim of profit-maximization of the tourism industry. Alternative ways of Integrating nature conservation and tourism are needed. This paper reviews tourism-specific pro-environmental approaches and research into pro-environmental behavior in general. A case for a broader demand-driven paradigm is made: the identification of nature-conserving tourists - a target market extending beyond the special interest area of ecotourism and weakening the short-term trade-off of sustainability versus profitability in tourism. Copyright © 2006 Anatolia..

Identifying tourists with smaller environmental footprints

Dolnicar, S. 2010, Journal of Sustainable Tourism Vol 18 side 717-734.

This paper identifies which information about tourists serves as the best predictor of their pro-environmental behavior at home and on vacation. If a small set of predictors can be identified, the tourism industry would be able to use them to focus attention on attracting tourists with smaller environmental footprints. Results from a survey asking respondents about pro-environmental behavior in their role as residents and tourists indicate that environmental concern, altruism, feeling morally obliged to behave in an environmentally friendly manner, age and regional identity are the best predictors of the segment of people who behave in an environmentally friendly way at home. Income levels and moral obligation best predict membership of the segment of environmentally friendly tourists. The two segments overlap; differences between them are due to the fact that, at home, people can create the infrastructure they require to behave in an environmentally friendly way. On vacation they need to adjust to the infrastructure provided, which can act as a barrier to pro-environmental behavior. Results have direct practical implications, highlighting the value of demand-side approaches to environmentally sustainable tourism for protected areas, both urban and rural, such as focusing on those market segments that have the highest intrinsic inclination to protect the environment. © 2010 Taylor & Francis..

Environment-friendly tourists: What Do we really know about them?

Dolnicar, S.C., G. I.; Long, P. 2008, Journal of Sustainable Tourism Vol 16 side 197-210.

Sustainable tourism and ecotourism have now been researched in depth for some years. This paper highlights that researchers still have only a limited understanding of what tourist behaviour can be considered as sustainable, and little consensus about who environment-friendly tourists (EFTs) actually are. This study reviews theoretical and empirical studies by tourism researchers, and explores work done on environment-friendly behaviour in other disciplines. Results indicate that operationalisations of EFTs are inconsistent and, at times, do not ensure that EFTs are actually studied, thus jeopardising the quality of cumulative knowledge on this critical issue. There is little insight into who EFTs are. Suggestions for future work are made, which would develop more reliable and generalisable insights into EFT profiles. © 2008 S. Dolnicar et al..

A Delphi toolkit for ecotourism research

Donohoe, H.M. 2011, Journal of Ecotourism Vol 10 side .

The Delphi is considered a legitimate and valuable research technique in a range of research fields. Its value is based on its utility for forecasting, issue identification or prioritisation, and concept or framework development. However, systematic guidelines for designing and executing a Delphi are not widely available. Concomitantly, a plethora of methodological interpretations are proving a source of confusion for the Delphi architect. This paper explores the utility of a proposed generic Delphi toolkit (GDT) for designing and implementing a Delphi study. An ecotourism research example is introduced as a basis for testing the GDT and for a critical review of its benefits and challenges for ecotourism research. © 2011 Taylor & Francis..

Internet-based ecotourism marketing: Evaluating Canadian sensitivity to ecotourism tenets

Donohoe, H.M.N., R. D. 2008, Journal of Ecotourism Vol 7 side 15-43.

The internet is providing a new and important electronic commerce medium for tourism. In the ecotourism case, it provides the primary mechanism for promoting ecotourism opportunities (providers) and for researching and planning ecotourism experiences (consumers). As a matter of concern, the literature establishes that the congruency of traditional ecotourism marketing with established ecotourism tenets is limited. Ecotourism may be on a 'precarious course' whereby the natural environment, long-term sustainability and legitimacy of the industry are at risk. The scale of the internet and its use to promote 'disingenuous' ecotourism products may accelerate negative outcomes. However, our understanding of internet-based ecotourism marketing - both delivery and outcomes - is limited. Through the application of a content analysis framework, this paper assesses the congruency of internet-based ecotourism marketing with ecotourism tenets. The study finds the use of the term 'ecotourism' and its tenets to market tourism experiences is a well-established internet-based marketing activity, and congruency between ecotourism tenets and ecotourism marketing messages is contentious amongst the Canadian sample providers. It supports antecedent claims that disingenuous ecotourism marketing is the norm, not the exception. Recommendations for improving marketing success, long-term sustainability of the industry and delivery of 'genuine' ecotourism products are presented. © 2008 H.M. Donohoe & R.D. Needham..

Inuit-organised polar bear sport hunting in Nunavut territory, Canada

Dowsley, M. 2009, Journal of Ecotourism Vol 8 side 161-175.

Polar bear sport hunting (which in the case of Nunavut is defined as a form of conservation hunting) is an economically important form of Aboriginal ecotourism in the Canadian Arctic territory of Nunavut. Each sport hunt provides approximately 20 times the monetary value of a polar bear taken in a subsistence hunt. Positive cultural outcomes for communities that offer these hunts include the revival of dog mushing; preservation of traditional sewing, hunting and survival skills, and accommodation within the industry for the subsistence economy and Inuit norms of sharing. Concurrently, there are frequent community discussions about the industry that provides insight into Inuit views of hunting for recreation as well as western-style wildlife management, which allow for an examination of how Inuit communities are working to accommodate the non-Inuit culture and the market economy. Sport hunting provides Inuit with a reason to support western-style conservation and learn about scientific research and management programmes. Recent international concern about climate change impacts on two polar bear populations and its extrapolation to all populations threatens the conservation programme already in place in Nunavut. Polar bear conservation is of primary concern to Inuit and non-Inuit alike, but pressure to reduce hunting that is not supported by evidence, could result in an undue reduction in the value of polar bear harvesting (by reducing hunting and stopping conservation hunting). This may well result in a loss of local support for conservation measures, including polar bear quotas, which would erode, rather than support, protection for this species. © 2009 Taylor & Francis..

Governance of recreation and tourism partnerships in parks and protected areas

Eagles, P.F.J. 2009, Journal of Sustainable Tourism Vol 17 side 231-248.

This paper uses 10 criteria for governance to evaluate the eight management models that most commonly underpin recreation and tourism partnerships in parks and protected areas. The varying financial status, political propensities and history in different countries have led to the development of different approaches to partnership management. When governance criteria were applied to the management models, those with high involvement by nonprofit organizations ranked higher in terms of the ideals of good governance. The highest ranked model was the public, nonprofit combination model. Conversely, those models with high degrees of for-profit operations ranked lower. The lowest ranked model was the aboriginal and government model. The analysis suggests that the 10 criteria for governance are not treated equally in practice; financial efficiency may be a pivotal criterion given more importance..

'The impact of tourism on local livelihood' a case study of galliyat, district abbotabad

Farooq, S.U.K., Z.; Ullah, Z.; Shams, M. S. 2012, European Journal of Scientific Research Vol 68 side 43-53.

Tourism is the third biggest industry in the world and plays a key role in earning foreign reserve. Most of the developing countries spend income from tourism on infrastructure development and service delivery. It is a poverty reduction strategy because it supports and improves economic and social life of households who are involved directly or indirectly. The current study analyses the relationship between tourism and livelihood. The study concludes that tourism has a positive and significant bearing on productive human capital, square of physical capital, participation and square of household size and negative but significant impacts on physical capital and Household size. On the other hand, it has positive but insignificant impacts on household's Livestock and Education. The result of the sample data shows that that tourism has a positive and significant effect on the income, culture and social structure of the residents. The Study recommended that pro tourism strategy should be devised for the development of this sector. © 2012 EuroJournals Publishing, Inc..

Indigenous and democratic decision-making: issues from community-based ecotourism in the Bouma National Heritage Park, Fiji

Farrelly, T.A. 2011, Journal of Sustainable Tourism Vol 19 side 817-835.

Participatory development literature involving community-based ecotourism management (CBEM) has only recently addressed issues pertaining to indigenous governance and decision-making systems. This paper contributes to sustainable tourism by presenting local decision-making practices and issues arising from the perspective of the members of one village in the Bouma National Heritage Park, Fiji. It shows that introduced democratic decision-making systems may not contribute to political empowerment in CBEM and can cause difficult situations. It is argued that greater attention to local systems of governance is required if tourism practitioners are to fully understand decision-making and participation in CBEM. The paper also offers a culturally appropriate methodology that may produce more meaningful outcomes for sustainable tourism research in indigenous Fijian contexts, and in other contexts worldwide. It argues that levels of empowerment should not just be treated as the outcome but as a part of the process of tourism development. It explores the core Fijian cultural concept of vanua as a way of life, involving interrelated social, ecological and spiritual elements. An emic perspective utilising informal talanoa (discussions) is used and examined, along with the roles of kin groups, village spokesmen and clan systems, and their relationship with western business decision-making practices..

Ecotourism and the myth of indigenous stewardship

Fennell, D.A. 2008, Journal of Sustainable Tourism Vol 16 side 129-149.

This paper questions the legitimacy of ecological stewardship as an innate characteristic of traditional societies, a widely held belief in much academic work on ecotourism and manifest in ecotourism operations. Evidence from biologists, archaeologists and anthropologists is used to show that traditional societies found it difficult to manage resources in a sustainable way, with over-utilisation as the norm. Armed with this knowledge, the paper argues that there may be serious philosophical and operational problems inherent in packaging aboriginal ecotourism as having a superior environmental ethic, and a need for further research and changed management practices. © 2008 D. A. Fennell..

The ecotourium concept and tourism-conservation symbiosis

Fennell, D.A.W., D. 2005, Journal of Sustainable Tourism Vol 13 side 373-390.

The credibility of contemporary ecotourism is threatened by the global dominance of a model that minimally fulfils the three core criteria - nature-based attractions, learning opportunities, ecological and sociocultural sustainability - that characterise this sector. A more rigorous 'comprehensive' model is better capable of fulfilling ecotourism's potential to achieve sustainable outcomes, but only if this model embraces both the hard and soft dimensions of the sector. Based on the latter premise and informed by the principles of complexity, knowledge sharing and interdisciplinarity, we propose the development of an international network of protected areas 'ecotouriums' that is designed to stimulate positive socioeconomic change within local communities and maintain and improve the ecological health of protected areas. Cornerstone themes that enable the ecotourium concept are research and education, ecological health, community participation and development, and partnerships. © 2005 D.A. Fennell & D. Weaver..

Variation in depth of whitetip reef sharks: does provisioning ecotourism change their behaviour?

Fitzpatrick, R.A., Kaya G.; Seymour, Jamie; Barnett, Adam 2011, Coral Reefs Vol 30 side 569-577.

In the dive tourism industry, shark provisioning has become increasingly popular in many places around the world. It is therefore important to determine the impacts that provisioning may have on shark behaviour. In this study, eight adult whitetip reef sharks Triaenodon obesus were tagged with time-depth recorders at Osprey Reef in the Coral Sea, Australia. Tags collected time and depth data every 30 s. The absolute change in depth over 5-min blocks was considered as a proxy for vertical activity level. Daily variations in vertical activity levels were analysed to determine the effects of time of day on whitetip reef shark behaviour. This was done for days when dive boats were absent from the area, and for days when dive boats were present, conducting shark provisioning. Vertical activity levels varied between day and night, and with the presence of boats. In natural conditions (no boats present), sharks remained at more constant depths during the day, while at night animals continuously moved up and down the water column, showing that whitetip reef sharks are nocturnally active. When boats were present, however, there were also long periods of vertical activity during the day. If resting periods during the day are important for energy budgets, then shark provisioning may affect their health. So, if this behaviour alteration occurs frequently, e.g., daily, this has the potential to have significant negative effects on the animals' metabolic rates, net energy gain and overall health, reproduction and fitness..

Ecotourism discourse: Challenging the stakeholders theory

Fletcher, R. 2009, Journal of Ecotourism Vol 8 side 269-285.

Advocacy of ecotourism as a sustainable development strategy emphasising local participation has tended to espouse the so-called 'stakeholders theory', treating interventions as wholly material endeavours and assuming that rural community members will be motivated to participate primarily through economic incentives. Observing that ecotourism is both practiced and promoted predominantly (although not exclusively) by white, professional-middle-class members of post-industrial Western societies, this essay suggests that ecotourism can also be viewed as a discursive process, embodying a culturally specific set of beliefs and values largely peculiar to this demographic group that promoters, often unwittingly, seek to propagate through ecotourism development. As a result, local peoples' response to ecotourism promotion may depend in part on how this particular cultural perspective resonates with their own understandings of the world. Thus, future research and planning should pay greater attention to the ways in which ecotourism discourse is perceived and negotiated by local actors. The analysis is illustrated through ethnographic analysis of ecotourism development in a community in southern Chile. © 2009 Taylor & Francis..

The Rise and Fall of the Concept of the Experience Economy in the Local Economic Development of Denmark

Freire-Gibb, L.C. 2011, European Planning Studies Vol 19 side 1839-1853.

This article discusses the evolution of the concept of "The Experience Economy" (TEE) in the Danish local economic policy. The term is rarely known worldwide; however, it has become quite popular among the Danes and other Scandinavians. Its origin comes from the American business-marketing field in the late 1990s, while in Denmark, it evolved as a multifaceted idea with notable effects for economic development at the local level. The concept is related to the cultural or creative economy, but in the Danish case, it became more diffuse. This article does not intend to be a critique of these two lines, nor to tourist attractions, which are also linked to TEE. However, it criticizes the implementation of an unorthodox idea to LED, even though it may have useful principles to other disciplines. This article reflects the line of recent research which has questioned its applications in LED. Local governments have supported this strategy because of the national government's key role. Also, academics and consultants contributed to the process. The article also investigates the reasons Denmark had for developing the concept of TEE in Danish local planning and development. © 2011 Taylor & Francis..

Estimating the short-term economic damages from the Prestige oil spill in the Galician fisheries and tourism

Garza-Gil, M.P.-B., Albino; Vazquez-Rodriguez, MXose 2006, Ecological Economics Vol 58 side 842-849.

The Prestige oil spill may be considered as one of the worst in the last years because of the amount of oil spilled (59,000 tons at the moment) and the wide zone affected: almost all the coastline in Galicia (Spanish region with a very important coast fishing and tourist activity) and some points in North Spain and in Southwest France. In this paper, we estimate the short-term economic damages from the Prestige oil spills in the Galician fishing and tourist activities. The economic losses arising from the Prestige oil spill exceed those items that can be indemnified under the IOPC system. Their magnitude could reach 5 times more than the applicable limit of compensations in the Prestige case. The consequence is net losses from repeated oil spills and internationally accepted incentives to risky strategies in the marine transport of hydrocarbons..

Market Integration and Ecosystem Degradation: Is Sustainable Tourism Development in Rural Communities a Contradiction in Terms?

Gossling, S. 2003, Environment, Development and Sustainability Vol 5 side 383-400.

Neoclassic economic theory suggests global market integration as a strategy to reduce poverty. In line with this paradigm, an increasing number of developing countries have focused on tourism to generate foreign exchange earnings and to meet rising workforce pressure. Coastlines in particular, have been at the forefront of tourist infrastructure development. The article describes tourism development in the village of Kiwengwa on the east coast of Unguja Island (Zanzibar), Tanzania. It is shown that changes caused by tourism are far more complex than economic theory suggests. Economically, tourism has substantially increased local income, but it has also led to a focus on individual benefit and dissolving kinship relationships, encouraged the abandonment of traditional resource-use strategies, contributed to the commoditization of local natural resources, and spread the idea that these resources can be replaced with imports. Overall, tourism has fundamentally disrupted the local socio-economic system and led to a self-reinforcing cycle of ecosystem degradation. Tourism development is nevertheless perceived as positive and sustainable, because (i) changes are complex and damage becomes perceptible only in the medium- or long-term future, (ii) the tourist industry tends to shift its impacts to remote areas, i.e. a supplying periphery, (iii) the village has become a center of resource allocation itself, with imports compensating for the losses in local ecosystem capacity. As a development option imposed by the transnational tourist industry, tourism leads to the creation of new centers (i.e. the former periphery) while simultaneously creating new peripheries. In a finite world with a limited hinterland for such a continuous expansion, this cannot be sustainable. [PUBLICATION ABSTRACT].

Eco-tourism certification - does it make a difference? A comparison of systems from Australia, Costa Rica and Sweden

Haaland, H.A., Ø , Scandinavian Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Vol 10 side 375-385.

In the current context of climate change, discussions about tourism sustainability are gaining increased momentum. Over the past decade, some operators worldwide have started to certify their products and services as ecotourism or sustainable tourism. A certification or approval is considered to be a sign of general high product quality as well as an indication of environmentally and socially sound products. In this research note, we examine three different ecotourism certification and approval systems - from Sweden, Costa Rica and Australia. The note is based on a literature review of three different approval systems, conducted parallel to the planning of the Norwegian approval system for ecotourism launched in 2008. We outline the criteria and standards required in the different programmes as well as the basic principles of how the three systems are organised, financed and implemented. The programmes' strengths and weaknesses are briefly discussed, keeping a Scandinavian context in mind. © 2010 Taylor & Francis..

Indigenous ecotourism's role in transforming ecological consciousness

Higgins-Desbiolles, F. 2009, Journal of Ecotourism Vol 8 side 144-160.

While ecotourism has many positive attributes, perhaps the most interesting is its potential to foster transformations in ecological consciousness that some view as vital to achieving more sustainable human-environmental relationships. Frequently, indigenous peoples and their cultures have been associated with ecotourism because of the 'strong bond between indigenous cultures and the natural environment' [Zeppel, H. (2006). Indigenous ecotourism: Sustainable development and management. Wallingford, UK: CABI.]. In fact, there are numerous examples from around the world of indigenous communities using the opportunity that ecotourism provides to educate non-indigenous people about indigenous values and lifeways in the hopes of overturning the destructive nature of the Western environmental paradigm. This article offers a critical perspective on the capacity of indigenous ecotourism to foster more sustainable lifeways by transforming the ecological consciousness of participants and stakeholders in ecotourism. This is timely as non-indigenous academic Fennell [(2008). Ecotourism and the myth of indigenous stewardship. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 16(2), 129-149] has recently presented a controversial analysis of the 'myth of indigenous stewardship'. This paper focuses on the writings of indigenous experts to explore these complex issues. In addition to this conceptual analysis, this article offers a brief case study of Camp Coorong in South Australia, which demonstrates that some indigenous communities are using ecotourism to teach indigenous values in the hope of fostering transformations in consciousness. © 2009 Taylor & Francis..

Death by a thousand cuts: governance and environmental trade-offs in ecotourism development at Kangaroo Island, South Australia

Higgins-Desbiolles, F. 2011, Journal of Sustainable Tourism Vol 19 side 553-570.

In the wake of the Brundtland Report's articulation of the concept of sustainable development (1987), ecotourism has been promoted as an optimum way to achieve sustainable development in the tourism sphere. Ecotourism, as a subset of sustainable tourism, is touted as a win-win endeavour - a high-yield, low-volume strategy is often pursued in the hope of achieving good economic returns for local communities while simultaneously creating fewer negative environmental impacts than other economic development options. However, the concept of sustainable development contains the tensions of an oxymoron as the conservation implied in osustainabilityo conflicts with the growth and resource use implied in odevelopmento. In an era where market imperatives dominate, this results in otrade-offso between requirements for environmental conservation and demands for greater economic growth through tourism. This paper narrates the story of governance and the development approval process for an ecolodge on Kangaroo Island (KI) in order to explore the nature of such trade-offs. Evidence suggests that the requirements of environmental protection are otraded offo in the pursuit of tourism development and the income and employment it provides. Is sustainability possible when such incremental development, in fact, results in odeath by a thousand cutso?..

Wildlife viewing: The significance of the viewing platforms

Higham, J.E.S.L., D.; Hendry, W. 2008, Journal of Ecotourism Vol 7 side 137-146.

Relatively little research attention has been dedicated to understanding aspects of the viewing platform from which animals are observed in the wild, and how it bears upon all elements of the wildlife tourism phenomenon. This paper adopts Duffus and Dearden's (1990) conceptual framework as a basis to highlight an urgent need for empirical research into wildlife viewing platforms as they relate to site users, focal animals (both individuals and groups of animals) and the ecology of the sites where visitors observe animals in the wild. To date a lack of empirical research effort has focused on the viewing platform, or even incorporated the viewing platform into research design as an element of analysis. This paper reviews what is known about the viewing platform, much of it anecdotal. Recent research that provides insights into the human and ecological dimensions of wildlife viewing platforms is reviewed. A call for further research into the social and ecological dimensions of wildlife observation is then advocated with a consideration of research questions relating to wildlife viewing platforms that emerge in each of the three key dimensions highlighted by Duffus and Dearden (1990). The paper concludes with a call for a dedicated research effort to understand aspects of the viewing platform, and how it might inform the sustainable management of human interactions with wild animals. © 2008 Taylor & Francis..

Ecotourism in Amazonian Peru: Uniting tourism, conservation and community development

Hill, J.L.H., R. A. 2011, Geography Vol 96 side 75-85.

With reference to two ecotourism enterprises that operate within Tambopata, Peru, this article evaluates key principles necessary to enable the successful achievement of ecotourism in a little-developed tropical forest region. In so doing, it highlights the intricacies of the relationship between ecotourism, environmental conservation and local community development. Principles are identified as i) empowering communities by integrating them in an ecotourism venture; ii) exchanging knowledge between a community and tour operator; iii) managing forest resources jointly between a community and tour operator; iv) minimising local economic leakage; v) educating tourists through interpretive programmes; and vi) minimising environmental and wildlife disturbance. The article offers cautious optimism that the tourism enterprises are consciously helping to protect the rainforest of Tambopata, while meeting the socio-economic needs of the local communities. © Geography 2011..

Can visitor satisfaction and knowledge about tropical rainforests be enhanced through biodiversity interpretation, and does this promote a positive attitude towards ecosystem conservation?

Hill, J.W., W.; Gough, G. 2007, Journal of Ecotourism Vol 6 side 75-85.


Treading lightly? Ecotourism's impact on the environment

Honey, M.S. 1999, Environment Vol 41 side 4-9+.

Ecotourism is defined as "responsible travel to natural areas that conserves the environment and improves the well-being of local people." Honey discusses the history of ecotourism and issues that still need to be addressed, including ensuring local enterprises can compete with strong foreign companies and how to make poor, rural communities benefit from ecotourism..

Influence of on-site interpretation intensity on visitors to natural areas

Hughes, M.M.-S., A. 2005, Journal of Ecotourism Vol 4 side 161-177.

There has been some debate about the benefits of high or low intensity use of on-site media at natural areas. The former may be viewed as overkill while the latter may not achieve the intended aims. Two similar natural area sites in Australia were selected with respective high and low intensity use of on-site interpretation. Visitors at each site were surveyed immediately before and after their experience to determine site influences on site perceptions and environmental attitudes. Comparative analysis revealed the intensity of interpretation did not appear to affect perceptions or attitude influence, while the character of the site experience and key visitor variables did. Site design needs to reflect interpretive media design to ensure visitor activities and subsequent effects on attitudes are consistent with conservation objectives. © 2005 M. Hughes & A. Morrison-Saunders..

The ecological footprint as a key indicator of sustainable tourism

Hunter, C.S., J. 2007, Tourism Management Vol 28 side 46-57.

This paper argues for ecological footprint (EF) analysis to become widely adopted as a key environmental indicator of sustainable tourism (ST). It is suggested that EF analysis provides a unique, global perspective on sustainability that is absent with the use of locally derived and contextualised ST indicators. A simple methodology to estimate indicative, minimum EF values for international tourism activities involving air travel is presented. Critically, the methodology accounts for the EF that would have been used by a tourist at home during the tourist trip, providing an estimate of the net, as well as the gross, tourism-related EF. Illustrations of the application of the methodology are provided, including the evaluation and comparison of specific tourism products. It is suggested that some (eco)tourism products may, potentially, make a positive contribution to resource conservation at the global scale. Areas for further research in applying EF analysis to tourism are outlined. © 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved..

Conceptualization and anatomy of green destination brands

Insch, A. 2011, International Journal of Culture, Tourism and Hospitality Research Vol 5 side 282-290.

Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to extend the concept of green brands to destinations and to examine the application and limitations of green destination brands for nations adopting this positioning strategy. Design/methodology/approach - The paper identifies characteristics of green destination brands, drawing on established concepts in corporate branding, destination branding and green marketing. The paper demonstrates the application and limitations of the concept through an in-depth case study analysis of New Zealand's destination brand to explain the possibilities and problems of building green destination brands at a national level. Findings - The findings suggest that a holistic, strategic approach to building a green destination brand which emphasizes and qualifies the green essence of a nation's brand is required to avoid the pitfalls, cynicism and criticisms of greenwashing. Research limitations/implications - The research findings are embedded in the context studied - New Zealand's destination brand. Additional case studies at multiple levels - nations, regions, cities - would offer a rich database to gain a better understanding of the concept and the implications of green destination branding. Practical implications - Barriers to executing a credible green destination brand position are identified and the implications for destination marketing organizations and their stakeholders are discussed. Originality/value - A conceptualization of green destination brands is provided and the application and limitations of the concept are demonstrated through an in-depth case study of a nation that has adopted this positioning strategy. Rather than taking a snapshot research approach, a historical perspective enabled the development of the destination's brand positioning strategy to be captured. [PUBLICATION ABSTRACT].

Attitudes towards the environment and ecotourism of stakeholders in the UK tourism industry with particular reference to ornithological tour operators

Jackson, S. 2007, Journal of Ecotourism Vol 6 side 34-66.

The attitudes towards the environment in general and towards ecotourism in particular are assessed for several groups of stakeholders (including ornithological tour operators, members of a conservation group, and potential specialist and general ecotourists) in the UK tourism sector. The New Environmental Paradigm (NEP) scale is used to measure general attitude and an ecotourism scale (TES) used to measure specific attitudes. A simple model is proposed and tested linking general and specific attitudes to behaviour. All groups score highly on the NEP scale but the scores are lower on the TES scale. Not surprisingly, the conservation group scores most highly on both scales, and although the tour operators score highly on the NEP scale they have the lowest score on the TES scale. It is suggested that this represents a lack of willingness to adopt ecotourism principles if they interfere with business operations. Significant correlations were measured between the NEP and TES scales suggesting that general attitudes affect specific attitudes. No significant relationships were established between attitudes and stated or implied behaviour based on the tour operators' brochures. This again suggests that there is a reluctance to translate good intentions into practice. The ethical positions of the groups are discussed and implications for the tour operators addressed. © 2007 S. Jackson..

The institutionalisation of ecotourism: Certification, cultural equity and praxis

Jamal, T.B., M.; Stronza, A. 2006, Journal of Ecotourism Vol 5 side 145-175.

This paper offers a critical reading of the purpose, practice and institutionalisation of ecotourism. Tracing the evolving relationship between ecotourism and conservation, ecotourism and sustainable tourism, and ecotourism and certification/monitoring schemes as we do in this paper reveals conflicting values and possibly incompatible objectives. Sustainable tourism and ecotourism are rooted in notions of individual/ societal and environmental well-being. Yet, our study indicates significant inequities in ecotourism practice, particularly with respect to cultural aspects such as human ecological relationships. It is argued here that various actions and programmes associated with ecotourism's inception and evolution have institutionalised a modernistic, commodified paradigm: the environment and its inhabitants (human and non-human) are dominated by scientific, industry and other interests that treat these primarily as means to an end, that is, instrumentally. The analysis suggests that ecotourism (and, by extension, ecotourism certification) needs to be re-oriented towards well-being, in other words, a social-cultural paradigm based on participatory democracy and equitable, meaningful relationships with the biophysical world. Suggestions are forwarded for re-envisioning ecotourism, particularly with respect to the notions of cultural equity, participatory practice and researcher praxis. © 2006 T. Jamal et al..

Providing ecotourism excursions for cruise passengers

Johnson, D. 2006, Journal of Sustainable Tourism Vol 14 side 43-54.

The aim of this paper is to argue that destinations can do more to offer coastal ecotourism experiences for cruise passengers, and in doing so they may secure a more sustainable product. An analysis of shore-side excursions currently available to P&O passengers in the Caribbean is presented. Excursions are classified against textbook tourism-type definitions. Time constraints imposed by cruise operators and an emphasis on selling rather than education are suggested as key factors that mean the limited number of existing ecotourism excursions were categorised as 'soft' rather than 'hard' ecotourism. Solutions demand concerted effort from all parties. Flexibility from cruise operators; political will and product development from destinations, and investment of time and energy from the tourists themselves. Ultimately, ecotourism excursions must embrace brand management, creating and delivering well-defined promises, so that cruise passengers can make intelligence-led decisions. In the Caribbean this requires a paradigm shift by the cruise operators in order to establish a meaningful and effective dialogue with groups such as the Caribbean Tourism Organisation. © 2006 D. Johnson..

Expenditure and ecotourism: Predictors of expenditure for whale shark tour participants

Jones, T.W., D.; Catlin, J.; Norman, B. 2009, Journal of Ecotourism Vol 8 side 32-50.

Whale shark tourism is an icon industry in Western Australia and a prominent example of successful ecotourism. In 2006, whale shark tour participants spent $6.0 million in the Ningaloo Coast region of Western Australia and added between $2.4 million and $4.6 million to the regional economy in direct expenditure. However, to date no research has been conducted on the predictors of whale shark tour participants' expenditure. In this article, we assess the importance of visitor expenditure for ecotourism, assess the predictors of the expenditure of whale shark tour participants and discuss how this information can contribute towards ecotourism goals. The data analysed here were collected through a survey distributed to participants between April and June 2006. We assess a range of variables for their relationship to individual expenditure per trip and determine that the duration of stay, household income, age, staying in a hotel, trip motivation and being from North America or Southeast Asia positively correlate with individual expenditure per trip. Group size and originating from Germany or the United Kingdom and Ireland negatively correlate with expenditure. In addition to identifying future steps, we also discuss the relevance of our finding that more motivated participants have a higher expenditure for ecotourism. © 2009 Taylor & Francis..

Ecological Impacts of Revegetation and Management Practices of Ski Slopes in Northern Finland

Kangas, K.T., Anne; Kälkäjä, Tarja; Siikamäki, Pirkko 2009, Environmental Management Vol 44 side 408-19.

Outdoor recreation and nature-based tourism represent an increasingly intensive form of land use that has considerable impacts on native ecosystems. The aim of this paper is to investigate how revegetation and management of ski runs influence soil nutrients, vegetation characteristics, and the possible invasion of nonnative plant species used in revegetation into native ecosystems. A soil and vegetation survey at ski runs and nearby forests, and a factorial experiment simulating ski run construction and management (factors: soil removal, fertilization, and seed sowing) were conducted at Ruka ski resort, in northern Finland, during 2003-2008. According to the survey, management practices had caused considerable changes in the vegetation structure and increased soil nutrient concentrations, pH, and conductivity on the ski runs relative to nearby forests. Seed mixture species sown during the revegetation of ski runs had not spread to adjacent forests. The experimental study showed that the germination of seed mixture species was favored by treatments simulating the management of ski runs, but none of them could eventually establish in the study forest. As nutrient leaching causes both environmental deterioration and changes in vegetation structure, it may eventually pose a greater environmental risk than the spread of seed mixture species alone. Machine grading and fertilization, which have the most drastic effects on soils and vegetation, should, therefore, be minimized when constructing and managing ski runs. (PUBLICATION ABSTRACT).

Research of roles for authenticity of selecting tourism products using conjoint analysis

Kljajic-Dervic, M. 2011, Technics Technologies Education Management Vol 6 side 1165-1174.

The case study is the role of authenticity, as a possible element in the selection of the tourism product in the field of economics and education, and part sociology. As the theoretical sources and previous studies with the observed field results, that the different significance is attributed to the different groups of tourists as the authenticity of the tourist product, so we used a relationship to authenticity as a specific psychographic segmentation criterion of the tourism market. Using conjoint analysis in the study has done in the specific field of this area and in general the first time through the mentioned analysis. We remain with the inclusion of existing information about the opportunities and trends in the work of the tourism market, which is relevant to the processing of area, wanted to prove that authenticity of tourism offer has a significant influence on long-term economic success and provides a sustainable development of tourism destinations. For this we linked to some theoretical concepts, such as the price of tourism products, the level of education and defensible competitive advantage. We believe that the results of research will enable better understanding of the problem, and that will be useful guidance for designing and selling tourism products, and the positioning of tourist destinations..

Identifying tourists' preferences for Aboriginal tourism product features: Implications for a northern first nation in British Columbia

Kutzner, D.W., P. A.; Stark, A. 2009, Journal of Ecotourism Vol 8 side 99-114.

Recent research on the Aboriginal tourism market has revolved predominantly around establishing a profile of the traveller interested in Aboriginal tourism (hereafter referred to as the Aboriginal tourism traveller). Currently, the Aboriginal tourism traveller is generally described as a mature individual who is interested in having authentic experiences of different cultures. However, there is a need for a better understanding of what specific products this particular traveller is interested in, and in what style, format or nature of delivery. The study presented in this article attempts to provide insight into this topic. In a collaborative research effort between Tl'azt'en Nation and the University of Northern British Columbia, a questionnaire containing four potential Aboriginal tourism product descriptions and 31 individual features of Aboriginal tourism products was administered to 337 visitors of northern British Columbia during the summer of 2007. Despite a primary interest in nature experiences by the majority of visitors, one-third of our sample demonstrated considerable interest in experiences of Aboriginal culture. Results suggest the need for marketing diverse Aboriginal tourism attractions to attract repeat visitors and for offering an introductory experience to Aboriginal culture for first-time visitors. © 2009 Taylor & Francis..

Marketing ecotourism through the internet: An evaluation of selected ecolodges in Latin America and the Caribbean

Lai, P.H.S., S. 2005, Journal of Ecotourism Vol 4 side 143-160.

The advance of Internet technology worldwide has contributed to the growing impacts of online marketing of ecotourism destinations. Despite much discussion devoted to defining ecotourism conceptually, knowledge regarding how ecotourism is actually practiced and how it is marketed through the Internet is still lacking. The purpose of this study was to address these issues by exploring how ecotourism is marketed through the Internet. A sample was selected from ecolodge operators listed on the website of The International Ecotourism Society. Content analysis was used to examine the online marketing information of these ecolodges. The study findings suggest that ecolodge operators sampled in this study provided a variety of ecotourism products to meet the diverse interests of the ecotourist market. The online marketing messages of these ecolodges also indicated that most of them only partially aligned with ecotourism principles. Recommendations are made regarding social marketing and ecolabelling for online ecotourism marketing to better shape tourist expectations, attitudes and behaviours in ways that support the sustainable practice professed as ecotourism. © 2005 P-H. Lai and S. Shafer..

Managing for sustainable tourism: a review of six cultural World Heritage Sites

Landorf, C. 2009, Journal of Sustainable Tourism Vol 17 side 53-70.

This paper considers the relationship between heritage tourism and sustainable development, with special reference to World Heritage Sites (WHSs). It notes that while WHS status is not necessarily linked to tourism growth, all WHSs must now develop and implement a management plan to mitigate tourism impacts and sustain site significance. The paper explores the concept of sustainable heritage tourism and identifies two key principles of sustainable practice - a planning process that is long term and holistic, and multiple stakeholder participation in that planning process. Qualitative content analysis is used to determine the extent to which these principles have been integrated into the tourism planning process at six WHSs. The study found that a formal goal-oriented planning process was in evidence at all six sites. However, the process lacked a comprehensive and holistic approach to the wider issues of sustainable development, and genuine engagement with local community stakeholders..

Environmental justice and environmental equity in tourism: Missing links to sustainability

Lee, S.J., T. 2008, Journal of Ecotourism Vol 7 side 44-67.

This paper argues for incorporating an environmental justice framework into sustainable tourism and ecotourism. Such a framework provides important directions and guidance for addressing injustices related to human-environmental relationships, particularly with respect to disadvantaged, low-income and minority communities. Issue areas include environmental equity, environmental discrimination and environmental racism. Drawing from the environmental justice literature, this paper first clarifies key concepts associated with environmental justice. This is followed by an examination of issues in tourism development that clearly relate to environmental justice (even though the term itself may not have been used). An analytical framework for addressing environmental justice and equity in tourism studies is proposed, incorporating environmental justice concepts and dimensions of procedural and distributive justice. Several theoretical areas that offer potential for developing this bridge between tourism and environmental justice are presented. The discussion opens new avenues for better incorporating justice and equity into ecotourism and sustainable tourism development and research. © 2008 S. Lee & T. Jamal..

Understanding the impact of ecotourism resort experiences on tourists' environmental attitudes and behavioural intentions

Lee, W.H.M., G. 2005, Journal of Sustainable Tourism Vol 13 side 546-565.

This study explored the conservation benefits of environmental management practices and nature experiences provided at a major Australian ecotourism resort. To achieve this purpose the study investigated changes in tourists' environmental knowledge, awareness, attitudes and behavioural intentions between pre-visit and post-visit stages. Overall, there were few statistically significant differences between the pre-visit and post-visit samples. This study found, however, significant effects of (1) visitor awareness of, and (2) involvement in, the environmental management practices, and (3) participation in nature tour activities on environmental attitudes and behaviours. It is suggested that awareness of in-resort environmental practices and satisfying experiences in ecotourism accommodation may lead to reinforcing visitors' favourable environmental attitudes, thus increasing their interest in further ecotourism experiences. Through these cumulative effects, ecotourism accommodation could achieve its educative goal. © 2005 W.H. Lee & G. Moscardo..

Finding beauty in the dragon: The role of dragonflies in recreation and tourism

Lemelin, R.H. 2007, Journal of Ecotourism Vol 6 side 139-145.

In some Asian countries such as China and Japan, Odonota (dragonflies, damselflies) have a long history of being involved in recreation and leisure activities. In contemporary Japan, dragonfly enthusiasts, much like birders elsewhere, pride themselves on recognizing many different types of Odonata. In fact, numerous symposia, festivals and sanctuaries provide Japanese dragonfly enthusiasts with the opportunity to practice and perfect their skills. Dragonfly gatherings (e.g. counts, educational outings) in North America and Europe are also increasing in popularity. Facilitating the growth of these recreation activities, but more specifically the viewing of dragonflies, are the availability of books and field guides, associations, and websites. This research note examines discussion surrounding insect-human relationships while highlighting the contribution of one particular insect order - Odonata, and the role of this flagship species in socio-cultural norms in recreational and tourism activities. © 2007 R.H. Lemelin..

Introduction to the special issue on aboriginal ecotourism

Lemelin, R.H.B., S. 2009, Journal of Ecotourism Vol 8 side 77-81.


Polar bear viewers as deep ecotourists: How specialised are they?

Lemelin, R.H.F., D.; Smale, B. 2008, Journal of Sustainable Tourism Vol 16 side 42-62.

Individuals visiting natural areas, such as national parks, or engaging in certain outdoor recreation activities like birdwatching, are often assumed to be ecotourists and also concomitantly assumed to be highly specialised by virtue of their behaviour. In this study, tourists visiting the Churchill Wildlife Management Area in Canada to view polar bears are examined using a comprehensive index of specialisation and compared to selected demographic variables and indicators of environmental concern. The results suggest that these visitors reflect a wide range of levels of specialisation, and that the majority of visitors are novices who might not share the same degree of concern for the environment or the same motives for visiting as their more specialised counterparts. Concerns for management of natural areas for wildlife viewing are raised based on these findings. © 2008 R. H. Lemelin et al..

Effect of environmental context on the experience of polar bear viewers in Churchill, Manitoba

Lemelin, R.H.S., B. 2006, Journal of Ecotourism Vol 5 side 176-191.

Despite the recent growth of wildlife viewing, research on the human dimensions of wildlife tourism in protected areas has been limited. This is surprising because if no monitoring is done, then understanding and responding appropriately to both the benefits and impacts of wildlife tourism in protected areas is almost impossible. In this study, data were gathered on the character of organised outings made by wildlife viewers visiting Churchill, Manitoba to see polar bears in situ. The purpose of the study was to examine the effect of selected environmental factors, such as numbers of wildlife seen, amount of wildlife activity, and overall visibility, on the social dynamics and experience of the wildlife tourists. Results indicate that the number of polar bears seen is the only factor directly related to viewer attentiveness and group dynamics, and importantly, on-site satisfaction with the experience. © 2006 R.H. Lemelin & B. Smale..

Developing criteria and indicators for responsible rural tourism in Taman Negara National Park (TNNP), Malaysia

Ling, S.M.A., Z. Z.; Nair, V.; Ramachandran, S.; Shuib, A. 2011, Malaysian Forester Vol 74 side 143-156.

The tourism industry in Malaysia is being transformed from low yield to high yield income. With the launch of the Economic Transformation Programme (ETP), Malaysia is set to achieve high income nation status by the end of the decade. Rural tourism and ecotourism is growing at a phenomenal rate in Malaysia and is expected to be a major contributor to the nation's tourism receipt. Nonetheless, in the last decade, the concept of ecotourism and rural tourism has melded with mainstream tourism to lose its distinctness. Consequently, the tourism industry's growth through-out the years has created an increasing amount of stress economically, socially and environmentally. For a sustainable development of the rural tourism sector, the benefits must be equitably distributed among the private interests, public sector, tourists and local population. Criteria and indicators of sustainability that reflect the costs and benefits must be precise yet simple enough to be understood and easily implemented by field staff. The objective of this study is to develop criteria and indicators of sustainability for Taman Negara. The study uses Delphi technique to identify and develop a set of priority criteria and indicators, which is used to determine the sustainability of the development of Taman Negara National Park. The results of the study produced a set of 15 criteria and 58 indicators of sustainability which are comparable to the lists adopted by international, regional and national programs in the development of criteria and indicators. The indicators encompass the components of economic, social and environmental values associated with responsible development. These indicators will then be used in the development of a tourism barometer that will act as a national integrated tourism management system. This fundamental study plays an important role in innovating new approaches by developing indicators to holistically measure the multi-dimensional relationships between different tourism models and the linkages to local economies and environment in key natural and rural destinations in Malaysia..

tourism & travel: IN THE GREEN ECONOMY

Lipman, G. 2011, International Trade Forum Vol side 28-29.

They are at a tipping point where the past four decades of climate and poverty concern - the Stockholm Environment Conference, the Rio Earth Summit, the Kyoto Climate Summit, the Millennium Development Goals and the like -- must give way to shared solutions. What is needed now is vision, innovative thinking and courage by policymakers -- public, private and civil society -- to recognize the potential and create new, inclusive frameworks to make it happen. Green growth is not a simple concept. There is a key role for travelism -- the combined impact of the whole travel and tourism supply and demand chains and not just the sub-sector silos (transport, accommodation, hospitality/events and travel services). Two core principles should inform green growth initiatives. Quadruple bottom line sustainability, with climate the new, game changing one, integrated with social, environmental and economic balance. And smart travel -- clean, green, ethical at all levels of the price/product spectrum and incorporating local community interests..

Ethical travel decisions - Travel agents and human rights

Lovelock, B. 2008, Annals of Tourism Research Vol 35 side 338-358.

This paper explores the ethics of selling tourism products for destinations that have known major human rights issues. The study uses the moral intensity framework to analyze the ethical decision making of New Zealand travel agents. Qualitative interviews reveal support for all aspects of the framework. In particular, agents' judgements are strongly influenced by their perceptions of how their decisions impact upon their clients. In contrast, uncertainty surrounds the probability and magnitude of consequences of their decisions for destination communities. Strong social, cultural, legal, and economic links between the agent and the more proximate stakeholders mean that ethical decisions commonly favor these stakeholders..

Attraction of dwarf minke whales Balaenoptera acutorostrata to vessels and swimmers in the Great Barrier Reef World Heritage Area - The management challenges of an inquisitive whale

Mangott, A.H.B., R. A.; Marsh, H. 2011, Journal of Ecotourism Vol 10 side 64-76.

A diffuse aggregation of dwarf minke whales occurs in the northern Great Barrier Reef World Heritage Area (GBRWHA) during the austral winter months. The whales voluntarily approach dive tourism vessels and their passengers and maintain contact for prolonged periods (mean ±SE = 3.9 ± 0.57 h). We report on 521 industry-wide dwarf minke whale encounters (2006-2007) and provide detailed analyses of 20 encounters in 2006 and 18 in 2007 from the vessel Undersea Explorer. The whales surfaced significantly more often within a 60 m radius of the vessel than expected, and aggregated especially around swimmers. The inquisitiveness of the whales creates several management issues including compliance difficulties for non-swim-with whales endorsed operations. The whales' close and prolonged association with vessels and swimmers indicates a strong attraction of these animals to the stimulus and raises concerns about the wellbeing of the whales and the swimming participants. Preventing these encounters would be difficult without banning dive tourism in the GBRWHA for several months. Several management strategies are highlighted and broader education is recommended to reduce the potential of adverse impacts on the whales. © 2011 Taylor & Francis..

Birdwatchers' specialisation characteristics and national park tourism planning

Maple, L.C.E., P. F. J.; Rolfe, H. 2010, Journal of Ecotourism Vol 9 side 219-238.

Decline in birding visitation to Point Pelee National Park stimulated investigation of recreation specialisation to better prepare programmes for birdwatchers. This research identified characteristics of birdwatchers' at three specialisation levels and advised park managers in the design and management of birding programmes. Research found that the intermediate and expert birders were similar to each other, and were different from the beginners. The beginners were a distinct group, from the more experienced groups, as they were more likely to be in their first year of bird watching, stayed the least number of nights in the local area, had the lowest expenditures, participated more in activities outside the national park, used more sources of information, and participated more in non-birding activities during their trip to the national park. The research found that this beginner group required programmes aimed at an introduction to the park, the regional area, birding, and a wide range of activities and sites. The more experienced birders required specialised programmes on bird identification, bird biology, and bird watching. The research concluded that bird watching management should be an integrated, regional activity, involving many public and private organisations, many of which occur outside the national park. © 2010 Taylor & Francis..

Minimising visitor impacts to protected areas: The efficacy of low impact education programmes

Marion, J.L.R., S. E. 2007, Journal of Sustainable Tourism Vol 15 side .

Protected area managers, tourism providers, and other organisations commonly employ education programmes to address visitation-related impairment of natural and cultural resources, social conditions, and neighbouring communities. These programmes have different names (Leave No Trace, Codes of Conduct, Environmental Guidelines for Tourists) but share common objectives: to sustain opportunities for high quality visitor experiences while avoiding or minimising associated negative impacts to protected area resources, visitor experiences, and park neighbours. Theoretical and empirical research studies in the United States are reviewed to evaluate the efficacy of educational efforts that seek to encourage adoption of low impact behaviours. Findings reveal that most of the visitor education efforts evaluated did effectively alter visitor knowledge, behaviour and/or resource and social conditions in the intended direction. These findings, including discussions of message content, delivery, audience characteristics and theoretical grounding, provide insights for improving the efficacy of future educational efforts. © 2007 J.L. Marion & S.E. Reid..

Managing for conservation and recreation: The Ningaloo whale shark experience

Mau, R. 2008, Journal of Ecotourism Vol 7 side 213-225.

The Western Australian Department of Environment and Conservation has statutory responsibility for conservation, and commercial and recreational aspects of the Ningaloo Whale Shark Experience. The whale shark experience participation rate had grown by 150% since 1995. In this paper, the ability of the existing management programme to balance ecological, social and economic factors is reviewed. The Department has established a statutory Code of Conduct which applied equally to commercial and recreational users when interacting with whale sharks. The Code of Conduct for Whale Shark Interaction was developed to provide for an acceptable impact on the wildlife and a safe visitor experience. A restricted licensing regime was applied. Studies conducted to date indicate that any significant impact on the whale shark population is unlikely as a result of the tourism interactions at Ningaloo. Social surveys indicate a high level of satisfaction with all aspects of the whale shark experience. An education programme was implemented to cater for industry needs and a local, national and international audience. At this time, the Ningaloo Whale Shark experience may effectively be described as an ecologically sustainable wildlife tourism industry managed by a government conservation department based on non-consumptive use of wildlife. © 2008 Taylor & Francis..

Ecotourism and certification: Confronting the principles and pragmatics of socially responsible tourism

Medina, L.K. 2005, Journal of Sustainable Tourism Vol 13 side 281-295.

Many ecotourism proponents advocate certification as a means to distinguish legitimate ecotourism from counterfeit 'greenwashed' products. This paper discusses, efforts by certification advocates operating in global arenas to generate standards for measuring compliance with one dimension of widely accepted definitions of ecotourism, the stipulation that it should provide benefits to local communities. The paper then presents an ethnographic case study from Belize that reveals disagreements among ecotourism stakeholders in Belize and between them and international experts about the meaning of several key terms: who should count as 'local', what should count as 'participation' by locals, and what constitutes a 'benefit' to local communities. The author argues that divergent perspectives on these issues must be recognised and accommodated in the process of harmonising or standardising certification criteria for ecotourism; failure to do that could imperil both the principled and pragmatic rationales behind the requirement that ecotourism provide benefits to local communities. © 2005 L.K. Medina..

Nature-based tourism: A contrast to everyday life

Mehmetoglu, M. 2007, Journal of Ecotourism Vol 6 side 111-126.

The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between trip motives and the importance placed on nature when choosing a destination. More specifically, it investigates how much importance tourists, motivated by their 'everyday lives', attach to nature in their decision to travel to their current destination. The results of the multiple regression analysis indicate that two trip motives, 'novelty and learning' and 'everyday life', significantly influence the importance attributed to nature. The more any of these motives is considered to be important, the more salient a role nature plays in such a decision. However, the results of the subsequent multiple logistic regression analysis show that it is the trip motive 'a contrast to everyday life' that significantly distinguishes between 'genuine' nature-based tourists (i.e. travelling primarily for nature) and 'mixed' nature-based tourists (i.e. travelling for various reasons including nature). Several theoretical and practical implications of the study are also provided. © 2007 M. Mehmetoglu..

Accurately identifying and comparing sustainable tourists, nature-based tourists, and ecotourists on the basis of their environmental concerns

Mehmetoglu, M. 2010, International Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Administration Vol 11 side 171-199.

The current study, using a confirmatory factor analysis, developed a multi-item scale consisting of 3 dimensions that exhibited necessary reliability and validity. Based on this Nature-Based, Eco- and Sustainable Tourists (NES)-scale, and by utilizing a cluster analysis, the study identifies 4 distinct segments among a sample of the Norwegian population: nature-based tourists, ecotourists, sustainable tourists, and mass tourists. The analysis shows that while the ecotourists make up the largest segment, the mass tourists represent the smallest segment. Using Analysis of Variance (ANOVA), the resulting 4 segments are later compared on the basis of their environmental concerns. The findings suggest that the ecotourists are the most environmentally concerned whereas the mass tourists are the least environmentally concerned. Finally, based upon the overall findings of the study, a new inductive model is developed. This model highlights the interaction between different types of alternative tourists and mass tourists, by showing, inter alia, that nature-based tourism has over the years become a form of mass tourism. Theoretical and practical implications of the study are also discussed. © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC..

Ecotourism in the rangelands: Landholder perspectives on conservation

Moskwa, E. 2010, Journal of Ecotourism Vol 9 side 175-186.

Research on landholder perspectives of conservation through ecotourism is conducted through a social science viewpoint to provide guidance for multifunctional land-use planning with a particular focus on sustainable tourism operations in the Australian rangelands. When addressing the adoption of ecotourism as a conservation practice, the influence of economics, uncertainty and confidence in proposed land-use changes appear tightly linked. The financial position of landholders is presented as a primary limitation to the adoption of increased sustainable land-use practices. Diversification into sustainable tourism is perceived as assisting landholders achieve a range of economic and environmental goals; landholders are pulled into ecotourism as a favourable response to the push away from traditional pastoralism. Results show the majority of landholders are of the opinion that ecotourism can contribute to conservation in the following ways: (1) financially by enabling additional income to devote to ecological recovery efforts and (2) by educating tourists about the rangelands and sending sustainability messages to the wider population. Further, the research brings to light that support for ecotourism may be amplified through sharing experiences in a heuristic method of collective judgement. This process enables landholders to address the elements of confidence and uncertainty of new practices with others facing similar sustainability goals as their own. © 2010 Taylor & Francis..

Limits to Sami tourism development: The case of Jokkmokk, Sweden

Müller, D.K.H., S. K. 2009, Journal of Ecotourism Vol 8 side 115-127.

Indigenous populations are frequently used in tourism promotion and marketing. This is also true for the Sami people in northern Europe. In the area, sometimes called Europe's last wilderness, the Sami and their culture are epitomised as a main asset for a growing tourism industry. Previously this has caused problems and irritation among the Sami. Nevertheless, tourism development is indeed also seen as a potential solution to problems affecting the Sami society, offering new sources of income and future employment in situ. Against this background, it is an interesting notion that only few Swedish Sami choose to make a living within tourism. Instead, tourism appears to be a complementary activity to reindeer herding only. Hence, the purpose of this article is to analyse constraints preventing Sami from getting more involved in tourism development. The article mainly draws on a study conducted in Jokkmokk, Sweden. Here, interviews were carried out with Sami tourism entrepreneurs who were also members of local cooperatives for reindeer husbandry. The results of the study indicate that cultural norms and legal obstacles form the main limitation for Sami tourism development. © 2009 Taylor & Francis..

Promoting energy strategies on Eco-Certified accommodation websites

Nelson, V. 2010, Journal of Ecotourism Vol 9 side 187-200.

The attention on climate change by the international media and the international tourism industry has generated greater interest in issues of energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions. This study seeks to explore the intersection of these two foci. The purpose of this paper is to examine the type of information about energy use and strategies to reduce energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions provided by accommodations Eco-Certified by Ecotourism Australia. Specifically, this examination addresses what information is provided, how it is presented, and what the objectives are in promoting this information. Although energy issues are a component in Eco Certification, just under half of the 50 accommodations included provided information about energy on their websites. These accommodations provided information about activities undertaken in each of four strategies previously identified for reducing greenhouse gas emissions in the accommodation sector - reducing energy use, improving energy efficiency, increasing alternative energy consumption, and offsetting emissions - and related this information to the ecotourism tenets of environmental sustainability, environmental education, and economic viability. While some accommodation operators chose to provide this information to potential tourists as a possible means of product differentiation, most did so to raise awareness and ultimately to try to change behaviours. © 2010 Taylor & Francis..

Exploring the predisposition of travellers to qualify as ecotourists: The ecotourist predisposition scale

Nowaczek, A.S., B. 2010, Journal of Ecotourism Vol 9 side 45-61.

In spite of various attempts at defining and identifying ecotourists - both in comparison with general tourism and within the ecotourism sector itself - most research studies examining ecotourists lack a generalisable approach and raise issues of reliability and validity. Most troublesome research in this area lack a theoretical foundation for what it means to be an ecotourist and, instead, relies on geographical location or behavioural markers to identify ecotourists. In this study, a multi-dimensional scale is proposed for identifying travellers' predispositions to qualify as ecotourists. Following a comprehensive review of literature on definitions, conceptual frameworks, and typologies associated with ecotourism, six foundational dimensions were identified - ethics, education, culture, nature, specialisation, and contribution - that provided the conceptual basis for the development of the Ecotourist Predisposition Scale. The scale was pre-tested and has undergone reliability and construct validity testing for each dimension and overall. The scale could serve to extend our understanding of ecotourists on a deeper conceptual level and, in application, serve to identify various types of travellers based on their predisposition for basic aspects of ecotourism with the advantage of a temporal, geographical, and behavioural generalisability. © 2010 Taylor & Francis..

A community-based tourism model: Its conception and use

Okazaki, E. 2008, Journal of Sustainable Tourism Vol 16 side 511-529.

Community participation in the tourism planning process is advocated as a way of implementing sustainable tourism. There are, however, few studies that detail tangible and practical ways to promote or measure participation. This paper reviews the principal theories used to discuss community participation, including the 'ladder of citizen participation', power redistribution, collaboration processes and social capital creation. These theories form the basis for defining a community-based tourism (CBT) model. The paper shows how this model can be used to assess participation levels in a study site, and suggests further actions required. The model is applied in a case study in Palawan, the Philippines, where an indigenous community previously initiated a community-based ecotourism project. The project resulted in a number of problems, including conflicts with non-indigenous stakeholders. The model identifies the current situation of the project and provides suggestions for improvement. © 2008 Taylor & Francis..

Hot issues, green solutions: Impacts and implications for the tourism industry National Ecotourism Conference 22nd-24th October 2007, Nairobi, Kenya

Okech, R.N. 2009, Journal of Ecotourism Vol 8 side 221-222.


A GIS Approach to Evaluating Ecological Sensitivity for Tourism Development in Fragile Environments. A Case Study from SE Iceland

Olafsdottir, R.R., M. C. 2009, Scandinavian Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Vol 9 side 22-38.

Expansion of tourism in the northern periphery regions provides innovative resources for an economic boost to many of the peripheral communities. The northern ecosystems are however extremely vulnerable. It is therefore of vital importance for such communities to plan the growth of tourism along sustainable lines in order to secure long-term economic benefit from tourism. Geographical Information Systems (GIS) can handle multiple spatial criteria and provide a tool for the allocation of resources between conflicting demands and aid decision-makers in planning. Despite increased use of GIS in environmental planning and management, the application of GIS to tourism planning is still limited. This study aims to develop a methodology to generate a Tourism Decision Support System (TDSS) to aid planning of sustainable tourism. A GIS model was developed based on classification of identified impact factors and variables, as well as selected classification algorithms that were used to assess categories of ecological sensitivity that may aid decision makers in planning and managing sustainable tourism in sensitive areas that are facing the risk of being subjected to ecological degradation..

Economic and transition and the struggle for local control in ecotourism development: The case of Kyrgyzstan

Palmer, N.J. 2006, Journal of Ecotourism Vol 5 side 40-61.

This is a contextual paper, examining the involvement of external development agencies in an emerging post-Soviet economy. The paper provides an outline of same of the main political and economic challenges facing the case example area - Kyrgyzstan. It then goes on to briefly consider ecotourism as a concept linking natural resources and cultural environments with a key focus on 'local', locating ecotourism as a key potential vehicle for promoting and protecting diversity in globalisation debates. The main part of the paper discusses the intervention of one external development agency, the Swiss Development Co-operation (SDC), via the introduction of community-based tourism (CBT) to Kyrgyzstan. One particular CBT group has developed a successful ecotourism product using SDC technical assistance. Kyrgyz tour operator responses to this development are presented and the implications of external development agency intervention in Kyrgyzstan's tourism development are considered with respect to the creation of a struggle for local control amongst the Kyrgyz tour operators, an emphasis on the cultural value of the ethnic Kyrgyz population and a focus on poverty alleviation amongst these people rather than other Kyrgyz citizens. A need for further research is highlighted, particularly with respect to the potential imperialistic effects of external development agencies. © 2006 N.J. Palmer..

Understanding success factors for ensuring sustainability in ecotourism development in southern Africa

Parker, S.K., A. 2005, Journal of Ecotourism Vol 4 side 32-46.

Developing an ecotourism enterprise is a complex and difficult undertaking for an entrepreneur. In addition to a thorough understanding of market principles and business fundamentals, the entrepreneur must build strong, lasting and equitable partnerships with local communities, protect the environment, and operate in sometimes adverse national and local conditions. In evaluating the potential sustainability of an ecotourism project the entrepreneur must understand the critical success factors for the project. This paper provides a methodology of evaluation for the three major categories of critical success factors: (1) environmental (environmental quality, site boundaries, water and opportunity costs), (2) community (community partnerships, community definition, community dialogue, and poverty and social inclusion) and (3) economic (national political environment, adequate legal systems and security, infrastructure and government policy). By investigating and rating these success factors and understanding their affect on the potential of an ecotourism project, the entrepreneur can effectively compare the potential of different projects. This article attempts to create a framework for understanding the ecotourism success factors taking the example of southern African countries. © 2005 S. Parker & A. Khare..

Ecotourism and conservation: Factors influencing effective conservation messages

Peake, S.I., P.; Dyer, P. 2009, Journal of Sustainable Tourism Vol 17 side 107-127.

Environmental education and interpretation have largely focused on individual mechanisms (e.g. cognitive processes) leading to intention and behavioural change. Less has been said about the role of the situation and communication processes between tour guides and tourists in ecotourism experiences. This paper examines the role of interpreters and individuals as jointly influencing the effectiveness of communicating conservation messages. A survey of over 1500 visitors was undertaken to ascertain the factors crucial to whether visitors received a conservation message in an ecotourism setting. The results indicate a three-tier effect: individual characteristics, specifically respondent's age, were initially important. The second tier represents the impact of conservation-related information from the tour guide/interpreter. This information acts as a stimulus to the third and most crucial tier of influence - visitor empowerment. The tertiary stage comprises a two-way communication process that influences a positive conservation message. The process involves the interpreter suggesting positive conservation action that translates into what we term "a locus of responsibility" for the visitor and subsequent higher levels of satisfaction. All of these drive effective communication of conservation message comprehension..

Ecotourism: Supply of nature or tourist demand?

Perkins, H.G., D. A. 2009, Journal of Ecotourism Vol 8 side 223-236.

Although there is considerable consumer power resting in the hands of the individual tourist, in terms of the types of tourism products offered and the places being visited, there has been, surprisingly, little empirical research regarding tourists' preferences for particular tourism packages and holidays. Furthermore, little is known in relation to tourist differences (or similarities) in preferences for, or motivation towards, mainstream as opposed to ecotourism tourist experiences. This study addresses this deficiency in the literature via empirical research involving a self-report survey of a sample of 255 tourists. The results indicate that a definite ecotourism market segment does seem to exist and that the motivations of mainstream tourists are qualitatively different from those of ecotourists, each defined by their preferences and interests. © 2009 Tavlor & Francis..

Erratum: Ecotourism: Supply of nature or tourist demand? (Journal of Ecotourism (2009) 8:3 (229))

Perkins, H.G., D. A. 2010, Journal of Ecotourism Vol 9 side 84.


Conceptualising a contemporary marketing mix for sustainable tourism

Pomering, A.N., G.; Johnson, L. W. 2011, Journal of Sustainable Tourism Vol 19 side 953-969.

This paper outlines how marketing, though traditionally considered an enemy of sustainability, can play a role in implementing sustainable tourism. It notes the redefinition in 2007 by the American Marketing Association of marketing's aims to consider wider societal issues beyond those of clients and customers. It illustrates how the recognition of the importance of sustainable tourism at all scales of tourism activity provides marketing with an opportunity to pursue sustainability outcomes. We review the strategic tourism marketing planning process and conceptually develop a sustainability tourism marketing model that embeds sustainability considerations at each stage of the planning process. Our proposed model contributes to sustainable tourism theory development and offers a conceptual tool for managing a tourism organisation's ecological and societal footprint on the supply side and a critical opportunity for transforming consumer decision-making on the demand side, irrespective of tourism scale. A 30-cell matrix is proposed that cross-references a strong set of 10 marketing elements (product, price, promotion, place, participants, process, physical evidence, partnership, packaging and programming) against the questions posed by the triple bottom line of economic factors, the environmental and sociocultural concern, creating a check list of indicators for management purposes. © 2011 Taylor & Francis..

Visits to national parks and the provision of natural and man-made recreation and tourism resources

Puustinen, J.P., E.; Neuvonen, M.; Sievaenen, T. 2009, Journal of Ecotourism Vol 8 side 18-31.

Understanding the relationship between national park characteristics and the number of visits is crucial for the planning and management of parks. Visitation, the number of visits to the park, has a key role to play in assessing the social and economic impacts of new and existing parks. This study examines how the natural characteristics of a national park, the recreation services inside it and tourism services in the surrounding communities are related to the number of visits. Parks are classified according to these three dimensions and the numbers of visitors are compared within the three types. 35 national parks in Finland form the data of the study. The results indicate that the number of visits is associated with the main nature type, implying a continuum from the highest numbers visiting mountainous (i.e. fell) parks to the lowest visiting mire parks. A high number of visits is associated with a good provision of both recreational facilities inside and tourism services outside it. In water-based parks, in particular, the effect of services on park visits is considerable..

Visits to national parks and the provision of natural and man-made recreation and tourism resources

Puustinen, J.P., E.; Neuvonena, M.; Sievänen, T. 2009, Journal of Ecotourism Vol 8 side 18-31.

Understanding the relationship between national park characteristics and the number of visits is crucial for the planning and management of parks. Visitation, the number of visits to the park, has a key role to play in assessing the social and economic impacts of new and existing parks. This study examines how the natural characteristics of a national park, the recreation services inside it and tourism services in the surrounding communities are related to the number of visits. Parks are classified according to these three dimensions and the numbers of visitors are compared within the three types. 35 national parks in Finland form the data of the study. The results indicate that the number of visits is associated with the main nature type, implying a continuum from the highest numbers visiting mountainous (i.e. fell) parks to the lowest visiting mire parks. A high number of visits is associated with a good provision of both recreational facilities inside and tourism services outside it. In water-based parks, in particular, the effect of services on park visits is considerable. © 2009 Taylor & Francis..

Europoly Money: How Do Tourists Convert Foreign Currencies to Make Spending Decisions?

Raghubir, P.M., V. G.; Santana, S. , Journal of Retailing Vol side .

This paper examines how tourists convert foreign currencies to make spending decisions. Six studies demonstrate how sequential (Study 1) and simultaneous (Study 2) exposure to nominally different (but economically identical) prices, and the manner in which tourists perform currency conversions (Studies 3-5) influence price perceptions and purchase intentions. Study 6 shows the effects using macroeconomic spending behavior from 1993 to 2008 spanning the introduction of the Euro. The general discussion concludes with a model of how numerical inputs are combined to make judgments as a function of the number of inputs available and their ease of use. © 2011 New York University..

Visitor perceptions of the role of tour guides in natural areas

Randall, C.R., R. B. 2009, Journal of Sustainable Tourism Vol 17 side 357-374.

This paper explores the potential of tour guides to contribute to the protection of natural areas by educating their customers through interpretation and modeling environmentally appropriate behaviors. Applying Cohen's (1985) model of the guides' role, modified by Weiler and Davis (1993), as a framework, it examines the potential role that kayak tour guides can play in shaping the experience of visitors to one marine area, the Pacific Rim National Park. It uses two approaches to explore the perceptions of clients about the role of kayak guides using: (1) a pre- and post-trip questionnaire and (2) participant observation. Results indicate that five of the six roles were rated high in importance, but one role, the communication role, was not as important. Comparing performance with importance attached to each role revealed congruence with five roles, but lower levels of performance in relation to importance with the role of "motivator of responsible behavior". Variability within all of the importance and performance measures suggest that for some individuals, performance did not match importance, highlighting the need to consider market segmentation in future studies. These findings are discussed within the ecotourism paradigm, and their implications for protected area management and for visitor behavior modification are considered.© 2009 Taylor & Francis..

Ecotourism and simulated attractions: Tourists' attitudes towards integrated sites in a desert area

Reichel, A.U., N.; Shani, A. 2008, Journal of Sustainable Tourism Vol 16 side 23-41.

This paper examines the attitudes of tourists towards a conceptual planning approach, which combines elements of ecotourism with themed and simulated attractions for sustainable tourism development in desert areas. Based on a survey of 453 tourists, the study examines respondents' preferences regarding the suggested contents and facilities of tourist attractions to be developed in the Israeli desert area of the Negev. The findings indicate that the respondents do not necessarily see contradictions between the seemingly irreconcilable ecotourism elements and themed simulations. They expressed clear preference for the development of sites with appropriate infrastructure and themed simulations that preserve local nature and culture. The findings are discussed within the frameworks of ecotourism, post-modern tourism, and tourism development in desert areas. © 2008 A. Reichel et al..

Ecotourists' loyalty: Will they tell about the destination or will they return?

Rivera, M.A.C., R. 2010, Journal of Ecotourism Vol 9 side 85-103.

The objective of this study is to investigate the impact of price, value, satisfaction, quality, and performance on the ecotourists' loyalty towards the destination. By using an attitudinal approach, loyalty is conceptualised by analysing the post-purchase decision-making of the ecotourists (intent to return or recommend). The analysis is based on 454 on-site surveys collected from ecotourists visiting the Galapagos Islands in Ecuador. The results from path analysis indicate that ecotourists are not likely to return but are willing to recommend the destination. The findings suggest that the Galapagos Islands might be perceived as an iconic destination and considered a 'once in a lifetime experience'. The ecotourists' loyalty to the Galapagos is only reflected by their willingness to recommend. The article concludes with recommendations for tourism and government organisations regarding the management of word of mouth communications and first-time visitors in an attempt to improve sustainability. © 2010 Taylor & Francis..

Developing and testing an assessment framework to guide the sustainability of the marine wildlife tourism industry

Rodger, K.S., A.; Newsome, D.; Moore, S. A. 2011, Journal of Ecotourism Vol 10 side 149-164.

Growth in the marine wildlife tourism industry has been accompanied by concerns regarding its sustainability. This paper develops and tests a generic framework for assessing the sustainability of such ventures. The framework aims to guide the collection and collation of existing information and then use this information to identify current sustainability issues and information gaps. Development relied on a literature review and expert opinion. Testing was undertaken on whale shark tourism at Ningaloo Marine Park in north-western Australia. Evaluation of the framework suggests it has applicability (i.e. it is simple to use) and is useful, where usefulness refers to the ability to contribute to sustainable tourism management. Its reproducibility (i.e. providing consistent responses irrespective of the context) could only be determined through application to multiple case studies, a recommendation flowing from this study. The framework has at least three applications: improving existing marine wildlife tourism operations through reviewing their sustainability; developing an auditing mechanism as part of the licensing provisions for such tourism; and helping to determine the likely sustainability of proposed ventures. Overall, this framework provides an important opportunity to further develop the professionalism of the wildlife tourism sector through enhancing good practice. © 2011 Taylor & Francis..

Eco-tourism and luxury - The case of Al Maha, Dubai

Ryan, C.S., M. 2009, Journal of Sustainable Tourism Vol 17 side 287-301.

This paper examines the issues raised by Al Maha in the United Arab Emirates (UAE), a 27 km2 resort within the 225 km2 Dubai Desert Conservation Zone that offers luxurious accommodation in 40 suites, each with its own swimming pool. Its appeal is based on luxury, but it also offers insights into desert culture, heritage and the fauna and flora of the Arabian Desert. Much of that desert has become severely degraded by 200 years of camel grazing. Al Maha claims eco-tourism status through its desert regeneration programme. Is eco-tourism compatible with luxury? Given an official Emirati ecological perspective of desert greening, is desert reclamation consistent with wider UAE greening policies? Does ecologically motivated reclamation based on revenue from luxury-based tourism condone ecologically unaware tourist behavior?.

Ecosystem Goods and Services from Swedish Coastal Habitats: Identification, Valuation, and Implications of Ecosystem Shifts

Rönnbäck, P.K., Nils; Pihl, Leif; Troell, Max; Söderqvist, Tore; Wennhage, Håkan 2007, Ambio Vol 36 side 534-44.

Coastal areas are exposed to a variety of threats due to high population densities and rapid economic development. How will this affect human welfare and our dependence on nature's capacity to provide ecosystem goods and services? This paper is original in evaluating this concern for major habitats (macroalgae, seagrasses, blue mussel beds, and unvegetated soft bottoms) in a temperate coastal setting. More than 40 categories of goods and services are classified into provisional, regulating, and cultural services. A wide variety of Swedish examples is described for each category, including accounts of economic values and the relative importance of different habitats. For example, distinguishing characteristics would be the exceptional importance of blue mussels for mitigation of eutrophication, sandy soft bottoms for recreational uses, and seagrasses and macroalgae for fisheries production and control of wave and current energy. Net changes in the provision of goods and services are evaluated for three cases of observed coastal ecosystem shifts: i) seagrass beds into unvegetated substrate; ii) unvegetated shallow soft bottoms into filamentous algal mat dominance; and iii) macroalgae into mussel beds on hard substrate. The results are discussed in a management context including accounts of biodiversity, interconnectedness of ecosystems, and potential of economic valuation. [PUBLICATION ABSTRACT].

Ecotourism: A consumption perspective

Sharpley, R. 2006, Journal of Ecotourism Vol 5 side .

Over the last quarter century, both the supply of and demand for ecotourism have grown significantly. At the same time, ecotourism has, as a particular form of tourism development, become increasingly recognised and legitimised as a means of achieving sustainable development in destination areas. Underpinning this widespread support for ecotourism is the assumption that tourists themselves are demanding more responsible, environmentally-appropriate forms of tourism yet, as this paper argues, there is little evidence to suggest that the growth in ecotourism has been demand led. Emphasising the key role of responsible behaviour on the part of tourists in the achievement of ecotourism, the paper highlights the characteristics of the ecotourist as compared to that of the mass tourist. These are then challenged by an exploration of the motivation, values and consumption practices of tourists which suggests that there is little distinction between the two. It concludes, therefore, that the ecotourist label has become increasingly irrelevant and that ecotourism development remains elusive. © 2006 R. Sharpley..

Tourism in maasai communities: A chance to improve livelihoods?

Snyder, K.A.S., E. B. 2011, Journal of Sustainable Tourism Vol 19 side 935-951.

This paper examines community-based tourism among Maasai communities in Tanzania in the context of national policies that have increasingly devolved control over natural resources to local communities. It focuses on economic revenues generated from tourism growth, their distribution to village communities and the constraints and conflicts resulting from attempts to control or access resources. Specific cases illustrate the political and economic complexity of devolved resource management and increased income generation at the community level. Ecotourism and community-based tourism are frequently claimed to be possible remedies for wildlife and natural resources conservation, but research indicates that implementation and revenue-sharing are far from straightforward. The paper uses case studies from communities in northern Tanzania, in Ngorongoro District (Loliondo and Lake Natron), Simanjiro District and Longido District (West Kilimanjaro) to explore issues between pastoralism, cultivation, hunting tourism, photographic tourism, conservation and governance systems. It discusses the implementation of the 1998 National Forestry and Wildlife Policies, the creation of Wildlife Management Areas and the 1999 Land Act and Village Land Act. Data and experiences were gathered over a three-year period working with the Sand County Foundation - Tanzania from 2006 to 2008. The paper contributes to the assessment and discussion of pro-poor tourism and poverty alleviation concepts. © 2011 Taylor & Francis..

The curriculum development of special area tourist guidetraining course based on ministry of tourism and sport's tourist guide framework for tourism promotion in community

Somchan, S.S., W.; Silanoi, L. E. 2012, European Journal of Social Sciences Vol 27 side 481-487.

The tourism industry development in Thailand in important to economic development of the country.This is because it helps generate revenue and create employment opportunity. It aims to make Thailand be the center of Asian tourism. Thus, there in the occurrence of economic, social, cultural and environmental development support in Thailand. This results in balance and sustainability as well as the acceptance on quality and standard of Thai tourism and products. The objectives of their study were to: 1) develop quality and effective tour guide training program in a specific area in accordance with the tour guide standard of the Ministry of Tourism and Sports and 2) assess the outcome of the training program based on satisfaction with tour guides of tour business entrepreneurs and tourists. The sample group in this study consisted of 20 interested people in Baan Maekampong community, Huay kaew sub-district, Mae On district, Chiangmai province. They were obtained by purposive sampling. The following were used for data collection: compression test of the participants; operational skill assessment form; and satisfaction assessment form. Percentage, mean, and standard deviation were used for the statistical treatment. Results of the study revealed the following: 1. The tour guide training program quality was found at a high level (X̄=4.68), with the efficiency value of 90.63/89.75 2. The tour business entrepreneurs and tourists had a high level of satisfaction with the tour guides (X̄=4.32 and X̄= 4.35, respectively). © EuroJournals Publishing, Inc. 2012..

Perception of visitors' environmental impacts of ecotourism: A case study in the Valley of Butterflies protected area, Rhodes Island, Greece

Spanou, S.T., K.; Georgiadis, T. 2012, International Journal of Environmental Research Vol 6 side 245-258.

Visitor management is considered important for the sustainable development of protected areas as the presence of visitors may cause negative impacts on wildlife and vegetation. Within this framework, visitor impacts and perceptions are considered critical for decision-making and planning of future management regimes. This paper resumes opinions of visitors of the Valley of Butterflies in Rhodes Island, Greece, a very popular tourist destination in both national and international level, with more than 300,000 visitors per year. These opinions record perceptions on the environmental impacts of eco-tourism in the Valley and are necessary for the formulation and implementation of a visitor management strategy in the area. Descriptive statistics are estimated, as well as a probit model exploring factors affecting visitors' satisfaction. Results call for more information and education of the visitors about the Valley's conservation and ecological value, better facilities and services provided, site hardening and a better policy of prices..

Sturgeon viewing as nature tourism: To what extent do participants value their viewing experiences and the resources upon which they depend?

Stoll, J.R.D., R. B.; Stokes, M. E. 2009, Journal of Ecotourism Vol 8 side 254-268.

Fish viewing, a relatively new leisure activity, has nature tourism potential. We focused on sturgeon viewing in northeast Wisconsin to understand personal and experience characteristics, economic impacts, and sturgeon population values. The need for economic approaches, as used in this paper, was addressed for creating and supporting fish-viewing opportunities. In the spring of 2002, we intercepted viewers of a sturgeon spawning event, finding that they were similar to other nature tourism participants in terms of personal and experience characteristics. Most resided within 35 miles (56.33 km) of the viewing site and incurred expenditures only for auto fuel and restaurant meals. Viewers demonstrated a strong affinity for protecting the sturgeon population by supporting various management proposals for dealing with overharvest. Willingness-to-pay results help us to understand the use value of sturgeon viewing to participants as well as the underlying value of environmental resources that support viewing. This reduces the likelihood these resources will be converted to uses other than nature tourism. The estimated value to viewers of increasing regional sturgeon population levels by 10% exceeds $2 million over the resource asset lifetime. Overall, there is potential for other areas with watchable fish populations to attract additional economic impacts from both residents and non-residents. © 2009 Tavlor & Francis..

Grey Seal (halichoerus grypus) disturbance, ecotour ism and the Pembrokeshire marine code around Ramsey Island

Strong, P.M., S. R. 2010, Journal of Ecotourism Vol 9 side 117-132.

The world wide growth of ecotourism and the need for management of this growth is well documented. Ramsey Island in Pembrokeshire, UK, is examined here in the context of its population of Atlantic Grey Seals. The growth of ecotour boat activity around the island has lead to the development of a voluntary code of conduct for relevant stakeholders, defining limits to their behaviour around key species at the site, including grey seals. Semi-quantitative protocols were developed for recording disturbance and boat behaviour. Data are presented of seal disturbance behaviour at pupping beaches in response to numbers, distance and speed of boats. It is shown that there is a significant correlation between the intensity of disturbance as measured by a disturbing stimulus index (DSI) and disturbance level. Disturbance is measurable at levels of disturbing stimulus that currently would not breach the code recommendations. The findings are examined for their implications for the seal populations, compliance with the code of conduct and wider definitions of ecotourism. Recommendations for adjustment of the code in terms of boat distance and speed are made. We highlight the need for wider stakeholder discussion of whether such common pool resources can be sustainably managed by voluntary measures alone. © 2010 Taylor & Francis..

The economic promise of ecotourism for conservation

Stronza, A. 2007, Journal of Ecotourism Vol 6 side 210-230.

Many conservationists have promoted ecotourism as a strategy to protect natural resources while also meeting human needs. The purpose of this study was to analyse effects of ecotourism on natural resource use and livelihoods in an indigenous community of 80 families in Peru. Household interviews and participant observation were used to track social and economic changes in the community as it partnered with a private tour company to build and co-manage an ecotourism lodge. Effects of ecotourism were measured among the same households before and after the lodge opened, and between households with varying levels of participation. The hypothesis that economic benefits from ecotourism. would provide incentives for people to alter their livelihoods and change their uses of natural resources was tested. Results showed that ecotourism effects were ambiguous. Though employment led to a general decline in farming and hunting, new income enabled greater market consumption and expansion of production. Ecotourism also prompted sentiments not easily measured in economic analyses alone, including willingness to be involved in ecotourism work, despite relatively minimal economic returns. These findings are a reflection of the fact that ecotourism is not merely an economic 'tool' for conservation, but also the cause of new values and social relations. © 2007 A. Stronza..

Local People, Nature Conservation, and Tourism In Northeastern Finland

Toern, A.S., P.; Tolvanen, A.; Kauppila, P.; Raemet, J. 2008, Ecology and Society Vol 13 side .

The opinions and perceptions of local communities are central issues in the sustainable management of conservation areas. During 2002 and 2003, we studied the opinions of local people about nature conservation and the development of tourism to investigate whether these opinions were influenced by socioeconomic and demographic factors. Data were collected via a survey of local residents in six areas with different histories of land use, land ownership, conservation, and tourism development. We classified respondents by cluster analysis into three different groups according to their opinions about nature conservation and tourism development: (1) sympathetic to nature conservation, but quite neutral to tourism development (57.7%); (2) critical of nature conservation, but quite neutral to tourism development (30.5%); and (3) quite neutral to nature conservation, but critical of tourism development (11.8%). The most important factors for classification were residential area, age, level of education, primary occupation, indigenousness, frequency of contact with tourists through work, and effects of nature conservation on household economy. On the other hand, gender, level of income, land ownership, land donation for conservation, and income from tourism did not affect opinions concerning nature conservation and tourism development. Almost equal proportions of residents living in close proximity to conservation areas in Kuusamo had positive and negative opinions about nature conservation. Residents living in close proximity to conservation areas regarded conservation as something that might reduce employment and incomes. On the other hand, a greater proportion of residents living near tourist resorts and farther from conservation areas had positive opinions about and perceptions of nature conservation and tourism development. Based on the proportional division of all respondents into the three groups, there may be a coexistent relationship between nature conservation and tourism in our study area. When local stakeholders had a chance to commit to the planning process, they had positive perceptions of and opinions about nature conservation and tourism development in their residential areas. As a result, we concluded that negative opinions and a lack of commitment to the planning process may hinder local development..

The shark watching industry and its potential contribution to shark conservation

Topelko, K.N.D., P. 2005, Journal of Ecotourism Vol 4 side 108-128.

Over 100 million sharks are killed annually, putting enormous pressure on shark populations worldwide. Sharks have traditionally been considered a detriment to coastal tourism, but since the early 1990s, shifts in attitudes amongst divers have led to growth in the popularity of shark watching as a tourist activity. An estimated 500,000 divers a year find, photograph, feed, and swim with sharks, contributing millions of dollars to local and regional economies. This paper examines whether the economic value attached to shark watching can provide enough incentive to reduce consumptive exploitation levels. Although the economic value attached to shark watching has led to greater protection of sharks in some locations, analysis of available data suggests that incentives do not appear large enough to encourage a significant reduction in fishing pressure appropriate to the scale of threat facing sharks. Growth of the shark watching industry is constrained by a number of factors including perceived risks and benefits, declining shark populations, and government regulations. However, conservation strategies for sharks involving tourism can be envisaged, involving varying levels of non-consumptive and consumptive uses of sharks. Three kinds of interaction between the non-consumptive and consumptive use of sharks are outlined along with implications for shark conservation. © 2005 K.N. Topelko and P. Dearden..

Wildlife in the landscape: A top end perspective on destination-level wildlife and tourism management

Tremblay, P. 2008, Journal of Ecotourism Vol 7 side 179-196.

This paper claims that for wildlife-rich destinations such as the Northern Territory, the analytical focus of wildlife tourism research ought to shift from that of the tourist-animal encounter (in terms of personal motivations, impact on the animal welfare, etc.) towards that of habitat sustainability, multiple uses and larger-scale impacts on those habitats. This paper overviews selected findings emanating from wildlife tourism research related to visitor behaviour, marketing and economic activity undertaken around the wetlands of Northern Australia. In its final part, the paper suggests that the concept of 'landscape' constitutes an appropriate and under-utilised analytical device connecting in a workable scale the most relevant management issues associated with wildlife in multiple uses context, and that this allows to address jointly wildlife tourism marketing and planning considerations. © 2008 Taylor & Francis..

Ecosophy and tourism: Rethinking a mountain resort

Varley, P.M., D. 2011, Tourism Management Vol 32 side 902-911.

This paper explores how an ecosophically inspired tourism strategy could enhance a Scottish mountain recreational site threatened by climate change. Drawing on qualitative data, the paper focuses on three research questions concerning: the impact of current infrastructure and management strategies on tourist experiences; tourists' current interpretations and desires; and how the notion of an ecosophically informed tourist attraction might be realised in the light of these experiences, interpretations and desires. Conclusions indicate that the site is a long way from being an ecosophically inspired tourism resort which might foster an engagement with nature. Insights are provided as to how this might be achieved. Critical to the paper is a consideration of how the 'packaging' of tourist experiences militates against a meaningful personal connection with the mountain environment. (C) 2010 Published by Elsevier Ltd..

Celestial ecotourism: New horizons in nature-based tourism

Weaver, D. 2011, Journal of Ecotourism Vol 10 side 38-45.

Celestial ecotourism is a neglected and hitherto unrecognised subsector that is dominated by the observation of nocturnal 'megacaela' (mega-skies). Observatories are the single largest component in terms of visitation, while aurora-viewing is the most articulated as a specialised commercial tourism (though not necessarily ecotourism) industry. Given the distance from featured attractions, sustainability is focused not on interaction but on context impacts and especially the need to preserve and restore the dark sky and unpolluted atmospheric conditions that foster charismatic megacaela. A logical emphasis on 'enhancement' sustainability is therefore apparent. Formal recognition and development of celestial ecotourism can be realised through the collaboration of ecotourism organisations with well-established and influential astronomy-related institutions pursuing relevant initiatives such as the creation of 'dark sky' reserves and the designation of 2009 as the International Year of Astronomy. © 2011 Taylor & Francis..

An investigation into the determining factors of zoo visitor attendances in Uk zoos

Whitworth, A.W. 2012, PLoS ONE Vol 7 side .

The debate as to which animals are most beneficial to keep in zoos in terms of financial and conservative value is readily disputed; however, demographic factors have also been shown to relate to visitor numbers on an international level. The main aims of this research were: (1) To observe the distribution and location of zoos across the UK, (2) to develop a way of calculating zoo popularity in terms of the species kept within a collection and (3) to investigate the factors related to visitor numbers regarding admission costs, popularity of the collection in terms of the species kept and local demographic factors. Zoo visitor numbers were positively correlated with generated popularity ratings for zoos based on the species kept within a collection and admission prices (Pearson correlation: n = 34, r = 0.268, P = 0.126 and n = 34, r = -0.430, P = 0.011). Animal collections are aggregated around large cities and tourist regions, particularly coastal areas. No relationship between demographic variables and visitor numbers was found (Pearson correlation: n = 34, r = 0.268, P = 0.126), which suggests that the popularity of a zoo's collection relative to the types and numbers of species kept is more indicative of a collection's visitor numbers than its surrounding demographic figures. Zoos should incorporate generating high popularity scores as part of their collection planning strategies, to ensure that they thrive in the future, not only as tourist attractions but also as major conservation organizations. © 2012 Andrew William Whitworth..

Environmentalism and tourism preferences: A study of outdoor recreationists in Sweden

Wolf-Watz, D.S., K.; Fredman, P. 2011, Scandinavian Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Vol 11 side 190-204.

This article explores the linkages between nature-based recreation and preferences of individuals classified as "environmentalists". Following an overview of the literature, this paper reports on an empirical investigation of the nature-based recreation vs. environmentalism nexus using data from a national Swedish survey. Study findings show that environmentalists (environmentally-oriented individuals) behave differently in terms of their recreation-related preferences when compared to non-environmentalists. Environmentalists prefer outdoor activities with little or no impact on the environment as demonstrated, for example, by their avoidance of extractive (e.g. hunting) and motorized activities (e.g. snowmobiling). Despite these differences, the findings were inconsistent in that while environmentalists avoid some extractive and motorized activities, other similar activities were not avoided. Thus, the results question the use of simplistic recreational classification systems for the understanding of activity preferences and the authors call for more in-depth, qualitative research to further understand the nature-based recreation choices of environmentalists. Study findings also show that environmentally-oriented individuals do not hesitate to travel away from residential areas for participation in nature-based recreation. Therefore, this paper helps us to understand which nature-based activities environmentalists demand and can provide a more informed basis for tourism planning and management. © 2011 Taylor & Francis..

Investigation and analysis on situation of ecotourism development in protected areas of China

Zhong, L.W., J. 2011, Shengtai Xuebao/ Acta Ecologica Sinica Vol 31 side 7450-7457.

With investigation in the twenty-seven provinces, autonomous regions and municipalities across the mainland of China, this study aims at learning about the situation of ecotourism development in different types of protected areas including nature reserves, natural scenic areas, forest parks, wetland parks, water parks, and geological parks, and providing some theoretical basis for ecotourism policy making and resources and environment protection. Investigation results show that ecotourism has been developed widely in most protected areas in China. The characteristics of present situation are as follows: (1) Chinese ecotourism market including the number of visitors and tourism revenue has reached a certain scale, and tourism activities are becoming more diversified, especially with some ecotourism special activities springing up. (2) Environment interpretation has gained much attention in most protected areas who covered almost all kinds of interpretation ways, did environment interpretation system planning, combined local culture and nature with it, but the content are not professionally enough, even with some obvious errors. (3) The infrastructure construction has been completed in general according to the survey, however, ecological compatibility is the important issue most protected areas has been ignored. A variety of protected areas we investigated are inclined to construct infrastructure in a way of mass tourism. (4) Although the environment situation is good in wide scope, the ecotourism environment protection measures are used little which will cause a fatal result to the natural environment, so that the environment management system are need be organized in a term as short as we can. (5) The garbage was thought as the most serious pollution in more than half of the respondent scenic spots. Besides, air pollution and natural attraction damage has existed in more than 20% respondent scenic spots. Ecotourism monitoring and supervision are very necessary for scenic spots manager to control these pollution phenomena. However, we found the environment monitoring system and impact assessment for construction projects has been rarely mentioned in the planning or the policy rather than the implement. (6) We are glad to see that residents in local community have gained considerable benefits from participation in ecotourism, which results in the positive attitudes of 95 percent residents to ecotourism development and is helpful to it. But the community participation in some extent is still at a lower-level stage. More residents participate in ecotourism in some ways, such as selling ecotourism commodity, working for the protected areas, offering guide service, but excluding decision making. (7) As to the tourism supervision in protected areas, corresponding regulation has generally formulated while some special rules such as contingency plan, fire prevention organization and security supervision need to be put forward in the future. And the quantity and quality of employees, together with ecotourism guides specialization, cannot meet the demand of ecotourism development. (8) At the same time, lacking of funds, as well as inefficient management system, is the prominent and general barrier to ecotourism development in China. Although there are many problems we, stakeholders, must focus on and solve, China still has a tremendous potential in ecotourism because of the abundant natural resources, a huge market, and more and more attention from all kinds of stakeholders..

The Environmental Values of Potential Ecotourists: A Segmentation Study

Zografos, C.A., David 2007, Journal of Sustainable Tourism Vol 15 side 44-44.

Although sustainable tourism that contributes to biodiversity protection seems to be important anywhere in the planet, ecotourism is rarely examined as a rural development opportunity outside the context of 'mega-diverse' countries, i.e. those 12 countries that between them harbour 60-70% of the total biodiversity of the planet. Collecting data from 20 sites around Scotland, this study considered the potential of ecotourism development in this country through a market segmentation study based on the environmental values of potential ecotourists. With the assistance of the New Ecological Paradigm (Dunlap et al., 2000) four segments with a range of anthropocentric and ecocentric values were identified. Results indicate that demand for ecotourism is not confined to ecocentric segments and that biodiversity protection is prioritised by all segments as the most salient ecotourism attribute, although each segment attaches a different intensity to its importance. The study identifies visitor interest for a Scottish ecotourism experience that emphasises biodiversity conservation and low use of exhaustible resources, while providing facilities for wildlife watching, hill walking and relaxing. Although segment attitudes towards ecotourism do not differ significantly, environmental values can be used to segment potential ecotourists as they allow the formation of visitor groups with different trip characteristics. [PUBLICATION ABSTRACT].

Not 'ecotourism'?: Wilderness tourism in Canada's Yukon Territory

de la Barre, S. 2005, Journal of Ecotourism Vol 4 side 92-107.

Wilderness-based tourism experiences are increasingly popular given both the growing demand for special interest travel products and tourists' desire to engage with nature. Canada's Yukon Territory is a vast land defined by a seemingly unlimited amount of pristine wilderness. Tourism stakeholders in the Yukon have given considerable thought to what it means to use the wilderness for the business of tourism. Few Yukon wilderness tourism products have been labelled 'ecotourism'. This study proposes that not categorising wilderness tourism products as 'ecotourism' might provide 'discursive space' for non-scientific valuation perspectives. This space might allow Yukon host cultures, both native and non-native, to take part in defining sustainability in the context of tourism. I explore this by using ecotourism and its use in the Yukon as an 'experiment'. The experiment asks that we consider two discourses on sustainability that guide human/nature understandings. These discourses inform tourism's use of nature. The experiment also invites us to consider the possibility that paradigm shifts are required for how we frame human/nature relationships and how we define 'sustainable' for tourism purposes. © 2005 S. de la Barre..