Entreprenørskap i reiseliv

Velg kategori:

Family business goals in the tourism and hospitality sector: Case studies and cross-case analysis from Australia, Canada, and Sweden

2002, Family Business Review Vol 15 side 89-106.

This paper compares 3 case studies of family businesses in the rural tourism and hospitality sectors in Canada, Sweden, and Australia. Goals for start-up, and ultimate disposition of the businesses are examined through cross-case analysis within the theoretical framework of the business and family life-cycle. Analysis reveals remarkable similarities reflecting the prominence of lifestyle considerations, location preferences, and the uncertainty over disposition of the businesses. This paper assesses goals revealed through these cases and pertinent literature from the tourism and hospitality sectors in the context of 3 stages in family business evolution..

Segmenting the Greek wine tourism market using a motivational approach

Alebaki, M.I., O. 2010, New Medit Vol 9 side 31-40.

When wine tourism is approached as a form of consumer behavior, a part of research focuses on the demand side, exploring the consumers who travel to wine regions. Key researchers have commented that there is no stereotypical 'wine tourist'; however, some distinctive features regarding profiling and segmentation can be drawn from literature. The objective of this paper is to address these issues as well as to provide an insight into the winery visitor in Greece. A quantitative approach was employed and 133 visitors to 13 wineries of the ' Wine Roads of Northern Greece' were surveyed through the use of a structured questionnaire. Accordingly, in order to identify their profile, descriptive analysis was carried out and specific demographic, socio-economic, and other behaviour characteristics were assessed. Analysis suggests that the winery visitor in Northem Greece is predominately a young male, well educated, with a high income and comes from urban centres in close proximity to the wine region. Furthermore, Two-step Cluster Analysis was performed on the basis of the wine tourists' motivations for visiting the wine region. Four exclusive groups were generated: (i) the 'Wine lovers'; (ii) the 'Neophytes'; (iii) the 'Occasional visitors' and (iv) the 'Hangers-on'..

Market segmentation in wine tourism: A comparison of approaches

Alebaki, M.I., O. 2011, Tourismos Vol 6 side 123-140.

In an attempt to approach wine tourism as a form of consumer behaviour, a substantial amount of research has focused on the demand-side, exploring the consumers who travel to wine regions. Despite the fact that there is no single, stereotypical "wine tourist", some distinctive characteristics regarding demographics, motivations or wine lifestyle can be drawn from literature. Several authors have recently addressed this issue and developed various wine tourist typologies, on the basis both of socio-economic and psychographic data. The objective of this paper is to provide a better understanding of the wine tourist, taking into account the different approaches for profiling and segmentation that have been used in recent studies. © University of the Aegean..

Small tourism firms and management practices in New Zealand: The Centre Stage Macro Region

Ateljevic, J. 2007, Tourism Management Vol 28 side 307-316.

This paper examines critical issues related to the management of small tourism firms (STFs). It is based on a postal survey of 317 STFs, supplemented by 57 in-depth interviews with owner-managers. The findings suggest that the development and management of small tourism firms are shaped by a number of different factors related to the business owner-manager, nature of the tourism activity, its locality and other aspects of the sector specific business environment. A central part of New Zealand, encompassing four localities integrated in a single marketing entity, the Centre Stage [tourism] Macro Region (CSMR), provides the geographical scope of this study. The area exhibits a blend of urban and rural contexts offering a unique opportunity to examine managerial problems in the growing small tourism sector. © 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved..

Tourism entrepreneurship and regional development: example from New Zealand

Ateljevic, J. 2009, International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behaviour & Research Vol 15 side 282-308.

The purpose of this paper is to examine the entrepreneurial behaviour of small tourism businesses and their ability to contribute to regional development in the context of a transitional economy. The research, by combining in-depth interviews and a survey, reports on a case study of Wairarapa, a region of New Zealand that has recently seen a large expansion in the tourism sector. The paper identifies a number of important criteria for the effective interaction of private-public sectors as well as illustrating how small tourism firm owners are facing challenges in one of the most liberal economic environments whilst taking action to ensure periphery endurance. Inductive theory or a bottom-up model for regional development provides the conceptual structure for the research. The paper argues that the related paradigm is increasingly underpinned by entrepreneurial behaviour of a multiplicity of stakeholders in rural localities where tourism is seen as a key agent for regional rejuvenation on the demise of traditional economic activities..

Tourism entrepreneurship and regional development: Example from New Zealand

Ateljevic, J. 2009, International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behaviour and Research Vol 15 side 282-308.

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the entrepreneurial behaviour of small tourism businesses and their ability to contribute to regional development in the context of a transitional economy. Design/methodology/approach: The research, by combining in-depth interviews and a survey, reports on a case study of Wairarapa, a region of New Zealand that has recently seen a large expansion in the tourism sector. Findings: The paper identifies a number of important criteria for the effective interaction of private-public sectors as well as illustrating how small tourism firm owners are facing challenges in one of the most liberal economic environments whilst taking action to ensure periphery endurance. Originality/value: Inductive theory or a bottom-up model for regional development provides the conceptual structure for the research. The paper argues that the related paradigm is increasingly underpinned by entrepreneurial behaviour of a multiplicity of stakeholders in rural localities where tourism is seen as a key agent for regional rejuvenation on the demise of traditional economic activities. © Emerald Group Publishing Limited..

Copreneurship in rural tourism: exploring women's experiences

Bensemann, J.H., C. Michael 2010, International Journal of Gender and Entrepreneurship Vol 2 side 228-244.

The paper seeks to explore the experiences of owners of rural tourism accommodation businesses in New Zealand within the framework of copreneurship. It aims to examine roles within copreneurial rural tourism businesses and describes and evaluates women's experiences of entrepreneurship. The method of the research is a postal survey of rural tourism accommodation business owners complemented by in-depth interviews with women in copreneurial business relationships. Triangulation of data sources and methods, combining qualitative and quantitative techniques enables a rich understanding of copreneurial expectations, roles and responsibilities and of women's experiences specifically. The paper finds that the rural tourism accommodation sector in New Zealand is characterised by lifestylers and copreneurs running their businesses as a "hobby" and that non-economic, lifestyle motivations are important stimuli to business formation. The paper also finds that any perception of copreneurship as a tool for enabling women to become freed from traditional gender roles may not equal the reality as a gendered ideology persists even through copreneurial relationships in rural tourism. Copreneurial couples appear to engage in running the accommodation business using traditional gender-based roles mirroring those found in the private home. The paper goes some way toward addressing the fact that there exists an underexplored and unarticulated feminine set of processes and behaviours in new venture production. In this research, women's voices were able to come through in both the survey and the interview research and their experiences are reported through their narratives. What is revealed is that a gendered ideology persists even through copreneurial relationships in rural tourism..

Resource configuration and creative practices of community entrepreneurs

Borch, O.J. 2008, Journal of Enterprising Communities Vol 2 side 100-123.

Purpose - This paper aims to focus on the role of the community entrepreneur and the process of community entrepreneurship. It seeks to emphasize the social context as critical for gaining access to the resources needed by a community venture and elaborates on the action pattern of the community entrepreneur towards raising critical resources from the environment. Design/methodology/approach - The analysis is based on a longitudinal field study of community entrepreneurs in four Norwegian rural municipalities. The data consists of interviews, observations, and documents. Findings - Community entrepreneurs create local arenas and thereby facilitate cooperative entrepreneurial action, through bridging social capital. The actors are part of these community contexts and are involved in a range of reciprocal relations. Thus, the actors' creative practices toward the community have to run parallel with the resource configuration process. Research limitations/implications - Future studies may provide a broader empirical platform in different communities, and take part in the process for a longer time period. One may also develop comparative studies focusing on the basic resource platform, the action pattern, and the performance of the different social ventures. Practical implications - A major finding is that government support should be flexible and develop tools "tailored" to the characteristics of the rural communities. The combined resources of the entrepreneurs, social networks, and more formal institutions create more ambitious results. Originality/value - The paper contributes to the field of entrepreneurship by studying community entrepreneurs and their entrepreneurial ventures. Further, an integration of a resource configuration approach and a practice-oriented approach gives an increased understanding to the community venture creation process. [PUBLICATION ABSTRACT].

Resource configuration and creative practices of community entrepreneurs

Borch, O.J. 2008, Journal of Enterprising Communities Vol 2 side 100-123.

Purpose - This paper aims to focus on the role of the community entrepreneur and the process of community entrepreneurship. It seeks to emphasize the social context as critical for gaining access to the resources needed by a community venture and elaborates on the action pattern of the community entrepreneur towards raising critical resources from the environment. Design/methodology/approach - The analysis is based on a longitudinal field study of community entrepreneurs in four Norwegian rural municipalities. The data consists of interviews, observations, and documents. Findings - Community entrepreneurs create local arenas and thereby facilitate cooperative entrepreneurial action, through bridging social capital. The actors are part of these community contexts and are involved in a range of reciprocal relations. Thus, the actors' creative practices toward the community have to run parallel with the resource configuration process. Research limitations/implications - Future studies may provide a broader empirical platform in different communities, and take part in the process for a longer time period. One may also develop comparative studies focusing on the basic resource platform, the action pattern, and the performance of the different social ventures. Practical implications - A major finding is that government support should be flexible and develop tools "tailored" to the characteristics of the rural communities. The combined resources of the entrepreneurs, social networks, and more formal institutions create more ambitious results. Originality/value - The paper contributes to the field of entrepreneurship by studying community entrepreneurs and their entrepreneurial ventures. Further, an integration of a resource configuration approach and a practice-oriented approach gives an increased understanding to the community venture creation process. [PUBLICATION ABSTRACT].

Resource configuration and creative practices of community entrepreneurs

Borch, O.J. 2008, Journal of Enterprising Communities Vol 2 side 100-123.

Purpose - This paper aims to focus on the role of the community entrepreneur and the process of community entrepreneurship. It seeks to emphasize the social context as critical for gaining access to the resources needed by a community venture and elaborates on the action pattern of the community entrepreneur towards raising critical resources from the environment. Design/methodology/approach - The analysis is based on a longitudinal field study of community entrepreneurs in four Norwegian rural municipalities. The data consists of interviews, observations, and documents. Findings - Community entrepreneurs create local arenas and thereby facilitate cooperative entrepreneurial action, through bridging social capital. The actors are part of these community contexts and are involved in a range of reciprocal relations. Thus, the actors' creative practices toward the community have to run parallel with the resource configuration process. Research limitations/implications - Future studies may provide a broader empirical platform in different communities, and take part in the process for a longer time period. One may also develop comparative studies focusing on the basic resource platform, the action pattern, and the performance of the different social ventures. Practical implications - A major finding is that government support should be flexible and develop tools "tailored" to the characteristics of the rural communities. The combined resources of the entrepreneurs, social networks, and more formal institutions create more ambitious results. Originality/value - The paper contributes to the field of entrepreneurship by studying community entrepreneurs and their entrepreneurial ventures. Further, an integration of a resource configuration approach and a practice-oriented approach gives an increased understanding to the community venture creation process. [PUBLICATION ABSTRACT].

Tourism entrepreneurs in Northumberland

Bosworth, G.F., H. 2011, Annals of Tourism Research Vol 38 side 1474-1494.

Tourism is viewed as an increasingly important component of rural economic potential, especially in peripheral regions of the UK. As a sector, however, it is dominated by low skilled employment, seasonal demand cycles and perceived low levels of innovation and entrepreneurship. In this paper we explore the role of in-migrant owners of small tourism firms (STFs) in promoting entrepreneurship and developing competition in the tourism economy of Northumberland. We hypothesise that through a combination of extra-local networks and local embeddedness these business owners are not only succeeding for themselves but they are stimulating other local businesses by increasing local trade, heightening competition and raising standards and aspirations among all STFs. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd..

Economic development co-ordination in the periphery: The case of local enterprise agency activity in North West Wales

Bristow, G.M., Max 1997, Regional Studies Vol 31 side 713-719.

The case of North West Wales evidences an evolving strategic focus in local enterprise agency activity with lessons for other localities. Reorganizations and mergers of enterprise activity within this area show that the pressures for coordination, partnership, and networking are perhaps stronger where there is a clearly dual developmental focus. Similar pressures have also prompted rationalization in the activities of the larger regional enterprise organizations active in North West Wales. The Business Connect system has played an indirect role in polarizing the activities of local and regional enterprise agencies..

Growth strategies in the Spanish hotel sector: Determining factors

Claver, E.A., R.; Quer, D. 2006, International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management Vol 18 side 188-205.

Purpose - The central aim of this paper is to identify some of the motives behind the type of growth strategy followed by Spanish hotel enterprises in recent years. Design/methodology/approach - This study was elaborated from secondary data corresponding to news published on the web page of a digital newspaper specialising in tourism - HostelTur. The information obtained in this way was completed and contrasted using other sources like the BARATZ database (where all the news items published in the economic press since 1981 are collected), and the web pages of hotel enterprises, since many of them publish news about their main actions along with the most relevant events that take place within these organizations. Findings - From a sample of 444 observations, the results suggest that initial profitability, size, age and indebtedness level of firms are some of the factors determining growth strategies in this sector. Originality/value - The paper throws light on some of the reasons behind the behaviour of Spanish hotel enterprises as far as growth is concerned. The innovative approach of this study, which focuses on the causes rather than on the consequences of certain corporate growth strategies, is its main contribution. © Emerald Group Publishing Limited..

Entrepreneurship within rural tourism: A private walkway on Banks Peninsula, New Zealand

Cloesen, U. 2007, Tourism Vol 55 side 81-91.

Rural tourism is considercd an economic alternative for farmers who are facing sinking profits and require additional income. This in turn can lead to an entrepreneurial response. The distinction between simple diversification and entrepreneurship takes place when separate legal entities for new ventures are formed. Entrepreneurship is commonly defined as creating something of value from practically nothing. It is the process of creating or seizing an opportunity, and pursuing it regardless of the resources currently personally controlled. This involves the definition, creation and distribution of value and benefits to individuals. In New Zealand's modern history, the main factor supporting rural development was how a well educated rural population reacted to the withdrawal of farm subsidies in the mid 1980s. Treeby and Burtenshaw (2003) see this as the key, historical driver in the diversification of rural enterprises. New Zealand moved from a highly regulated economy prior to 1984 to one of the most deregulated in the Western World. The thrust of the new government in 1984 was to make farming more efficient by removing subsidies and exposing the rural sector to international prices, including government services, virtually overnight. After initial growing pains, farmers of the post 1984 period are now more confident of their future and reluctant to going back to government subsidized farming. One example of entrepreneurial response resulting from these events has been the establishment of the first private rural walkway in New Zealand on Banks Peninsula..

A typical Italian phenomenon: The " albergo diffuso"

Confalonieri, M. 2011, Tourism Management Vol 32 side 685-687.

In Italy, the " albergo diffuso" represents a new alternative to traditional tourist accommodations, such as hotels, B&Bs or farmhouses. It is part of a formula for accommodation capacity that is particularly suitable for small rural centres.The " albergo diffuso" also represents a formula for sustainable economic development in many tourist destinations because it has a very limited impact on the environment.In addition this formula does not require the construction of new structures but rather aims to restore and recuperate existing houses in accordance with local cultural and historical features.This allows the economic development of small rural destinations while avoiding depopulation. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd..

Seasonality and the Lifestyle "Conundrum": An Analysis of Lifestyle Entrepreneurship in Wine Tourism Regions

Dawson, D.F., J.; Cohen, D. A. 2011, Asia Pacific Journal of Tourism Research Vol 16 side 551-572.

This study explores the importance of non-economic, personal and family lifestyle goals in the establishment of rural wine tourism operations and how these lifestyle goals influence the decisions and actions of owners as they relate to seasonality management, particularly surrounding wine tourism involvement. It also explores the ways in which lifestyle-oriented operations may be deemed "problematic" at the destination level in relation to managing for tourism seasonality. The wine and tourism industries provide particularly useful contexts to explore entrepreneurial lifestyle motivations and how these play out in efforts to manage seasonality. Both the wine and tourism industries are highly seasonal, and rely on cooperation for regional initiatives to manage seasonality, through events or marketing, particularly when the businesses are small scale and located in peripheral areas. However, if the lifestyle or personal goals of some owners are at odds with the profit maximization goals of other owners, then developing a cohesive regional strategy can be a problem. The trends identified here reflect the challenges faced in many wine regions and in other rural areas that attract a diversity of business owners, including lifestyle-oriented business owners..

The Rise and Fall of the Concept of the Experience Economy in the Local Economic Development of Denmark

Freire-Gibb, L.C. 2011, European Planning Studies Vol 19 side 1839-1853.

This article discusses the evolution of the concept of "The Experience Economy" (TEE) in the Danish local economic policy. The term is rarely known worldwide; however, it has become quite popular among the Danes and other Scandinavians. Its origin comes from the American business-marketing field in the late 1990s, while in Denmark, it evolved as a multifaceted idea with notable effects for economic development at the local level. The concept is related to the cultural or creative economy, but in the Danish case, it became more diffuse. This article does not intend to be a critique of these two lines, nor to tourist attractions, which are also linked to TEE. However, it criticizes the implementation of an unorthodox idea to LED, even though it may have useful principles to other disciplines. This article reflects the line of recent research which has questioned its applications in LED. Local governments have supported this strategy because of the national government's key role. Also, academics and consultants contributed to the process. The article also investigates the reasons Denmark had for developing the concept of TEE in Danish local planning and development. © 2011 Taylor & Francis..

Estimating the short-term economic damages from the Prestige oil spill in the Galician fisheries and tourism

Garza-Gil, M.P.-B., Albino; Vazquez-Rodriguez, MXose 2006, Ecological Economics Vol 58 side 842-849.

The Prestige oil spill may be considered as one of the worst in the last years because of the amount of oil spilled (59,000 tons at the moment) and the wide zone affected: almost all the coastline in Galicia (Spanish region with a very important coast fishing and tourist activity) and some points in North Spain and in Southwest France. In this paper, we estimate the short-term economic damages from the Prestige oil spills in the Galician fishing and tourist activities. The economic losses arising from the Prestige oil spill exceed those items that can be indemnified under the IOPC system. Their magnitude could reach 5 times more than the applicable limit of compensations in the Prestige case. The consequence is net losses from repeated oil spills and internationally accepted incentives to risky strategies in the marine transport of hydrocarbons..

Market Integration and Ecosystem Degradation: Is Sustainable Tourism Development in Rural Communities a Contradiction in Terms?

Gossling, S. 2003, Environment, Development and Sustainability Vol 5 side 383-400.

Neoclassic economic theory suggests global market integration as a strategy to reduce poverty. In line with this paradigm, an increasing number of developing countries have focused on tourism to generate foreign exchange earnings and to meet rising workforce pressure. Coastlines in particular, have been at the forefront of tourist infrastructure development. The article describes tourism development in the village of Kiwengwa on the east coast of Unguja Island (Zanzibar), Tanzania. It is shown that changes caused by tourism are far more complex than economic theory suggests. Economically, tourism has substantially increased local income, but it has also led to a focus on individual benefit and dissolving kinship relationships, encouraged the abandonment of traditional resource-use strategies, contributed to the commoditization of local natural resources, and spread the idea that these resources can be replaced with imports. Overall, tourism has fundamentally disrupted the local socio-economic system and led to a self-reinforcing cycle of ecosystem degradation. Tourism development is nevertheless perceived as positive and sustainable, because (i) changes are complex and damage becomes perceptible only in the medium- or long-term future, (ii) the tourist industry tends to shift its impacts to remote areas, i.e. a supplying periphery, (iii) the village has become a center of resource allocation itself, with imports compensating for the losses in local ecosystem capacity. As a development option imposed by the transnational tourist industry, tourism leads to the creation of new centers (i.e. the former periphery) while simultaneously creating new peripheries. In a finite world with a limited hinterland for such a continuous expansion, this cannot be sustainable. [PUBLICATION ABSTRACT].

Dating and synchronizing tourism growth cycles

Gouveia, P.M.D.C.B.R., P. M. M. 2005, Tourism Economics Vol 11 side 501-515.

The authors use the non-parametric method proposed by Harding and Pagan (2003) to date tourism growth cycles. This study is among the first to use robust, transparent and replicable dating rules in the context of economic tourism activity cycles. On the basis of a cycle indicator function, the authors are able to establish a greater degree of cycle synchronization of tourism demand than that observed at the economic cycle level, and, by means of a recursive correlation coefficient, they conclude that this degree of cycle synchronization has increased over the years. To analyse the presence of a time lag between turning points of economic cycles and tourism demand, they suggest a lag concordance index. Observing cycles and producing dating indicator functions are important in examining potential asymmetric behaviour associated with tourism economic phases and are useful for forecasting purposes..

Tourism demand for Italy and the business cycle

Guizzardi, A.M., M. 2010, Tourism Management Vol 31 side 367-377.

This study provides a strategy for modelling the effect of the business cycle on tourism demand under the rationale that tourism cycles are heavily influenced by lagged effects of the overall business cycle. Using quarterly data on overnight stays in Italian hotels, both domestic and inbound between 1985 and 2004, we adopt a structural time series approach to evaluate two alternative models, the first with a latent cycle component (LCC) and the second based on specific economic explanatory variables (XCV). The two models are compared in terms of explanatory power, best-fit, residual diagnostics and forecasting ability. The results show similar performances. The policy implication is that the XCV model can be used for calibrating countercyclical interventions in tourism policy. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved..

Eco-tourism certification - does it make a difference? A comparison of systems from Australia, Costa Rica and Sweden

Haaland, H.A., Ø , Scandinavian Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Vol 10 side 375-385.

In the current context of climate change, discussions about tourism sustainability are gaining increased momentum. Over the past decade, some operators worldwide have started to certify their products and services as ecotourism or sustainable tourism. A certification or approval is considered to be a sign of general high product quality as well as an indication of environmentally and socially sound products. In this research note, we examine three different ecotourism certification and approval systems - from Sweden, Costa Rica and Australia. The note is based on a literature review of three different approval systems, conducted parallel to the planning of the Norwegian approval system for ecotourism launched in 2008. We outline the criteria and standards required in the different programmes as well as the basic principles of how the three systems are organised, financed and implemented. The programmes' strengths and weaknesses are briefly discussed, keeping a Scandinavian context in mind. © 2010 Taylor & Francis..

Indigenous ecotourism's role in transforming ecological consciousness

Higgins-Desbiolles, F. 2009, Journal of Ecotourism Vol 8 side 144-160.

While ecotourism has many positive attributes, perhaps the most interesting is its potential to foster transformations in ecological consciousness that some view as vital to achieving more sustainable human-environmental relationships. Frequently, indigenous peoples and their cultures have been associated with ecotourism because of the 'strong bond between indigenous cultures and the natural environment' [Zeppel, H. (2006). Indigenous ecotourism: Sustainable development and management. Wallingford, UK: CABI.]. In fact, there are numerous examples from around the world of indigenous communities using the opportunity that ecotourism provides to educate non-indigenous people about indigenous values and lifeways in the hopes of overturning the destructive nature of the Western environmental paradigm. This article offers a critical perspective on the capacity of indigenous ecotourism to foster more sustainable lifeways by transforming the ecological consciousness of participants and stakeholders in ecotourism. This is timely as non-indigenous academic Fennell [(2008). Ecotourism and the myth of indigenous stewardship. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 16(2), 129-149] has recently presented a controversial analysis of the 'myth of indigenous stewardship'. This paper focuses on the writings of indigenous experts to explore these complex issues. In addition to this conceptual analysis, this article offers a brief case study of Camp Coorong in South Australia, which demonstrates that some indigenous communities are using ecotourism to teach indigenous values in the hope of fostering transformations in consciousness. © 2009 Taylor & Francis..

Death by a thousand cuts: governance and environmental trade-offs in ecotourism development at Kangaroo Island, South Australia

Higgins-Desbiolles, F. 2011, Journal of Sustainable Tourism Vol 19 side 553-570.

In the wake of the Brundtland Report's articulation of the concept of sustainable development (1987), ecotourism has been promoted as an optimum way to achieve sustainable development in the tourism sphere. Ecotourism, as a subset of sustainable tourism, is touted as a win-win endeavour - a high-yield, low-volume strategy is often pursued in the hope of achieving good economic returns for local communities while simultaneously creating fewer negative environmental impacts than other economic development options. However, the concept of sustainable development contains the tensions of an oxymoron as the conservation implied in osustainabilityo conflicts with the growth and resource use implied in odevelopmento. In an era where market imperatives dominate, this results in otrade-offso between requirements for environmental conservation and demands for greater economic growth through tourism. This paper narrates the story of governance and the development approval process for an ecolodge on Kangaroo Island (KI) in order to explore the nature of such trade-offs. Evidence suggests that the requirements of environmental protection are otraded offo in the pursuit of tourism development and the income and employment it provides. Is sustainability possible when such incremental development, in fact, results in odeath by a thousand cutso?..

Wildlife viewing: The significance of the viewing platforms

Higham, J.E.S.L., D.; Hendry, W. 2008, Journal of Ecotourism Vol 7 side 137-146.

Relatively little research attention has been dedicated to understanding aspects of the viewing platform from which animals are observed in the wild, and how it bears upon all elements of the wildlife tourism phenomenon. This paper adopts Duffus and Dearden's (1990) conceptual framework as a basis to highlight an urgent need for empirical research into wildlife viewing platforms as they relate to site users, focal animals (both individuals and groups of animals) and the ecology of the sites where visitors observe animals in the wild. To date a lack of empirical research effort has focused on the viewing platform, or even incorporated the viewing platform into research design as an element of analysis. This paper reviews what is known about the viewing platform, much of it anecdotal. Recent research that provides insights into the human and ecological dimensions of wildlife viewing platforms is reviewed. A call for further research into the social and ecological dimensions of wildlife observation is then advocated with a consideration of research questions relating to wildlife viewing platforms that emerge in each of the three key dimensions highlighted by Duffus and Dearden (1990). The paper concludes with a call for a dedicated research effort to understand aspects of the viewing platform, and how it might inform the sustainable management of human interactions with wild animals. © 2008 Taylor & Francis..

Ecotourism in Amazonian Peru: Uniting tourism, conservation and community development

Hill, J.L.H., R. A. 2011, Geography Vol 96 side 75-85.

With reference to two ecotourism enterprises that operate within Tambopata, Peru, this article evaluates key principles necessary to enable the successful achievement of ecotourism in a little-developed tropical forest region. In so doing, it highlights the intricacies of the relationship between ecotourism, environmental conservation and local community development. Principles are identified as i) empowering communities by integrating them in an ecotourism venture; ii) exchanging knowledge between a community and tour operator; iii) managing forest resources jointly between a community and tour operator; iv) minimising local economic leakage; v) educating tourists through interpretive programmes; and vi) minimising environmental and wildlife disturbance. The article offers cautious optimism that the tourism enterprises are consciously helping to protect the rainforest of Tambopata, while meeting the socio-economic needs of the local communities. © Geography 2011..

Can visitor satisfaction and knowledge about tropical rainforests be enhanced through biodiversity interpretation, and does this promote a positive attitude towards ecosystem conservation?

Hill, J.W., W.; Gough, G. 2007, Journal of Ecotourism Vol 6 side 75-85.

.

Treading lightly? Ecotourism's impact on the environment

Honey, M.S. 1999, Environment Vol 41 side 4-9+.

Ecotourism is defined as "responsible travel to natural areas that conserves the environment and improves the well-being of local people." Honey discusses the history of ecotourism and issues that still need to be addressed, including ensuring local enterprises can compete with strong foreign companies and how to make poor, rural communities benefit from ecotourism..

The industrial revolution and beyond

Honig, B.B., Elizabeth Leslie 2007, Journal of Management History Vol 13 side 269-289.

Purpose - To examine empirically a previously overlooked aspect of entrepreneurship: community "dis-entrepreneurship." Through the lens of political and historical theory, the authors propose learning from unusual circumstances of failure in order to inform social policy regarding factors that facilitate community entrepreneurship. Design/methodology/approach - The paper draws on political and economic theory, formulating propositions that are tested using interpretive methods. Findings - Strong patron-client relations were found to negatively impact the formation of diversity and meritocracy necessary for entrepreneurial environments to thrive. They also account for an inward orientation that negatively influenced investments in infrastructure. Path dependent processes were found to hold sway regarding the stability of political/social norms. Originality/value - This is the first paper of which the authors are aware that considers issues related to community dis-entrepreneurship. The paper highlights the importance of effective community leadership. [PUBLICATION ABSTRACT].

Influence of on-site interpretation intensity on visitors to natural areas

Hughes, M.M.-S., A. 2005, Journal of Ecotourism Vol 4 side 161-177.

There has been some debate about the benefits of high or low intensity use of on-site media at natural areas. The former may be viewed as overkill while the latter may not achieve the intended aims. Two similar natural area sites in Australia were selected with respective high and low intensity use of on-site interpretation. Visitors at each site were surveyed immediately before and after their experience to determine site influences on site perceptions and environmental attitudes. Comparative analysis revealed the intensity of interpretation did not appear to affect perceptions or attitude influence, while the character of the site experience and key visitor variables did. Site design needs to reflect interpretive media design to ensure visitor activities and subsequent effects on attitudes are consistent with conservation objectives. © 2005 M. Hughes & A. Morrison-Saunders..

The ecological footprint as a key indicator of sustainable tourism

Hunter, C.S., J. 2007, Tourism Management Vol 28 side 46-57.

This paper argues for ecological footprint (EF) analysis to become widely adopted as a key environmental indicator of sustainable tourism (ST). It is suggested that EF analysis provides a unique, global perspective on sustainability that is absent with the use of locally derived and contextualised ST indicators. A simple methodology to estimate indicative, minimum EF values for international tourism activities involving air travel is presented. Critically, the methodology accounts for the EF that would have been used by a tourist at home during the tourist trip, providing an estimate of the net, as well as the gross, tourism-related EF. Illustrations of the application of the methodology are provided, including the evaluation and comparison of specific tourism products. It is suggested that some (eco)tourism products may, potentially, make a positive contribution to resource conservation at the global scale. Areas for further research in applying EF analysis to tourism are outlined. © 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved..

Entrepreneurial learning in the context of portfolio entrepreneurship

Huovinen, J.T., Sanna 2008, International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behaviour & Research Vol 14 side 152-171.

Previous research has predominantly focused on the meaning of prior entrepreneurial experience in the context of habitual entrepreneurship. To date, however, little is known about how previous experience affects the way in which several firms can be managed simultaneously. The purpose of this study is to examine entrepreneurial learning in the context of portfolio entrepreneurship and clarify how it is possible to manage several firms at the same time. An exploratory study using a case method was conducted (Eisenhardt; Yin) by focusing on one portfolio entrepreneur. In this study, the case can be considered as unusual thus being suitable for a single-case study. Data were collected through interviews and the entrepreneur also provided the researchers with a written description of the development and present situation of his entrepreneurial career. This study proposes that failures may develop entrepreneurial knowledge as well as founding experiences. Development of entrepreneurial knowledge is viewed as leading to new ways of organizing and managing start-up firms. Learning through previous experiences has strengthened entrepreneurial knowledge and contributed to the formation of the management team (MT). Without cooperation, delegation and sharing responsibilities, successful portfolio entrepreneurship would not have been realized. However, the results suggest that learning from failure is dependent on the entrepreneur's personal background. This study seeks to bring new insight to portfolio entrepreneurship by concentrating on the entrepreneurial career of a well-known Finnish entrepreneur by following the framework of Politis. In this case, a MT in each firm enabled effective control and management of the current firm portfolio. The study shows that in addition to the entrepreneurial team, the management teams can also have a significant role in the context of portfolio entrepreneurship although they have largely been ignored..

Conceptualization and anatomy of green destination brands

Insch, A. 2011, International Journal of Culture, Tourism and Hospitality Research Vol 5 side 282-290.

Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to extend the concept of green brands to destinations and to examine the application and limitations of green destination brands for nations adopting this positioning strategy. Design/methodology/approach - The paper identifies characteristics of green destination brands, drawing on established concepts in corporate branding, destination branding and green marketing. The paper demonstrates the application and limitations of the concept through an in-depth case study analysis of New Zealand's destination brand to explain the possibilities and problems of building green destination brands at a national level. Findings - The findings suggest that a holistic, strategic approach to building a green destination brand which emphasizes and qualifies the green essence of a nation's brand is required to avoid the pitfalls, cynicism and criticisms of greenwashing. Research limitations/implications - The research findings are embedded in the context studied - New Zealand's destination brand. Additional case studies at multiple levels - nations, regions, cities - would offer a rich database to gain a better understanding of the concept and the implications of green destination branding. Practical implications - Barriers to executing a credible green destination brand position are identified and the implications for destination marketing organizations and their stakeholders are discussed. Originality/value - A conceptualization of green destination brands is provided and the application and limitations of the concept are demonstrated through an in-depth case study of a nation that has adopted this positioning strategy. Rather than taking a snapshot research approach, a historical perspective enabled the development of the destination's brand positioning strategy to be captured. [PUBLICATION ABSTRACT].

Attitudes towards the environment and ecotourism of stakeholders in the UK tourism industry with particular reference to ornithological tour operators

Jackson, S. 2007, Journal of Ecotourism Vol 6 side 34-66.

The attitudes towards the environment in general and towards ecotourism in particular are assessed for several groups of stakeholders (including ornithological tour operators, members of a conservation group, and potential specialist and general ecotourists) in the UK tourism sector. The New Environmental Paradigm (NEP) scale is used to measure general attitude and an ecotourism scale (TES) used to measure specific attitudes. A simple model is proposed and tested linking general and specific attitudes to behaviour. All groups score highly on the NEP scale but the scores are lower on the TES scale. Not surprisingly, the conservation group scores most highly on both scales, and although the tour operators score highly on the NEP scale they have the lowest score on the TES scale. It is suggested that this represents a lack of willingness to adopt ecotourism principles if they interfere with business operations. Significant correlations were measured between the NEP and TES scales suggesting that general attitudes affect specific attitudes. No significant relationships were established between attitudes and stated or implied behaviour based on the tour operators' brochures. This again suggests that there is a reluctance to translate good intentions into practice. The ethical positions of the groups are discussed and implications for the tour operators addressed. © 2007 S. Jackson..

The institutionalisation of ecotourism: Certification, cultural equity and praxis

Jamal, T.B., M.; Stronza, A. 2006, Journal of Ecotourism Vol 5 side 145-175.

This paper offers a critical reading of the purpose, practice and institutionalisation of ecotourism. Tracing the evolving relationship between ecotourism and conservation, ecotourism and sustainable tourism, and ecotourism and certification/monitoring schemes as we do in this paper reveals conflicting values and possibly incompatible objectives. Sustainable tourism and ecotourism are rooted in notions of individual/ societal and environmental well-being. Yet, our study indicates significant inequities in ecotourism practice, particularly with respect to cultural aspects such as human ecological relationships. It is argued here that various actions and programmes associated with ecotourism's inception and evolution have institutionalised a modernistic, commodified paradigm: the environment and its inhabitants (human and non-human) are dominated by scientific, industry and other interests that treat these primarily as means to an end, that is, instrumentally. The analysis suggests that ecotourism (and, by extension, ecotourism certification) needs to be re-oriented towards well-being, in other words, a social-cultural paradigm based on participatory democracy and equitable, meaningful relationships with the biophysical world. Suggestions are forwarded for re-envisioning ecotourism, particularly with respect to the notions of cultural equity, participatory practice and researcher praxis. © 2006 T. Jamal et al..

Growth-focused or profit-focused firms: Transitions toward profitable growth

Jang, S. 2011, Tourism Management Vol 32 side 667-674.

Profitable growth is the most desirable state tourism and hospitality firm managers can hope to achieve. In reality, however, it is not easy for a tourism and hospitality firm to consistently grow and accumulate profits. In order to achieve profitable growth, some firms focus on sales growth while victimizing profits, while others concentrate on profits and hold off on growth. To better understand these strategies, this study investigated the growth state, profit state and transitions of restaurant firms. The findings of this study supported that profit-focused firms are more likely to achieve profitable growth than growth-focused firms. In addition, growth-focused firms with low liquidity had a higher likelihood of transitioning to a state of low growth and low profit in the short-term, and this liquidity effect was more serious for small firms in terms of long-term performance. Further, when profit-focused firms had few growth opportunities, large free cash flows increased the likelihood of transitioning to a state of low growth and low profit in the short-term. More detailed results are provided in this paper. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd..

Providing ecotourism excursions for cruise passengers

Johnson, D. 2006, Journal of Sustainable Tourism Vol 14 side 43-54.

The aim of this paper is to argue that destinations can do more to offer coastal ecotourism experiences for cruise passengers, and in doing so they may secure a more sustainable product. An analysis of shore-side excursions currently available to P&O passengers in the Caribbean is presented. Excursions are classified against textbook tourism-type definitions. Time constraints imposed by cruise operators and an emphasis on selling rather than education are suggested as key factors that mean the limited number of existing ecotourism excursions were categorised as 'soft' rather than 'hard' ecotourism. Solutions demand concerted effort from all parties. Flexibility from cruise operators; political will and product development from destinations, and investment of time and energy from the tourists themselves. Ultimately, ecotourism excursions must embrace brand management, creating and delivering well-defined promises, so that cruise passengers can make intelligence-led decisions. In the Caribbean this requires a paradigm shift by the cruise operators in order to establish a meaningful and effective dialogue with groups such as the Caribbean Tourism Organisation. © 2006 D. Johnson..

Expenditure and ecotourism: Predictors of expenditure for whale shark tour participants

Jones, T.W., D.; Catlin, J.; Norman, B. 2009, Journal of Ecotourism Vol 8 side 32-50.

Whale shark tourism is an icon industry in Western Australia and a prominent example of successful ecotourism. In 2006, whale shark tour participants spent $6.0 million in the Ningaloo Coast region of Western Australia and added between $2.4 million and $4.6 million to the regional economy in direct expenditure. However, to date no research has been conducted on the predictors of whale shark tour participants' expenditure. In this article, we assess the importance of visitor expenditure for ecotourism, assess the predictors of the expenditure of whale shark tour participants and discuss how this information can contribute towards ecotourism goals. The data analysed here were collected through a survey distributed to participants between April and June 2006. We assess a range of variables for their relationship to individual expenditure per trip and determine that the duration of stay, household income, age, staying in a hotel, trip motivation and being from North America or Southeast Asia positively correlate with individual expenditure per trip. Group size and originating from Germany or the United Kingdom and Ireland negatively correlate with expenditure. In addition to identifying future steps, we also discuss the relevance of our finding that more motivated participants have a higher expenditure for ecotourism. © 2009 Taylor & Francis..

Ecological Impacts of Revegetation and Management Practices of Ski Slopes in Northern Finland

Kangas, K.T., Anne; Kälkäjä, Tarja; Siikamäki, Pirkko 2009, Environmental Management Vol 44 side 408-19.

Outdoor recreation and nature-based tourism represent an increasingly intensive form of land use that has considerable impacts on native ecosystems. The aim of this paper is to investigate how revegetation and management of ski runs influence soil nutrients, vegetation characteristics, and the possible invasion of nonnative plant species used in revegetation into native ecosystems. A soil and vegetation survey at ski runs and nearby forests, and a factorial experiment simulating ski run construction and management (factors: soil removal, fertilization, and seed sowing) were conducted at Ruka ski resort, in northern Finland, during 2003-2008. According to the survey, management practices had caused considerable changes in the vegetation structure and increased soil nutrient concentrations, pH, and conductivity on the ski runs relative to nearby forests. Seed mixture species sown during the revegetation of ski runs had not spread to adjacent forests. The experimental study showed that the germination of seed mixture species was favored by treatments simulating the management of ski runs, but none of them could eventually establish in the study forest. As nutrient leaching causes both environmental deterioration and changes in vegetation structure, it may eventually pose a greater environmental risk than the spread of seed mixture species alone. Machine grading and fertilization, which have the most drastic effects on soils and vegetation, should, therefore, be minimized when constructing and managing ski runs. (PUBLICATION ABSTRACT).

Research of roles for authenticity of selecting tourism products using conjoint analysis

Kljajic-Dervic, M. 2011, Technics Technologies Education Management Vol 6 side 1165-1174.

The case study is the role of authenticity, as a possible element in the selection of the tourism product in the field of economics and education, and part sociology. As the theoretical sources and previous studies with the observed field results, that the different significance is attributed to the different groups of tourists as the authenticity of the tourist product, so we used a relationship to authenticity as a specific psychographic segmentation criterion of the tourism market. Using conjoint analysis in the study has done in the specific field of this area and in general the first time through the mentioned analysis. We remain with the inclusion of existing information about the opportunities and trends in the work of the tourism market, which is relevant to the processing of area, wanted to prove that authenticity of tourism offer has a significant influence on long-term economic success and provides a sustainable development of tourism destinations. For this we linked to some theoretical concepts, such as the price of tourism products, the level of education and defensible competitive advantage. We believe that the results of research will enable better understanding of the problem, and that will be useful guidance for designing and selling tourism products, and the positioning of tourist destinations..

Limits to growth: Tourism and regional labor migration

Konan, D.E. 2011, Economic Modelling Vol 28 side 473-481.

The paper provides a methodology for considering the carrying capacity and limits to growth of a labor-constrained mature tourism destination. A computable general equilibrium model is used to examine the impacts of visitor expenditure growth and labor migration on Hawai'i's economy. Impacts on regional income, welfare, prices, sector-level output, and gross state product are considered under alternative migration scenarios. Labor market constraints impose limits to growth in real visitor expenditures. Labor market growth with constrained visitor demand generates falling per capita household welfare. © 2010 Elsevier B.V..

Identifying tourists' preferences for Aboriginal tourism product features: Implications for a northern first nation in British Columbia

Kutzner, D.W., P. A.; Stark, A. 2009, Journal of Ecotourism Vol 8 side 99-114.

Recent research on the Aboriginal tourism market has revolved predominantly around establishing a profile of the traveller interested in Aboriginal tourism (hereafter referred to as the Aboriginal tourism traveller). Currently, the Aboriginal tourism traveller is generally described as a mature individual who is interested in having authentic experiences of different cultures. However, there is a need for a better understanding of what specific products this particular traveller is interested in, and in what style, format or nature of delivery. The study presented in this article attempts to provide insight into this topic. In a collaborative research effort between Tl'azt'en Nation and the University of Northern British Columbia, a questionnaire containing four potential Aboriginal tourism product descriptions and 31 individual features of Aboriginal tourism products was administered to 337 visitors of northern British Columbia during the summer of 2007. Despite a primary interest in nature experiences by the majority of visitors, one-third of our sample demonstrated considerable interest in experiences of Aboriginal culture. Results suggest the need for marketing diverse Aboriginal tourism attractions to attract repeat visitors and for offering an introductory experience to Aboriginal culture for first-time visitors. © 2009 Taylor & Francis..

Marketing ecotourism through the internet: An evaluation of selected ecolodges in Latin America and the Caribbean

Lai, P.H.S., S. 2005, Journal of Ecotourism Vol 4 side 143-160.

The advance of Internet technology worldwide has contributed to the growing impacts of online marketing of ecotourism destinations. Despite much discussion devoted to defining ecotourism conceptually, knowledge regarding how ecotourism is actually practiced and how it is marketed through the Internet is still lacking. The purpose of this study was to address these issues by exploring how ecotourism is marketed through the Internet. A sample was selected from ecolodge operators listed on the website of The International Ecotourism Society. Content analysis was used to examine the online marketing information of these ecolodges. The study findings suggest that ecolodge operators sampled in this study provided a variety of ecotourism products to meet the diverse interests of the ecotourist market. The online marketing messages of these ecolodges also indicated that most of them only partially aligned with ecotourism principles. Recommendations are made regarding social marketing and ecolabelling for online ecotourism marketing to better shape tourist expectations, attitudes and behaviours in ways that support the sustainable practice professed as ecotourism. © 2005 P-H. Lai and S. Shafer..

Managing for sustainable tourism: a review of six cultural World Heritage Sites

Landorf, C. 2009, Journal of Sustainable Tourism Vol 17 side 53-70.

This paper considers the relationship between heritage tourism and sustainable development, with special reference to World Heritage Sites (WHSs). It notes that while WHS status is not necessarily linked to tourism growth, all WHSs must now develop and implement a management plan to mitigate tourism impacts and sustain site significance. The paper explores the concept of sustainable heritage tourism and identifies two key principles of sustainable practice - a planning process that is long term and holistic, and multiple stakeholder participation in that planning process. Qualitative content analysis is used to determine the extent to which these principles have been integrated into the tourism planning process at six WHSs. The study found that a formal goal-oriented planning process was in evidence at all six sites. However, the process lacked a comprehensive and holistic approach to the wider issues of sustainable development, and genuine engagement with local community stakeholders..

Environmental justice and environmental equity in tourism: Missing links to sustainability

Lee, S.J., T. 2008, Journal of Ecotourism Vol 7 side 44-67.

This paper argues for incorporating an environmental justice framework into sustainable tourism and ecotourism. Such a framework provides important directions and guidance for addressing injustices related to human-environmental relationships, particularly with respect to disadvantaged, low-income and minority communities. Issue areas include environmental equity, environmental discrimination and environmental racism. Drawing from the environmental justice literature, this paper first clarifies key concepts associated with environmental justice. This is followed by an examination of issues in tourism development that clearly relate to environmental justice (even though the term itself may not have been used). An analytical framework for addressing environmental justice and equity in tourism studies is proposed, incorporating environmental justice concepts and dimensions of procedural and distributive justice. Several theoretical areas that offer potential for developing this bridge between tourism and environmental justice are presented. The discussion opens new avenues for better incorporating justice and equity into ecotourism and sustainable tourism development and research. © 2008 S. Lee & T. Jamal..

Understanding the impact of ecotourism resort experiences on tourists' environmental attitudes and behavioural intentions

Lee, W.H.M., G. 2005, Journal of Sustainable Tourism Vol 13 side 546-565.

This study explored the conservation benefits of environmental management practices and nature experiences provided at a major Australian ecotourism resort. To achieve this purpose the study investigated changes in tourists' environmental knowledge, awareness, attitudes and behavioural intentions between pre-visit and post-visit stages. Overall, there were few statistically significant differences between the pre-visit and post-visit samples. This study found, however, significant effects of (1) visitor awareness of, and (2) involvement in, the environmental management practices, and (3) participation in nature tour activities on environmental attitudes and behaviours. It is suggested that awareness of in-resort environmental practices and satisfying experiences in ecotourism accommodation may lead to reinforcing visitors' favourable environmental attitudes, thus increasing their interest in further ecotourism experiences. Through these cumulative effects, ecotourism accommodation could achieve its educative goal. © 2005 W.H. Lee & G. Moscardo..

Finding beauty in the dragon: The role of dragonflies in recreation and tourism

Lemelin, R.H. 2007, Journal of Ecotourism Vol 6 side 139-145.

In some Asian countries such as China and Japan, Odonota (dragonflies, damselflies) have a long history of being involved in recreation and leisure activities. In contemporary Japan, dragonfly enthusiasts, much like birders elsewhere, pride themselves on recognizing many different types of Odonata. In fact, numerous symposia, festivals and sanctuaries provide Japanese dragonfly enthusiasts with the opportunity to practice and perfect their skills. Dragonfly gatherings (e.g. counts, educational outings) in North America and Europe are also increasing in popularity. Facilitating the growth of these recreation activities, but more specifically the viewing of dragonflies, are the availability of books and field guides, associations, and websites. This research note examines discussion surrounding insect-human relationships while highlighting the contribution of one particular insect order - Odonata, and the role of this flagship species in socio-cultural norms in recreational and tourism activities. © 2007 R.H. Lemelin..

Introduction to the special issue on aboriginal ecotourism

Lemelin, R.H.B., S. 2009, Journal of Ecotourism Vol 8 side 77-81.

.

Polar bear viewers as deep ecotourists: How specialised are they?

Lemelin, R.H.F., D.; Smale, B. 2008, Journal of Sustainable Tourism Vol 16 side 42-62.

Individuals visiting natural areas, such as national parks, or engaging in certain outdoor recreation activities like birdwatching, are often assumed to be ecotourists and also concomitantly assumed to be highly specialised by virtue of their behaviour. In this study, tourists visiting the Churchill Wildlife Management Area in Canada to view polar bears are examined using a comprehensive index of specialisation and compared to selected demographic variables and indicators of environmental concern. The results suggest that these visitors reflect a wide range of levels of specialisation, and that the majority of visitors are novices who might not share the same degree of concern for the environment or the same motives for visiting as their more specialised counterparts. Concerns for management of natural areas for wildlife viewing are raised based on these findings. © 2008 R. H. Lemelin et al..

Effect of environmental context on the experience of polar bear viewers in Churchill, Manitoba

Lemelin, R.H.S., B. 2006, Journal of Ecotourism Vol 5 side 176-191.

Despite the recent growth of wildlife viewing, research on the human dimensions of wildlife tourism in protected areas has been limited. This is surprising because if no monitoring is done, then understanding and responding appropriately to both the benefits and impacts of wildlife tourism in protected areas is almost impossible. In this study, data were gathered on the character of organised outings made by wildlife viewers visiting Churchill, Manitoba to see polar bears in situ. The purpose of the study was to examine the effect of selected environmental factors, such as numbers of wildlife seen, amount of wildlife activity, and overall visibility, on the social dynamics and experience of the wildlife tourists. Results indicate that the number of polar bears seen is the only factor directly related to viewer attentiveness and group dynamics, and importantly, on-site satisfaction with the experience. © 2006 R.H. Lemelin & B. Smale..

The key capabilities required for managing tourism business networks

Lemmetyinen, A.G., F. M. 2009, Tourism Management Vol 30 side 31-40.

This article applies the IMP (Industrial Marketing and Purchasing) Group approach to the analysis of the coordination of cooperative activities. It challenges the sustainability of the 'manipulating' demand approach in favor of the Value System Continuum in tourism business networks. It is hypothesized that local tourism businesses must develop new key capabilities in order to face future global competition. The study uses case methodology and in-depth interviews to examine organizational realities as a product of the subjective enactments or social constructions of individual actors through the perceptions of two coordinators. The case-analysis findings identify the coordination of cooperative activities in tourism business networks as a prerequisite for (1) enhancing the value-creation process, and (2) building the brand-identity process across the network. The empirical evidence in the article is limited to one country. Future work will broaden the study context by including the analysis of international networks. © 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved..

Long tail tourism: New geographies for marketing niche tourism products

Lew, A.A. 2008, Journal of Travel and Tourism Marketing Vol 25 side 409-419.

The Long Tail concept refers to the Internet-based economy that has enabled company success through a focus on highly specialized services and products that are not in high volume demand, but maybe in high-value demand. The concept of the post-tourist, for example, is a Long Tail phenomenon. Long Tail marketing approaches are proving success due to advances in communication technology and social networking that have given more people access to a broader range of goods and services and information. The Long Tail is not without its challenges, including increased global competition, and it has not abandoned geographic considerations. Geography, in fact, can help to differentiate niche products and must still be overcome to consummate the tourist experience. © 2008 by The Haworth Press. All rights reserved..

Developing criteria and indicators for responsible rural tourism in Taman Negara National Park (TNNP), Malaysia

Ling, S.M.A., Z. Z.; Nair, V.; Ramachandran, S.; Shuib, A. 2011, Malaysian Forester Vol 74 side 143-156.

The tourism industry in Malaysia is being transformed from low yield to high yield income. With the launch of the Economic Transformation Programme (ETP), Malaysia is set to achieve high income nation status by the end of the decade. Rural tourism and ecotourism is growing at a phenomenal rate in Malaysia and is expected to be a major contributor to the nation's tourism receipt. Nonetheless, in the last decade, the concept of ecotourism and rural tourism has melded with mainstream tourism to lose its distinctness. Consequently, the tourism industry's growth through-out the years has created an increasing amount of stress economically, socially and environmentally. For a sustainable development of the rural tourism sector, the benefits must be equitably distributed among the private interests, public sector, tourists and local population. Criteria and indicators of sustainability that reflect the costs and benefits must be precise yet simple enough to be understood and easily implemented by field staff. The objective of this study is to develop criteria and indicators of sustainability for Taman Negara. The study uses Delphi technique to identify and develop a set of priority criteria and indicators, which is used to determine the sustainability of the development of Taman Negara National Park. The results of the study produced a set of 15 criteria and 58 indicators of sustainability which are comparable to the lists adopted by international, regional and national programs in the development of criteria and indicators. The indicators encompass the components of economic, social and environmental values associated with responsible development. These indicators will then be used in the development of a tourism barometer that will act as a national integrated tourism management system. This fundamental study plays an important role in innovating new approaches by developing indicators to holistically measure the multi-dimensional relationships between different tourism models and the linkages to local economies and environment in key natural and rural destinations in Malaysia..

tourism & travel: IN THE GREEN ECONOMY

Lipman, G. 2011, International Trade Forum Vol side 28-29.

They are at a tipping point where the past four decades of climate and poverty concern - the Stockholm Environment Conference, the Rio Earth Summit, the Kyoto Climate Summit, the Millennium Development Goals and the like -- must give way to shared solutions. What is needed now is vision, innovative thinking and courage by policymakers -- public, private and civil society -- to recognize the potential and create new, inclusive frameworks to make it happen. Green growth is not a simple concept. There is a key role for travelism -- the combined impact of the whole travel and tourism supply and demand chains and not just the sub-sector silos (transport, accommodation, hospitality/events and travel services). Two core principles should inform green growth initiatives. Quadruple bottom line sustainability, with climate the new, game changing one, integrated with social, environmental and economic balance. And smart travel -- clean, green, ethical at all levels of the price/product spectrum and incorporating local community interests..

Farm-based entrepreneurs: what triggers the start-up of new business activities?

Ljunggren, E. 2003, Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development Vol 10 side 435-443.

This exploratory study combines three theoretical approaches to investigate why farmers start additional business activities: the rural sociology perspective, the opportunity perspective and the resource-based perspective - as applied within entrepreneurship research. Building on in-depth interviews of respondents from Norwegian farm households, three types of entrepreneurs were identified: the pluriactive farmer, the resource exploiting entrepreneur and the portfolio entrepreneur. These entrepreneurial types differed in regard to their basic motivation and objectives for start-up, the source of their business ideas, the basis of competitive position and the connectivity between the new business and the farm, as well as in several other ways. [PUBLICATION ABSTRACT].

Ethical travel decisions - Travel agents and human rights

Lovelock, B. 2008, Annals of Tourism Research Vol 35 side 338-358.

This paper explores the ethics of selling tourism products for destinations that have known major human rights issues. The study uses the moral intensity framework to analyze the ethical decision making of New Zealand travel agents. Qualitative interviews reveal support for all aspects of the framework. In particular, agents' judgements are strongly influenced by their perceptions of how their decisions impact upon their clients. In contrast, uncertainty surrounds the probability and magnitude of consequences of their decisions for destination communities. Strong social, cultural, legal, and economic links between the agent and the more proximate stakeholders mean that ethical decisions commonly favor these stakeholders..

The big catch: Negotiating the transition from commercial fisher to tourism entrepreneur in Island environments

Lovelock, B.L., K.; Normann, O. 2010, Asia Pacific Journal of Tourism Research Vol 15 side 267-283.

Peripheral island communities face challenges emanating from changes to their traditional fishing industries. Stewart Island and Chatham Island in New Zealand provide examples of such communities, their economies and communities supported by the extractive industries of crayfishing and codfishing for many years. However, increasingly depleted fish stocks and changes to the regulatory regimes for fishing have transformed the industry, bringing a dramatic decline in the number ofsmall ishing operators and accompanying socio-economic changes. This paper reports on the transition from a ishing economy to a tourism economy, with a focus on the lived experiences of commercial ishers turned tourism entrepreneurs. Commentators point to the importance ofentrepre-neurs in destination development; however, a number of barriers may impede the establishment and growth of tourism enterprises in remote islands. This paper explores personal and environmental factors relevant to those undertaking the transition from commercial ishing to tourism in peripheral island destinations, reporting the indings ofqualitative research undertaken with tourism entrepreneurs on islands in New Zealand. © 2010 Asia Pacific Tourism Association..

Attraction of dwarf minke whales Balaenoptera acutorostrata to vessels and swimmers in the Great Barrier Reef World Heritage Area - The management challenges of an inquisitive whale

Mangott, A.H.B., R. A.; Marsh, H. 2011, Journal of Ecotourism Vol 10 side 64-76.

A diffuse aggregation of dwarf minke whales occurs in the northern Great Barrier Reef World Heritage Area (GBRWHA) during the austral winter months. The whales voluntarily approach dive tourism vessels and their passengers and maintain contact for prolonged periods (mean ±SE = 3.9 ± 0.57 h). We report on 521 industry-wide dwarf minke whale encounters (2006-2007) and provide detailed analyses of 20 encounters in 2006 and 18 in 2007 from the vessel Undersea Explorer. The whales surfaced significantly more often within a 60 m radius of the vessel than expected, and aggregated especially around swimmers. The inquisitiveness of the whales creates several management issues including compliance difficulties for non-swim-with whales endorsed operations. The whales' close and prolonged association with vessels and swimmers indicates a strong attraction of these animals to the stimulus and raises concerns about the wellbeing of the whales and the swimming participants. Preventing these encounters would be difficult without banning dive tourism in the GBRWHA for several months. Several management strategies are highlighted and broader education is recommended to reduce the potential of adverse impacts on the whales. © 2011 Taylor & Francis..

Birdwatchers' specialisation characteristics and national park tourism planning

Maple, L.C.E., P. F. J.; Rolfe, H. 2010, Journal of Ecotourism Vol 9 side 219-238.

Decline in birding visitation to Point Pelee National Park stimulated investigation of recreation specialisation to better prepare programmes for birdwatchers. This research identified characteristics of birdwatchers' at three specialisation levels and advised park managers in the design and management of birding programmes. Research found that the intermediate and expert birders were similar to each other, and were different from the beginners. The beginners were a distinct group, from the more experienced groups, as they were more likely to be in their first year of bird watching, stayed the least number of nights in the local area, had the lowest expenditures, participated more in activities outside the national park, used more sources of information, and participated more in non-birding activities during their trip to the national park. The research found that this beginner group required programmes aimed at an introduction to the park, the regional area, birding, and a wide range of activities and sites. The more experienced birders required specialised programmes on bird identification, bird biology, and bird watching. The research concluded that bird watching management should be an integrated, regional activity, involving many public and private organisations, many of which occur outside the national park. © 2010 Taylor & Francis..

Understanding lifestyle entrepreneurs and digging beneath the issue of profits: Profiling surf tourism lifestyle entrepreneurs in Ireland

Marchant, B.M., Z. 2011, Tourism Planning and Development Vol 8 side 171-183.

An area of particular interest for those researching in tourism entrepreneurship has been lifestyle entrepreneurs. Lifestyle entrepreneurs are primarily motivated by the need to succeed at living a certain quality of life by maintaining an income which allows them to survive. The dichotomy between entrepreneurs who develop businesses for profit and those who are motivated by lifestyle has formed the basis of much discussion about lifestyle entrepreneurs in the literature. Two groups of lifestyle entrepreneurs have been conceptualised: constrained and non-constrained. This paper contributes to our understanding of lifestyle entrepreneurs by presenting six case studies of surf tourism lifestyle entrepreneurs to investigate common themes and characteristics. This paper investigates lifestyle entrepreneurs in Ireland who have established surf businesses in the west of Ireland. Key questions posed include: Are there commonalities between these entrepreneurs in terms of their background, both in terms of their business and private lives? Why did they embark on this particular entrepreneurial journey? How do they interrelate with other local entrepreneurs? What are their visions for the future of their business? Has the business grown in size over time from how they first envisioned it? Have their original lifestyle goals shifted? The empirical research, which comprises of in-depth interviews, provides rich data which brings us beyond the single issue of whether profits are a key motivation. By studying lifestyle entrepreneurs as a group on their own (rather than trying to compare them with regular entrepreneurs) we are free to investigate beyond the traditional constructs of business research which focuses primarily on profits, strategy and operations. In so doing we are able to add to knowledge regarding this already identified important group of tourism entrepreneurs. Findings show the importance of past travel experiences and that motives do change over time. © 2011 Taylor & Francis..

Minimising visitor impacts to protected areas: The efficacy of low impact education programmes

Marion, J.L.R., S. E. 2007, Journal of Sustainable Tourism Vol 15 side .

Protected area managers, tourism providers, and other organisations commonly employ education programmes to address visitation-related impairment of natural and cultural resources, social conditions, and neighbouring communities. These programmes have different names (Leave No Trace, Codes of Conduct, Environmental Guidelines for Tourists) but share common objectives: to sustain opportunities for high quality visitor experiences while avoiding or minimising associated negative impacts to protected area resources, visitor experiences, and park neighbours. Theoretical and empirical research studies in the United States are reviewed to evaluate the efficacy of educational efforts that seek to encourage adoption of low impact behaviours. Findings reveal that most of the visitor education efforts evaluated did effectively alter visitor knowledge, behaviour and/or resource and social conditions in the intended direction. These findings, including discussions of message content, delivery, audience characteristics and theoretical grounding, provide insights for improving the efficacy of future educational efforts. © 2007 J.L. Marion & S.E. Reid..

Managing for conservation and recreation: The Ningaloo whale shark experience

Mau, R. 2008, Journal of Ecotourism Vol 7 side 213-225.

The Western Australian Department of Environment and Conservation has statutory responsibility for conservation, and commercial and recreational aspects of the Ningaloo Whale Shark Experience. The whale shark experience participation rate had grown by 150% since 1995. In this paper, the ability of the existing management programme to balance ecological, social and economic factors is reviewed. The Department has established a statutory Code of Conduct which applied equally to commercial and recreational users when interacting with whale sharks. The Code of Conduct for Whale Shark Interaction was developed to provide for an acceptable impact on the wildlife and a safe visitor experience. A restricted licensing regime was applied. Studies conducted to date indicate that any significant impact on the whale shark population is unlikely as a result of the tourism interactions at Ningaloo. Social surveys indicate a high level of satisfaction with all aspects of the whale shark experience. An education programme was implemented to cater for industry needs and a local, national and international audience. At this time, the Ningaloo Whale Shark experience may effectively be described as an ecologically sustainable wildlife tourism industry managed by a government conservation department based on non-consumptive use of wildlife. © 2008 Taylor & Francis..

Gender and motivation for agri-tourism entrepreneurship

McGehee, N.G.K., K.; Jennings, G. R. 2007, Tourism Management Vol 28 side 280-289.

The purpose of this study was to explore the potentially gendered nature of motivations for agri-tourism entrepreneurship among Virginia farm families. Three elements of Chaippe and Flora's [Gendered elements of the alternative agriculture paradigm. Rural Sociology, 63(3), 372-393] modification of Beus and Dunlap's [Conventional versus alternative agriculture: The paradigmatic roots of the debate. Rural Sociology, 55(4), 590-616] alternative agricultural paradigm were tested as a possible theoretical framework for agri-tourism motivation. Chiappe and Flora [Gendered elements of the alternative agriculture paradigm. Rural Sociology, 63(3), 372-393] found that overall the alternative agriculture goals of men and women were similar: for example, both men and women were seeking independence, an opportunity to contribute to the community, and diversity of product. However, there were very different meanings and contexts attached to each of these ideas. For example, when discussing independence, women were more focused on "expense-reducing" rather than the "income-inducing" activities preferred by their mate counterparts. Results of this study indicate that women were found to have higher motivation for agri-tourism entrepreneurship in all categories, but not consistently significant or in ways that necessarily supported the framework. (c) 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved..

Ecotourism and certification: Confronting the principles and pragmatics of socially responsible tourism

Medina, L.K. 2005, Journal of Sustainable Tourism Vol 13 side 281-295.

Many ecotourism proponents advocate certification as a means to distinguish legitimate ecotourism from counterfeit 'greenwashed' products. This paper discusses, efforts by certification advocates operating in global arenas to generate standards for measuring compliance with one dimension of widely accepted definitions of ecotourism, the stipulation that it should provide benefits to local communities. The paper then presents an ethnographic case study from Belize that reveals disagreements among ecotourism stakeholders in Belize and between them and international experts about the meaning of several key terms: who should count as 'local', what should count as 'participation' by locals, and what constitutes a 'benefit' to local communities. The author argues that divergent perspectives on these issues must be recognised and accommodated in the process of harmonising or standardising certification criteria for ecotourism; failure to do that could imperil both the principled and pragmatic rationales behind the requirement that ecotourism provide benefits to local communities. © 2005 L.K. Medina..

Accurately identifying and comparing sustainable tourists, nature-based tourists, and ecotourists on the basis of their environmental concerns

Mehmetoglu, M. 2010, International Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Administration Vol 11 side 171-199.

The current study, using a confirmatory factor analysis, developed a multi-item scale consisting of 3 dimensions that exhibited necessary reliability and validity. Based on this Nature-Based, Eco- and Sustainable Tourists (NES)-scale, and by utilizing a cluster analysis, the study identifies 4 distinct segments among a sample of the Norwegian population: nature-based tourists, ecotourists, sustainable tourists, and mass tourists. The analysis shows that while the ecotourists make up the largest segment, the mass tourists represent the smallest segment. Using Analysis of Variance (ANOVA), the resulting 4 segments are later compared on the basis of their environmental concerns. The findings suggest that the ecotourists are the most environmentally concerned whereas the mass tourists are the least environmentally concerned. Finally, based upon the overall findings of the study, a new inductive model is developed. This model highlights the interaction between different types of alternative tourists and mass tourists, by showing, inter alia, that nature-based tourism has over the years become a form of mass tourism. Theoretical and practical implications of the study are also discussed. © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC..

Nature-based tourism: A contrast to everyday life

Mehmetoglu, M. 2007, Journal of Ecotourism Vol 6 side 111-126.

The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between trip motives and the importance placed on nature when choosing a destination. More specifically, it investigates how much importance tourists, motivated by their 'everyday lives', attach to nature in their decision to travel to their current destination. The results of the multiple regression analysis indicate that two trip motives, 'novelty and learning' and 'everyday life', significantly influence the importance attributed to nature. The more any of these motives is considered to be important, the more salient a role nature plays in such a decision. However, the results of the subsequent multiple logistic regression analysis show that it is the trip motive 'a contrast to everyday life' that significantly distinguishes between 'genuine' nature-based tourists (i.e. travelling primarily for nature) and 'mixed' nature-based tourists (i.e. travelling for various reasons including nature). Several theoretical and practical implications of the study are also provided. © 2007 M. Mehmetoglu..

Ecotourism in the rangelands: Landholder perspectives on conservation

Moskwa, E. 2010, Journal of Ecotourism Vol 9 side 175-186.

Research on landholder perspectives of conservation through ecotourism is conducted through a social science viewpoint to provide guidance for multifunctional land-use planning with a particular focus on sustainable tourism operations in the Australian rangelands. When addressing the adoption of ecotourism as a conservation practice, the influence of economics, uncertainty and confidence in proposed land-use changes appear tightly linked. The financial position of landholders is presented as a primary limitation to the adoption of increased sustainable land-use practices. Diversification into sustainable tourism is perceived as assisting landholders achieve a range of economic and environmental goals; landholders are pulled into ecotourism as a favourable response to the push away from traditional pastoralism. Results show the majority of landholders are of the opinion that ecotourism can contribute to conservation in the following ways: (1) financially by enabling additional income to devote to ecological recovery efforts and (2) by educating tourists about the rangelands and sending sustainability messages to the wider population. Further, the research brings to light that support for ecotourism may be amplified through sharing experiences in a heuristic method of collective judgement. This process enables landholders to address the elements of confidence and uncertainty of new practices with others facing similar sustainability goals as their own. © 2010 Taylor & Francis..

Limits to Sami tourism development: The case of Jokkmokk, Sweden

Müller, D.K.H., S. K. 2009, Journal of Ecotourism Vol 8 side 115-127.

Indigenous populations are frequently used in tourism promotion and marketing. This is also true for the Sami people in northern Europe. In the area, sometimes called Europe's last wilderness, the Sami and their culture are epitomised as a main asset for a growing tourism industry. Previously this has caused problems and irritation among the Sami. Nevertheless, tourism development is indeed also seen as a potential solution to problems affecting the Sami society, offering new sources of income and future employment in situ. Against this background, it is an interesting notion that only few Swedish Sami choose to make a living within tourism. Instead, tourism appears to be a complementary activity to reindeer herding only. Hence, the purpose of this article is to analyse constraints preventing Sami from getting more involved in tourism development. The article mainly draws on a study conducted in Jokkmokk, Sweden. Here, interviews were carried out with Sami tourism entrepreneurs who were also members of local cooperatives for reindeer husbandry. The results of the study indicate that cultural norms and legal obstacles form the main limitation for Sami tourism development. © 2009 Taylor & Francis..

Promoting energy strategies on Eco-Certified accommodation websites

Nelson, V. 2010, Journal of Ecotourism Vol 9 side 187-200.

The attention on climate change by the international media and the international tourism industry has generated greater interest in issues of energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions. This study seeks to explore the intersection of these two foci. The purpose of this paper is to examine the type of information about energy use and strategies to reduce energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions provided by accommodations Eco-Certified by Ecotourism Australia. Specifically, this examination addresses what information is provided, how it is presented, and what the objectives are in promoting this information. Although energy issues are a component in Eco Certification, just under half of the 50 accommodations included provided information about energy on their websites. These accommodations provided information about activities undertaken in each of four strategies previously identified for reducing greenhouse gas emissions in the accommodation sector - reducing energy use, improving energy efficiency, increasing alternative energy consumption, and offsetting emissions - and related this information to the ecotourism tenets of environmental sustainability, environmental education, and economic viability. While some accommodation operators chose to provide this information to potential tourists as a possible means of product differentiation, most did so to raise awareness and ultimately to try to change behaviours. © 2010 Taylor & Francis..

Networks, clusters and innovation in tourism: A UK experience

Novelli, M.S., B.; Spencer, T. 2006, Tourism Management Vol 27 side 1141-1152.

In an era where tourism is dominated by requests for tailored experiences, SMEs play a key role in providing adequate products and services to tourists by responding to their most specific requirements. This paper uses network and clusters as a framework providing SMEs with innovative opportunities to operate in a competitive tourism environment. A review of relevant literature on clusters, networks and tourism business innovation is undertaken, then focusing on the specific issues of Healthy Lifestyle Tourism. The UK 'Healthy Lifestyle Tourism Cluster' experience is employed to discuss the process and the implication of network and cluster development in tourism. However, the development of clusters should not be seen as a simple and spontaneous process due to the nature of businesses involved, but as a very complex process linked to strong stakeholder collaboration. © 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved..

Exploring the predisposition of travellers to qualify as ecotourists: The ecotourist predisposition scale

Nowaczek, A.S., B. 2010, Journal of Ecotourism Vol 9 side 45-61.

In spite of various attempts at defining and identifying ecotourists - both in comparison with general tourism and within the ecotourism sector itself - most research studies examining ecotourists lack a generalisable approach and raise issues of reliability and validity. Most troublesome research in this area lack a theoretical foundation for what it means to be an ecotourist and, instead, relies on geographical location or behavioural markers to identify ecotourists. In this study, a multi-dimensional scale is proposed for identifying travellers' predispositions to qualify as ecotourists. Following a comprehensive review of literature on definitions, conceptual frameworks, and typologies associated with ecotourism, six foundational dimensions were identified - ethics, education, culture, nature, specialisation, and contribution - that provided the conceptual basis for the development of the Ecotourist Predisposition Scale. The scale was pre-tested and has undergone reliability and construct validity testing for each dimension and overall. The scale could serve to extend our understanding of ecotourists on a deeper conceptual level and, in application, serve to identify various types of travellers based on their predisposition for basic aspects of ecotourism with the advantage of a temporal, geographical, and behavioural generalisability. © 2010 Taylor & Francis..

Entrepreneurial attitude, innovation and performance among Norwegian nature-based tourism enterprises

Nybakk, E.H., E. 2008, Forest Policy and Economics Vol 10 side 473-479.

Entrepreneurship and innovativeness have seen considerable attention in the literature. However, little research has focused on micro-scaled enterprises, especially in the context of nature-based tourism. This work investigates how entrepreneurial attitude influences innovativeness and performance in Norwegian nature-based tourism enterprises. Data collection consisted of an e-mail survey and resulted in 178 usable responses. Respondents that exhibit a stronger entrepreneurial attitude appear more likely to change the way they organize their enterprise and tend to have higher income growth. Results point to potential policy actions that could positively impact rural development as well as individual firm actions that may enhance performance..

A community-based tourism model: Its conception and use

Okazaki, E. 2008, Journal of Sustainable Tourism Vol 16 side 511-529.

Community participation in the tourism planning process is advocated as a way of implementing sustainable tourism. There are, however, few studies that detail tangible and practical ways to promote or measure participation. This paper reviews the principal theories used to discuss community participation, including the 'ladder of citizen participation', power redistribution, collaboration processes and social capital creation. These theories form the basis for defining a community-based tourism (CBT) model. The paper shows how this model can be used to assess participation levels in a study site, and suggests further actions required. The model is applied in a case study in Palawan, the Philippines, where an indigenous community previously initiated a community-based ecotourism project. The project resulted in a number of problems, including conflicts with non-indigenous stakeholders. The model identifies the current situation of the project and provides suggestions for improvement. © 2008 Taylor & Francis..

Hot issues, green solutions: Impacts and implications for the tourism industry National Ecotourism Conference 22nd-24th October 2007, Nairobi, Kenya

Okech, R.N. 2009, Journal of Ecotourism Vol 8 side 221-222.

.

A GIS Approach to Evaluating Ecological Sensitivity for Tourism Development in Fragile Environments. A Case Study from SE Iceland

Olafsdottir, R.R., M. C. 2009, Scandinavian Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Vol 9 side 22-38.

Expansion of tourism in the northern periphery regions provides innovative resources for an economic boost to many of the peripheral communities. The northern ecosystems are however extremely vulnerable. It is therefore of vital importance for such communities to plan the growth of tourism along sustainable lines in order to secure long-term economic benefit from tourism. Geographical Information Systems (GIS) can handle multiple spatial criteria and provide a tool for the allocation of resources between conflicting demands and aid decision-makers in planning. Despite increased use of GIS in environmental planning and management, the application of GIS to tourism planning is still limited. This study aims to develop a methodology to generate a Tourism Decision Support System (TDSS) to aid planning of sustainable tourism. A GIS model was developed based on classification of identified impact factors and variables, as well as selected classification algorithms that were used to assess categories of ecological sensitivity that may aid decision makers in planning and managing sustainable tourism in sensitive areas that are facing the risk of being subjected to ecological degradation..

Economic and transition and the struggle for local control in ecotourism development: The case of Kyrgyzstan

Palmer, N.J. 2006, Journal of Ecotourism Vol 5 side 40-61.

This is a contextual paper, examining the involvement of external development agencies in an emerging post-Soviet economy. The paper provides an outline of same of the main political and economic challenges facing the case example area - Kyrgyzstan. It then goes on to briefly consider ecotourism as a concept linking natural resources and cultural environments with a key focus on 'local', locating ecotourism as a key potential vehicle for promoting and protecting diversity in globalisation debates. The main part of the paper discusses the intervention of one external development agency, the Swiss Development Co-operation (SDC), via the introduction of community-based tourism (CBT) to Kyrgyzstan. One particular CBT group has developed a successful ecotourism product using SDC technical assistance. Kyrgyz tour operator responses to this development are presented and the implications of external development agency intervention in Kyrgyzstan's tourism development are considered with respect to the creation of a struggle for local control amongst the Kyrgyz tour operators, an emphasis on the cultural value of the ethnic Kyrgyz population and a focus on poverty alleviation amongst these people rather than other Kyrgyz citizens. A need for further research is highlighted, particularly with respect to the potential imperialistic effects of external development agencies. © 2006 N.J. Palmer..

Understanding success factors for ensuring sustainability in ecotourism development in southern Africa

Parker, S.K., A. 2005, Journal of Ecotourism Vol 4 side 32-46.

Developing an ecotourism enterprise is a complex and difficult undertaking for an entrepreneur. In addition to a thorough understanding of market principles and business fundamentals, the entrepreneur must build strong, lasting and equitable partnerships with local communities, protect the environment, and operate in sometimes adverse national and local conditions. In evaluating the potential sustainability of an ecotourism project the entrepreneur must understand the critical success factors for the project. This paper provides a methodology of evaluation for the three major categories of critical success factors: (1) environmental (environmental quality, site boundaries, water and opportunity costs), (2) community (community partnerships, community definition, community dialogue, and poverty and social inclusion) and (3) economic (national political environment, adequate legal systems and security, infrastructure and government policy). By investigating and rating these success factors and understanding their affect on the potential of an ecotourism project, the entrepreneur can effectively compare the potential of different projects. This article attempts to create a framework for understanding the ecotourism success factors taking the example of southern African countries. © 2005 S. Parker & A. Khare..

Multiple entrepreneurship among successful SMEs in peripheral locations

Pasanen, M. 2003, Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development Vol 10 side 418-425.

Multiple entrepreneurship can offer an alternative approach to understanding business growth mechanisms. Despite the growing interest in entrepreneurs who have been involved in more than one venture, few studies have focused on serial and portfolio entrepreneurship. This article explores the prevalence of multiple entrepreneurship among successful small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in peripheral locations, and compares SMEs owned by multiple business entrepreneurs with SMEs owned by single business entrepreneurs. Multiple business entrepreneurs were defined as SME owner-managers who are both serial and portfolio owners simultaneously. Among successful owner-managed SMEs 22 per cent of firms were owned by such multiple entrepreneurs, and only 50 per cent by single business entrepreneurs. The comparison revealed 11 variables that showed differences between these two groups of SMEs. Multiple entrepreneurship was emphasized among entrepreneurs of growth firms. The findings suggest that more attention should be paid to the roles of the multiple entrepreneurs in regional economic development. [PUBLICATION ABSTRACT].

Ecotourism and conservation: Factors influencing effective conservation messages

Peake, S.I., P.; Dyer, P. 2009, Journal of Sustainable Tourism Vol 17 side 107-127.

Environmental education and interpretation have largely focused on individual mechanisms (e.g. cognitive processes) leading to intention and behavioural change. Less has been said about the role of the situation and communication processes between tour guides and tourists in ecotourism experiences. This paper examines the role of interpreters and individuals as jointly influencing the effectiveness of communicating conservation messages. A survey of over 1500 visitors was undertaken to ascertain the factors crucial to whether visitors received a conservation message in an ecotourism setting. The results indicate a three-tier effect: individual characteristics, specifically respondent's age, were initially important. The second tier represents the impact of conservation-related information from the tour guide/interpreter. This information acts as a stimulus to the third and most crucial tier of influence - visitor empowerment. The tertiary stage comprises a two-way communication process that influences a positive conservation message. The process involves the interpreter suggesting positive conservation action that translates into what we term "a locus of responsibility" for the visitor and subsequent higher levels of satisfaction. All of these drive effective communication of conservation message comprehension..

Leadership and innovation processes - Development of products and services based on core competencies

Pechlaner, H.F., E.; Hammann, E. M. 2006, Journal of Quality Assurance in Hospitality and Tourism Vol 6 side 31-57.

The new challenge for destinations is to professionalize the continuous development process of innovative products and services. In this context, innovation is regarded as a bipolar process between market and resources. From the resource-oriented perspective, the concentration on regional core competencies will therefore become a source of innovation for destinations while the customer is the source of innovation from the market-oriented perspective. Resulting from the nature of the destination product, the innovation process is interpreted as an inter-organizational network process. The aim has to be the mentation of continuous innovation processes in the form of networks within a system of a learning destination. Given the fact that, especially for innovative activities, networks play a minor role in tourism at present, the question is raised of how to overcome the obstacles of cooperation and to initiate network activities to foster innovation networks within a destination. A study was conducted that focused on the identification of forms of cooperation that strengthen and reinforce innovative behavior in a destination. The article aims at discussing the enhancement of the attractiveness and the quality of innovative network activities by increasing the value of cooperation for the providers of the destination. Copyright © 2005 by The Haworth Press, Inc. All rights reserved..

Erratum: Ecotourism: Supply of nature or tourist demand? (Journal of Ecotourism (2009) 8:3 (229))

Perkins, H.G., D. A. 2010, Journal of Ecotourism Vol 9 side 84.

.

Ecotourism: Supply of nature or tourist demand?

Perkins, H.G., D. A. 2009, Journal of Ecotourism Vol 8 side 223-236.

Although there is considerable consumer power resting in the hands of the individual tourist, in terms of the types of tourism products offered and the places being visited, there has been, surprisingly, little empirical research regarding tourists' preferences for particular tourism packages and holidays. Furthermore, little is known in relation to tourist differences (or similarities) in preferences for, or motivation towards, mainstream as opposed to ecotourism tourist experiences. This study addresses this deficiency in the literature via empirical research involving a self-report survey of a sample of 255 tourists. The results indicate that a definite ecotourism market segment does seem to exist and that the motivations of mainstream tourists are qualitatively different from those of ecotourists, each defined by their preferences and interests. © 2009 Tavlor & Francis..

Presentation of Personal Control in the Rhetoric of Farm Families Engaged in Business Diversification in Finland

Peura, J. 2005, Journal of Comparative Family Studies Vol 36 side 443-III.

There is increasing pressure on farmers to become entrepreneurial. Business diversification on farms is a literal step towards this direction. However, even the diversified businesses on farms are often in an underdog position within vertical networks. The business may be dependent on only one big client. Achieving personal control in the market arena, which is essential for entrepreneurial identity, is problematic in these kinds of situations. The article is based on interviews with 40 farm families engaged in business diversification in Finland. The analysis focuses on the presentation of personal control in the market arena. In one end, there were cases in which the farmer could take advantage of a wide set of marketing and customer related means of control. In the other end, there were cases in which these means of control were practically nonexistent to the farmer. The variation of personal control in the market arena was-to a great extent-contingent on the farmer's relation to vertical networks. [PUBLICATION ABSTRACT].

Conceptualising a contemporary marketing mix for sustainable tourism

Pomering, A.N., G.; Johnson, L. W. 2011, Journal of Sustainable Tourism Vol 19 side 953-969.

This paper outlines how marketing, though traditionally considered an enemy of sustainability, can play a role in implementing sustainable tourism. It notes the redefinition in 2007 by the American Marketing Association of marketing's aims to consider wider societal issues beyond those of clients and customers. It illustrates how the recognition of the importance of sustainable tourism at all scales of tourism activity provides marketing with an opportunity to pursue sustainability outcomes. We review the strategic tourism marketing planning process and conceptually develop a sustainability tourism marketing model that embeds sustainability considerations at each stage of the planning process. Our proposed model contributes to sustainable tourism theory development and offers a conceptual tool for managing a tourism organisation's ecological and societal footprint on the supply side and a critical opportunity for transforming consumer decision-making on the demand side, irrespective of tourism scale. A 30-cell matrix is proposed that cross-references a strong set of 10 marketing elements (product, price, promotion, place, participants, process, physical evidence, partnership, packaging and programming) against the questions posed by the triple bottom line of economic factors, the environmental and sociocultural concern, creating a check list of indicators for management purposes. © 2011 Taylor & Francis..

Visits to national parks and the provision of natural and man-made recreation and tourism resources

Puustinen, J.P., E.; Neuvonen, M.; Sievaenen, T. 2009, Journal of Ecotourism Vol 8 side 18-31.

Understanding the relationship between national park characteristics and the number of visits is crucial for the planning and management of parks. Visitation, the number of visits to the park, has a key role to play in assessing the social and economic impacts of new and existing parks. This study examines how the natural characteristics of a national park, the recreation services inside it and tourism services in the surrounding communities are related to the number of visits. Parks are classified according to these three dimensions and the numbers of visitors are compared within the three types. 35 national parks in Finland form the data of the study. The results indicate that the number of visits is associated with the main nature type, implying a continuum from the highest numbers visiting mountainous (i.e. fell) parks to the lowest visiting mire parks. A high number of visits is associated with a good provision of both recreational facilities inside and tourism services outside it. In water-based parks, in particular, the effect of services on park visits is considerable..

Visits to national parks and the provision of natural and man-made recreation and tourism resources

Puustinen, J.P., E.; Neuvonena, M.; Sievänen, T. 2009, Journal of Ecotourism Vol 8 side 18-31.

Understanding the relationship between national park characteristics and the number of visits is crucial for the planning and management of parks. Visitation, the number of visits to the park, has a key role to play in assessing the social and economic impacts of new and existing parks. This study examines how the natural characteristics of a national park, the recreation services inside it and tourism services in the surrounding communities are related to the number of visits. Parks are classified according to these three dimensions and the numbers of visitors are compared within the three types. 35 national parks in Finland form the data of the study. The results indicate that the number of visits is associated with the main nature type, implying a continuum from the highest numbers visiting mountainous (i.e. fell) parks to the lowest visiting mire parks. A high number of visits is associated with a good provision of both recreational facilities inside and tourism services outside it. In water-based parks, in particular, the effect of services on park visits is considerable. © 2009 Taylor & Francis..

Europoly Money: How Do Tourists Convert Foreign Currencies to Make Spending Decisions?

Raghubir, P.M., V. G.; Santana, S. , Journal of Retailing Vol side .

This paper examines how tourists convert foreign currencies to make spending decisions. Six studies demonstrate how sequential (Study 1) and simultaneous (Study 2) exposure to nominally different (but economically identical) prices, and the manner in which tourists perform currency conversions (Studies 3-5) influence price perceptions and purchase intentions. Study 6 shows the effects using macroeconomic spending behavior from 1993 to 2008 spanning the introduction of the Euro. The general discussion concludes with a model of how numerical inputs are combined to make judgments as a function of the number of inputs available and their ease of use. © 2011 New York University..

Visitor perceptions of the role of tour guides in natural areas

Randall, C.R., R. B. 2009, Journal of Sustainable Tourism Vol 17 side 357-374.

This paper explores the potential of tour guides to contribute to the protection of natural areas by educating their customers through interpretation and modeling environmentally appropriate behaviors. Applying Cohen's (1985) model of the guides' role, modified by Weiler and Davis (1993), as a framework, it examines the potential role that kayak tour guides can play in shaping the experience of visitors to one marine area, the Pacific Rim National Park. It uses two approaches to explore the perceptions of clients about the role of kayak guides using: (1) a pre- and post-trip questionnaire and (2) participant observation. Results indicate that five of the six roles were rated high in importance, but one role, the communication role, was not as important. Comparing performance with importance attached to each role revealed congruence with five roles, but lower levels of performance in relation to importance with the role of "motivator of responsible behavior". Variability within all of the importance and performance measures suggest that for some individuals, performance did not match importance, highlighting the need to consider market segmentation in future studies. These findings are discussed within the ecotourism paradigm, and their implications for protected area management and for visitor behavior modification are considered.© 2009 Taylor & Francis..

Ecotourism and simulated attractions: Tourists' attitudes towards integrated sites in a desert area

Reichel, A.U., N.; Shani, A. 2008, Journal of Sustainable Tourism Vol 16 side 23-41.

This paper examines the attitudes of tourists towards a conceptual planning approach, which combines elements of ecotourism with themed and simulated attractions for sustainable tourism development in desert areas. Based on a survey of 453 tourists, the study examines respondents' preferences regarding the suggested contents and facilities of tourist attractions to be developed in the Israeli desert area of the Negev. The findings indicate that the respondents do not necessarily see contradictions between the seemingly irreconcilable ecotourism elements and themed simulations. They expressed clear preference for the development of sites with appropriate infrastructure and themed simulations that preserve local nature and culture. The findings are discussed within the frameworks of ecotourism, post-modern tourism, and tourism development in desert areas. © 2008 A. Reichel et al..

Understanding the small business owner: What they really aim at and how this relates to firm performance: A case study in North Karelia, Eastern Finland

Reijonen, H. 2008, Management Research News Vol 31 side 616-629.

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine how business owners in microbusinesses perceive success and how that perception may influence the growth of their enterprise. Design/methodology/approach: The results of three separate studies were analysed. The data were collected with questionnaires and interviews among microbusinesses in the industries of craft and rural tourism in the area of North Karelia, Eastern Finland. Both quantitative and qualitative methods were used in the analysis. Findings: The paper found that the motives and goals of the small business owners were not oriented towards growth, but to quality of life, job satisfaction and satisfied clientele. Consequently, business success was measured by the respect and satisfaction of the customers, job satisfaction and the quality of product. From an economic perspective, making a reasonable living, not growth, constituted a measure of success. Research limitations/implications: Generalisation is affected by the fact that the study concerns two individual industries in a small geographical area. Practical implications: For policy makers, the study offers insight into the factors that affect the behaviour and decision-making of the microbusiness entrepreneurs and, thus, the performance of their enterprise. Originality/value: The study contributes to theory development by examining the little studied possible conflicts between financial and personal measures of success. © Emerald Group Publishing Limited..

Perception of success and its effect on small firm performance

Reijonen, H.K., R. 2007, Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development Vol 14 side 689-701.

Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to provide an insight into small firm entrepreneurs' perceptions of success and how these perceptions affect the performance of a firm. The emphasis is on non-financial measures of success and their interaction with the financial indicators of a firm's performance. Design/methodology/approach - The paper presents a comparative analysis of two separate studies conducted in the same geographical area in Finland. The studies were concerned with micro-businesses in the industries of craft and rural tourism. Findings - The study finds that non-financial meters of success that are affected by the entrepreneur's motivations and goals influence the financial performance of the small firm. Making a living is important, but going beyond that is not often seen of great concern. Consequently, the entrepreneurs are likely to measure their performance by other criteria and find success, e.g. in job satisfaction and satisfied customers. Research limitations/implications - In the data collection process, the used questions and themes were not identical. The main themes of performance, growth and success are, however, comparable. Practical implications - The paper provides useful information about small firm entrepreneurs' perceptions and attitudes of success and growth and how these affect the management of the firm. Originality/value - This paper brings empirical evidence to the studies of factors affecting small firm performance. In addition, it offers useful insight into the non-financial measures of success..

Perception of success and its effect on small firm performance

Reijonen, H.K., Raija 2007, Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development Vol 14 side 689-701.

Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to provide an insight into small firm entrepreneurs' perceptions of success and how these perceptions affect the performance of a firm. The emphasis is on non-financial measures of success and their interaction with the financial indicators of a firm's performance. Design/methodology/approach - The paper presents a comparative analysis of two separate studies conducted in the same geographical area in Finland. The studies were concerned with micro-businesses in the industries of craft and rural tourism. Findings - The study finds that non-financial meters of success that are affected by the entrepreneur's motivations and goals influence the financial performance of the small firm. Making a living is important, but going beyond that is not often seen of great concern. Consequently, the entrepreneurs are likely to measure their performance by other criteria and find success, e.g. in job satisfaction and satisfied customers. Research limitations/implications - In the data collection process, the used questions and themes were not identical. The main themes of performance, growth and success are, however, comparable. Practical implications - The paper provides useful information about small firm entrepreneurs' perceptions and attitudes of success and growth and how these affect the management of the firm. Originality/value - This paper brings empirical evidence to the studies of factors affecting small firm performance. In addition, it offers useful insight into the non-financial measures of success. [PUBLICATION ABSTRACT].

Ecotourists' loyalty: Will they tell about the destination or will they return?

Rivera, M.A.C., R. 2010, Journal of Ecotourism Vol 9 side 85-103.

The objective of this study is to investigate the impact of price, value, satisfaction, quality, and performance on the ecotourists' loyalty towards the destination. By using an attitudinal approach, loyalty is conceptualised by analysing the post-purchase decision-making of the ecotourists (intent to return or recommend). The analysis is based on 454 on-site surveys collected from ecotourists visiting the Galapagos Islands in Ecuador. The results from path analysis indicate that ecotourists are not likely to return but are willing to recommend the destination. The findings suggest that the Galapagos Islands might be perceived as an iconic destination and considered a 'once in a lifetime experience'. The ecotourists' loyalty to the Galapagos is only reflected by their willingness to recommend. The article concludes with recommendations for tourism and government organisations regarding the management of word of mouth communications and first-time visitors in an attempt to improve sustainability. © 2010 Taylor & Francis..

Developing and testing an assessment framework to guide the sustainability of the marine wildlife tourism industry

Rodger, K.S., A.; Newsome, D.; Moore, S. A. 2011, Journal of Ecotourism Vol 10 side 149-164.

Growth in the marine wildlife tourism industry has been accompanied by concerns regarding its sustainability. This paper develops and tests a generic framework for assessing the sustainability of such ventures. The framework aims to guide the collection and collation of existing information and then use this information to identify current sustainability issues and information gaps. Development relied on a literature review and expert opinion. Testing was undertaken on whale shark tourism at Ningaloo Marine Park in north-western Australia. Evaluation of the framework suggests it has applicability (i.e. it is simple to use) and is useful, where usefulness refers to the ability to contribute to sustainable tourism management. Its reproducibility (i.e. providing consistent responses irrespective of the context) could only be determined through application to multiple case studies, a recommendation flowing from this study. The framework has at least three applications: improving existing marine wildlife tourism operations through reviewing their sustainability; developing an auditing mechanism as part of the licensing provisions for such tourism; and helping to determine the likely sustainability of proposed ventures. Overall, this framework provides an important opportunity to further develop the professionalism of the wildlife tourism sector through enhancing good practice. © 2011 Taylor & Francis..

Eco-tourism and luxury - The case of Al Maha, Dubai

Ryan, C.S., M. 2009, Journal of Sustainable Tourism Vol 17 side 287-301.

This paper examines the issues raised by Al Maha in the United Arab Emirates (UAE), a 27 km2 resort within the 225 km2 Dubai Desert Conservation Zone that offers luxurious accommodation in 40 suites, each with its own swimming pool. Its appeal is based on luxury, but it also offers insights into desert culture, heritage and the fauna and flora of the Arabian Desert. Much of that desert has become severely degraded by 200 years of camel grazing. Al Maha claims eco-tourism status through its desert regeneration programme. Is eco-tourism compatible with luxury? Given an official Emirati ecological perspective of desert greening, is desert reclamation consistent with wider UAE greening policies? Does ecologically motivated reclamation based on revenue from luxury-based tourism condone ecologically unaware tourist behavior?.

Innovative processes in a nature-based tourism case: The role of a tour-operator as the driver of innovation

RØnningen, M. , Scandinavian Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Vol 10 side 190-206.

This paper develops four propositions for the role of a tour-operator as the driver of innovations in a nature-based tourism case. This system features small-scale tourism firms that cooperate with a tour-operator who holds the position as the driving force. The propositions are analysed in a comparison with the empirical data from a case-study, which includes a tour-operator and 12 firms that offer nature-based products and services. The empirical findings indicate that the system works well for entrepreneurs still in the founding stage. Additionally, small-and medium-sized firms are quite satisfied with the tour-operator both as a transfer channel of competence and as a distributor of the supplier's services. The most professional firms are more critical of the outcome of the system. The system has, however, contributed to innovations and innovative capacity in general. To meet the skilled firms' demands for support for complex developmental processes, the system requires refinement. © 2010 Taylor & Francis..

Innovative processes in a nature-based tourism case: The role of a tour-operator as the driver of innovation

RØnningen, M. 2010, Scandinavian Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Vol 10 side 190-206.

This paper develops four propositions for the role of a tour-operator as the driver of innovations in a nature-based tourism case. This system features small-scale tourism firms that cooperate with a tour-operator who holds the position as the driving force. The propositions are analysed in a comparison with the empirical data from a case-study, which includes a tour-operator and 12 firms that offer nature-based products and services. The empirical findings indicate that the system works well for entrepreneurs still in the founding stage. Additionally, small-and medium-sized firms are quite satisfied with the tour-operator both as a transfer channel of competence and as a distributor of the supplier's services. The most professional firms are more critical of the outcome of the system. The system has, however, contributed to innovations and innovative capacity in general. To meet the skilled firms' demands for support for complex developmental processes, the system requires refinement. © 2010 Taylor & Francis..

Ecosystem Goods and Services from Swedish Coastal Habitats: Identification, Valuation, and Implications of Ecosystem Shifts

Rönnbäck, P.K., Nils; Pihl, Leif; Troell, Max; Söderqvist, Tore; Wennhage, Håkan 2007, Ambio Vol 36 side 534-44.

Coastal areas are exposed to a variety of threats due to high population densities and rapid economic development. How will this affect human welfare and our dependence on nature's capacity to provide ecosystem goods and services? This paper is original in evaluating this concern for major habitats (macroalgae, seagrasses, blue mussel beds, and unvegetated soft bottoms) in a temperate coastal setting. More than 40 categories of goods and services are classified into provisional, regulating, and cultural services. A wide variety of Swedish examples is described for each category, including accounts of economic values and the relative importance of different habitats. For example, distinguishing characteristics would be the exceptional importance of blue mussels for mitigation of eutrophication, sandy soft bottoms for recreational uses, and seagrasses and macroalgae for fisheries production and control of wave and current energy. Net changes in the provision of goods and services are evaluated for three cases of observed coastal ecosystem shifts: i) seagrass beds into unvegetated substrate; ii) unvegetated shallow soft bottoms into filamentous algal mat dominance; and iii) macroalgae into mussel beds on hard substrate. The results are discussed in a management context including accounts of biodiversity, interconnectedness of ecosystems, and potential of economic valuation. [PUBLICATION ABSTRACT].

The right of public access - opportunity or obstacle for nature tourism in Sweden?

Sandell, K.F., P. 2010, Scandinavian Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Vol 10 side 291-309.

Access to countryside areas - by means of personal ownership, designated areas or free access - is fundamental to outdoor recreation and nature tourism. This paper examines the role of the Right of Public Access for public participation in outdoor recreation and nature tourism supply in Sweden. This right can be seen both as a "free space" for recreation and a way of restricting land ownership. Our study shows that the Right of Public Access has strong support among the Swedish public in general and that designated areas for recreation are less important than public access for outdoor recreation participation. Among nature tourism entrepreneurs, the Right of Public Access is considered a success factor to a much higher extent than an obstacle. We identify a tension between the general public and nature tourism entrepreneurs with respect to traditional backcountry activities such as hiking, cross-country skiing and nature studies. One important challenge for the future will be to balance the demand for outdoor recreation with nature tourism opportunities for local economic development, and the paper concludes with a set of topics suggested for further discussion concerning the Right of Public Access in a dynamic world. © 2010 Taylor & Francis..

The realisation of tourism business opportunities adjacent to three national parks in southern Finland: Entrepreneurs and local decision-makers matter

Selby, A.P., L.; Huhtala, M. 2011, Forest Policy and Economics Vol 13 side 446-455.

The tourists and recreationists who are attracted to national parks create a basis for the development of nature-based tourism. The paper examines the attitudes of entrepreneurs and local decision-makers towards the development of tourism- and recreational service enterprises adjacent to three small, different-aged national parks in southern Finland: Linnansaari, Seitseminen and Repovesi.Four distinct groups of entrepreneurs could be formed on the basis of their attitudes to business. The most "advanced" group (adapters) were aware of both the demand for tourism services and their enterprises' business resources. The second group (adopters) were resource aware but had ideas for new business ventures rather than knowledge of demand. An "informed satisficer" group exhibited satisficing attitudes (where lifestyle aspirations are placed before business growth and development) but who were well informed and could be related to the adopters. The final group of entrepreneurs were simply satisficers.There was a greater proportion of adapter entrepreneurs adjacent to the oldest park, while entrepreneurs adjacent to the youngest park were predominantly satisficers or informed satisficers. The adopter class of entrepreneurs was most common in the two older national park areas.The majority of local decision-makers in the municipalities adjacent to the national parks preferred to develop tourism together with other sectors of the economy, although industrial alternatives were preferred. The decision-makers fell into three groups with respect to their preferred ways and means of developing tourism-based local enterprise: supporting existing enterprises, lowering the threshold for (new) enterprise, and developing the business infrastructure and funding arrangements. The greatest support for new enterprises was found in the Repovesi area, the district with the greatest proportion of satisficing entrepreneurs. Decision-makers preferred to support existing businesses adjacent to the oldest park, Linnansaari, with its greater proportion of adapter and adopter entrepreneurs and fewer satisficers.Opportunities for business will not be realised if local enterprises fail to perceive or respond to them, or if decision-makers fail to play an active role in encouraging tourism enterprises by means of support schemes or by developing the tourism infrastructure. Regional differences in the development of tourism-related services therefore depend on the attitudes of the key actors and their ability to encompass new economic activities and their associated institutions and discourses. © 2011..

Ecotourism: A consumption perspective

Sharpley, R. 2006, Journal of Ecotourism Vol 5 side .

Over the last quarter century, both the supply of and demand for ecotourism have grown significantly. At the same time, ecotourism has, as a particular form of tourism development, become increasingly recognised and legitimised as a means of achieving sustainable development in destination areas. Underpinning this widespread support for ecotourism is the assumption that tourists themselves are demanding more responsible, environmentally-appropriate forms of tourism yet, as this paper argues, there is little evidence to suggest that the growth in ecotourism has been demand led. Emphasising the key role of responsible behaviour on the part of tourists in the achievement of ecotourism, the paper highlights the characteristics of the ecotourist as compared to that of the mass tourist. These are then challenged by an exploration of the motivation, values and consumption practices of tourists which suggests that there is little distinction between the two. It concludes, therefore, that the ecotourist label has become increasingly irrelevant and that ecotourism development remains elusive. © 2006 R. Sharpley..

Tourism in maasai communities: A chance to improve livelihoods?

Snyder, K.A.S., E. B. 2011, Journal of Sustainable Tourism Vol 19 side 935-951.

This paper examines community-based tourism among Maasai communities in Tanzania in the context of national policies that have increasingly devolved control over natural resources to local communities. It focuses on economic revenues generated from tourism growth, their distribution to village communities and the constraints and conflicts resulting from attempts to control or access resources. Specific cases illustrate the political and economic complexity of devolved resource management and increased income generation at the community level. Ecotourism and community-based tourism are frequently claimed to be possible remedies for wildlife and natural resources conservation, but research indicates that implementation and revenue-sharing are far from straightforward. The paper uses case studies from communities in northern Tanzania, in Ngorongoro District (Loliondo and Lake Natron), Simanjiro District and Longido District (West Kilimanjaro) to explore issues between pastoralism, cultivation, hunting tourism, photographic tourism, conservation and governance systems. It discusses the implementation of the 1998 National Forestry and Wildlife Policies, the creation of Wildlife Management Areas and the 1999 Land Act and Village Land Act. Data and experiences were gathered over a three-year period working with the Sand County Foundation - Tanzania from 2006 to 2008. The paper contributes to the assessment and discussion of pro-poor tourism and poverty alleviation concepts. © 2011 Taylor & Francis..

Major sport events and long-term tourism impacts

Solberg, H.A.P., H. 2007, Journal of Sport Management Vol 21 side 213-234.

Hosting major sport events can cause positive shifts in tourism demand on a long-term basis, but the additional revenues might not counterbalance the investment costs that are required of the host destination. Whether positive shifts have actually occurred cannot be measured solely by counting the additional number of tourists. Increases might also come from positive shifts in supply. Megaevents require expensive investments in sport facilities, as well as in nonsport city-related infrastructure. These investments must fit into the city's long-term plan to make the event economically successful. The demand from tourists can subsidize the production of goods and services that are characterized by the advantages of economies of scale. This provides local residents with goods and services that they otherwise could have only consumed outside the region. Many of the benefits from sport events fall into the category of public goods. This represents a rationale for governmental funding if those who benefit are driven by free-rider incentives. The prospect of governmental funding, however, provides motives to exaggerate the socioeconomic value of the events. This complicates thejob of deciding which events to support and by how much. © 2007 Human Kinetics, Inc..

The curriculum development of special area tourist guidetraining course based on ministry of tourism and sport's tourist guide framework for tourism promotion in community

Somchan, S.S., W.; Silanoi, L. E. 2012, European Journal of Social Sciences Vol 27 side 481-487.

The tourism industry development in Thailand in important to economic development of the country.This is because it helps generate revenue and create employment opportunity. It aims to make Thailand be the center of Asian tourism. Thus, there in the occurrence of economic, social, cultural and environmental development support in Thailand. This results in balance and sustainability as well as the acceptance on quality and standard of Thai tourism and products. The objectives of their study were to: 1) develop quality and effective tour guide training program in a specific area in accordance with the tour guide standard of the Ministry of Tourism and Sports and 2) assess the outcome of the training program based on satisfaction with tour guides of tour business entrepreneurs and tourists. The sample group in this study consisted of 20 interested people in Baan Maekampong community, Huay kaew sub-district, Mae On district, Chiangmai province. They were obtained by purposive sampling. The following were used for data collection: compression test of the participants; operational skill assessment form; and satisfaction assessment form. Percentage, mean, and standard deviation were used for the statistical treatment. Results of the study revealed the following: 1. The tour guide training program quality was found at a high level (X̄=4.68), with the efficiency value of 90.63/89.75 2. The tour business entrepreneurs and tourists had a high level of satisfaction with the tour guides (X̄=4.32 and X̄= 4.35, respectively). © EuroJournals Publishing, Inc. 2012..

Perception of visitors' environmental impacts of ecotourism: A case study in the Valley of Butterflies protected area, Rhodes Island, Greece

Spanou, S.T., K.; Georgiadis, T. 2012, International Journal of Environmental Research Vol 6 side 245-258.

Visitor management is considered important for the sustainable development of protected areas as the presence of visitors may cause negative impacts on wildlife and vegetation. Within this framework, visitor impacts and perceptions are considered critical for decision-making and planning of future management regimes. This paper resumes opinions of visitors of the Valley of Butterflies in Rhodes Island, Greece, a very popular tourist destination in both national and international level, with more than 300,000 visitors per year. These opinions record perceptions on the environmental impacts of eco-tourism in the Valley and are necessary for the formulation and implementation of a visitor management strategy in the area. Descriptive statistics are estimated, as well as a probit model exploring factors affecting visitors' satisfaction. Results call for more information and education of the visitors about the Valley's conservation and ecological value, better facilities and services provided, site hardening and a better policy of prices..

Sturgeon viewing as nature tourism: To what extent do participants value their viewing experiences and the resources upon which they depend?

Stoll, J.R.D., R. B.; Stokes, M. E. 2009, Journal of Ecotourism Vol 8 side 254-268.

Fish viewing, a relatively new leisure activity, has nature tourism potential. We focused on sturgeon viewing in northeast Wisconsin to understand personal and experience characteristics, economic impacts, and sturgeon population values. The need for economic approaches, as used in this paper, was addressed for creating and supporting fish-viewing opportunities. In the spring of 2002, we intercepted viewers of a sturgeon spawning event, finding that they were similar to other nature tourism participants in terms of personal and experience characteristics. Most resided within 35 miles (56.33 km) of the viewing site and incurred expenditures only for auto fuel and restaurant meals. Viewers demonstrated a strong affinity for protecting the sturgeon population by supporting various management proposals for dealing with overharvest. Willingness-to-pay results help us to understand the use value of sturgeon viewing to participants as well as the underlying value of environmental resources that support viewing. This reduces the likelihood these resources will be converted to uses other than nature tourism. The estimated value to viewers of increasing regional sturgeon population levels by 10% exceeds $2 million over the resource asset lifetime. Overall, there is potential for other areas with watchable fish populations to attract additional economic impacts from both residents and non-residents. © 2009 Tavlor & Francis..

Grey Seal (halichoerus grypus) disturbance, ecotour ism and the Pembrokeshire marine code around Ramsey Island

Strong, P.M., S. R. 2010, Journal of Ecotourism Vol 9 side 117-132.

The world wide growth of ecotourism and the need for management of this growth is well documented. Ramsey Island in Pembrokeshire, UK, is examined here in the context of its population of Atlantic Grey Seals. The growth of ecotour boat activity around the island has lead to the development of a voluntary code of conduct for relevant stakeholders, defining limits to their behaviour around key species at the site, including grey seals. Semi-quantitative protocols were developed for recording disturbance and boat behaviour. Data are presented of seal disturbance behaviour at pupping beaches in response to numbers, distance and speed of boats. It is shown that there is a significant correlation between the intensity of disturbance as measured by a disturbing stimulus index (DSI) and disturbance level. Disturbance is measurable at levels of disturbing stimulus that currently would not breach the code recommendations. The findings are examined for their implications for the seal populations, compliance with the code of conduct and wider definitions of ecotourism. Recommendations for adjustment of the code in terms of boat distance and speed are made. We highlight the need for wider stakeholder discussion of whether such common pool resources can be sustainably managed by voluntary measures alone. © 2010 Taylor & Francis..

The economic promise of ecotourism for conservation

Stronza, A. 2007, Journal of Ecotourism Vol 6 side 210-230.

Many conservationists have promoted ecotourism as a strategy to protect natural resources while also meeting human needs. The purpose of this study was to analyse effects of ecotourism on natural resource use and livelihoods in an indigenous community of 80 families in Peru. Household interviews and participant observation were used to track social and economic changes in the community as it partnered with a private tour company to build and co-manage an ecotourism lodge. Effects of ecotourism were measured among the same households before and after the lodge opened, and between households with varying levels of participation. The hypothesis that economic benefits from ecotourism. would provide incentives for people to alter their livelihoods and change their uses of natural resources was tested. Results showed that ecotourism effects were ambiguous. Though employment led to a general decline in farming and hunting, new income enabled greater market consumption and expansion of production. Ecotourism also prompted sentiments not easily measured in economic analyses alone, including willingness to be involved in ecotourism work, despite relatively minimal economic returns. These findings are a reflection of the fact that ecotourism is not merely an economic 'tool' for conservation, but also the cause of new values and social relations. © 2007 A. Stronza..

Local People, Nature Conservation, and Tourism In Northeastern Finland

Toern, A.S., P.; Tolvanen, A.; Kauppila, P.; Raemet, J. 2008, Ecology and Society Vol 13 side .

The opinions and perceptions of local communities are central issues in the sustainable management of conservation areas. During 2002 and 2003, we studied the opinions of local people about nature conservation and the development of tourism to investigate whether these opinions were influenced by socioeconomic and demographic factors. Data were collected via a survey of local residents in six areas with different histories of land use, land ownership, conservation, and tourism development. We classified respondents by cluster analysis into three different groups according to their opinions about nature conservation and tourism development: (1) sympathetic to nature conservation, but quite neutral to tourism development (57.7%); (2) critical of nature conservation, but quite neutral to tourism development (30.5%); and (3) quite neutral to nature conservation, but critical of tourism development (11.8%). The most important factors for classification were residential area, age, level of education, primary occupation, indigenousness, frequency of contact with tourists through work, and effects of nature conservation on household economy. On the other hand, gender, level of income, land ownership, land donation for conservation, and income from tourism did not affect opinions concerning nature conservation and tourism development. Almost equal proportions of residents living in close proximity to conservation areas in Kuusamo had positive and negative opinions about nature conservation. Residents living in close proximity to conservation areas regarded conservation as something that might reduce employment and incomes. On the other hand, a greater proportion of residents living near tourist resorts and farther from conservation areas had positive opinions about and perceptions of nature conservation and tourism development. Based on the proportional division of all respondents into the three groups, there may be a coexistent relationship between nature conservation and tourism in our study area. When local stakeholders had a chance to commit to the planning process, they had positive perceptions of and opinions about nature conservation and tourism development in their residential areas. As a result, we concluded that negative opinions and a lack of commitment to the planning process may hinder local development..

The shark watching industry and its potential contribution to shark conservation

Topelko, K.N.D., P. 2005, Journal of Ecotourism Vol 4 side 108-128.

Over 100 million sharks are killed annually, putting enormous pressure on shark populations worldwide. Sharks have traditionally been considered a detriment to coastal tourism, but since the early 1990s, shifts in attitudes amongst divers have led to growth in the popularity of shark watching as a tourist activity. An estimated 500,000 divers a year find, photograph, feed, and swim with sharks, contributing millions of dollars to local and regional economies. This paper examines whether the economic value attached to shark watching can provide enough incentive to reduce consumptive exploitation levels. Although the economic value attached to shark watching has led to greater protection of sharks in some locations, analysis of available data suggests that incentives do not appear large enough to encourage a significant reduction in fishing pressure appropriate to the scale of threat facing sharks. Growth of the shark watching industry is constrained by a number of factors including perceived risks and benefits, declining shark populations, and government regulations. However, conservation strategies for sharks involving tourism can be envisaged, involving varying levels of non-consumptive and consumptive uses of sharks. Three kinds of interaction between the non-consumptive and consumptive use of sharks are outlined along with implications for shark conservation. © 2005 K.N. Topelko and P. Dearden..

Wildlife in the landscape: A top end perspective on destination-level wildlife and tourism management

Tremblay, P. 2008, Journal of Ecotourism Vol 7 side 179-196.

This paper claims that for wildlife-rich destinations such as the Northern Territory, the analytical focus of wildlife tourism research ought to shift from that of the tourist-animal encounter (in terms of personal motivations, impact on the animal welfare, etc.) towards that of habitat sustainability, multiple uses and larger-scale impacts on those habitats. This paper overviews selected findings emanating from wildlife tourism research related to visitor behaviour, marketing and economic activity undertaken around the wetlands of Northern Australia. In its final part, the paper suggests that the concept of 'landscape' constitutes an appropriate and under-utilised analytical device connecting in a workable scale the most relevant management issues associated with wildlife in multiple uses context, and that this allows to address jointly wildlife tourism marketing and planning considerations. © 2008 Taylor & Francis..

Ecosophy and tourism: Rethinking a mountain resort

Varley, P.M., D. 2011, Tourism Management Vol 32 side 902-911.

This paper explores how an ecosophically inspired tourism strategy could enhance a Scottish mountain recreational site threatened by climate change. Drawing on qualitative data, the paper focuses on three research questions concerning: the impact of current infrastructure and management strategies on tourist experiences; tourists' current interpretations and desires; and how the notion of an ecosophically informed tourist attraction might be realised in the light of these experiences, interpretations and desires. Conclusions indicate that the site is a long way from being an ecosophically inspired tourism resort which might foster an engagement with nature. Insights are provided as to how this might be achieved. Critical to the paper is a consideration of how the 'packaging' of tourist experiences militates against a meaningful personal connection with the mountain environment. (C) 2010 Published by Elsevier Ltd..

Research note: Seasonality in Sicilian tourism demand - An exploratory study

Volo, S. 2010, Tourism Economics Vol 16 side 1073-1080.

This paper addresses the need for an understanding of the evolution of international and domestic tourism in Sicily, in particular, the relationship between seasonality patterns and the development of the tourism sector. Annual tourist arrivals and overnight stays data were studied using univariate methods. It is concluded that Italian and international tourism demand differ significantly and that seasonality has been changing somewhat over time, creating a challenge to economic planners and marketers..

Strategic interactions among firms in tourist destinations

Wachsman, Y. 2006, Tourism Economics Vol 12 side 531-541.

This paper examines strategic interactions among hotels and airlines in tourist destinations. It shows that when there is a single tourist destination an airline and a hotel can increase their profits by simultaneously reducing their price. An agent can lead both firms to cooperate, thus increasing consumer surplus. When there are two competing destinations, firms in one of the destinations can benefit from cooperation; however, if firms in both destinations cooperate their joint profit will fall. Finally, if a single firm operates in both destinations, then it will increase the cost of travel, thus reducing consumer surplus..

Celestial ecotourism: New horizons in nature-based tourism

Weaver, D. 2011, Journal of Ecotourism Vol 10 side 38-45.

Celestial ecotourism is a neglected and hitherto unrecognised subsector that is dominated by the observation of nocturnal 'megacaela' (mega-skies). Observatories are the single largest component in terms of visitation, while aurora-viewing is the most articulated as a specialised commercial tourism (though not necessarily ecotourism) industry. Given the distance from featured attractions, sustainability is focused not on interaction but on context impacts and especially the need to preserve and restore the dark sky and unpolluted atmospheric conditions that foster charismatic megacaela. A logical emphasis on 'enhancement' sustainability is therefore apparent. Formal recognition and development of celestial ecotourism can be realised through the collaboration of ecotourism organisations with well-established and influential astronomy-related institutions pursuing relevant initiatives such as the creation of 'dark sky' reserves and the designation of 2009 as the International Year of Astronomy. © 2011 Taylor & Francis..

Prospects for innovation in tourism: Analyzing the innovation potential throughout the tourism value chain

Weiermair, K. 2006, Journal of Quality Assurance in Hospitality and Tourism Vol 6 side 59-72.

The tourism product is a composite one with its production, distribution and marketing being configured along a value chain involving many activities which are vertically, horizontally and diagonally related and integrated in varying degrees. Both orthodox and non-orthodox economists agree that innovations will only be undertaken when there is a sufficiently high innovation dividend which pays for the added cost and risk of innovation. Thus profitability appears to be the strongest explanatory variable both behind investment and innovation. Based on the notion that expected profitability from innovation can serve as the primary independent variable determining innovation behaviour across different economic sectors and/or sub branches of tourism, the paper sets out to establish the innovation potential for each of the tourism value creating economic activities from the provision of information to prospective customers (tourists) in the sending region to post-trip (after sale) services. In addition to the usual profit-generating forces of costs and revenues, such dimensions as firm size and economics of scale, proximity to relevant science and technology (know-how for innovation) through human capital and forms of organisation (e.g., network-organisation and/or clusters) will equally be taken into consideration. This analysis will therefore help in pinpointing those areas of the tourism value chain where innovations are most likely to occur. The paper concludes with the presentation of a model aimed at empirically testing innovation behaviour across the tourism value chain. Copyright © 2005 by The Haworth Press, Inc. All rights reserved..

An investigation into the determining factors of zoo visitor attendances in Uk zoos

Whitworth, A.W. 2012, PLoS ONE Vol 7 side .

The debate as to which animals are most beneficial to keep in zoos in terms of financial and conservative value is readily disputed; however, demographic factors have also been shown to relate to visitor numbers on an international level. The main aims of this research were: (1) To observe the distribution and location of zoos across the UK, (2) to develop a way of calculating zoo popularity in terms of the species kept within a collection and (3) to investigate the factors related to visitor numbers regarding admission costs, popularity of the collection in terms of the species kept and local demographic factors. Zoo visitor numbers were positively correlated with generated popularity ratings for zoos based on the species kept within a collection and admission prices (Pearson correlation: n = 34, r = 0.268, P = 0.126 and n = 34, r = -0.430, P = 0.011). Animal collections are aggregated around large cities and tourist regions, particularly coastal areas. No relationship between demographic variables and visitor numbers was found (Pearson correlation: n = 34, r = 0.268, P = 0.126), which suggests that the popularity of a zoo's collection relative to the types and numbers of species kept is more indicative of a collection's visitor numbers than its surrounding demographic figures. Zoos should incorporate generating high popularity scores as part of their collection planning strategies, to ensure that they thrive in the future, not only as tourist attractions but also as major conservation organizations. © 2012 Andrew William Whitworth..

Environmentalism and tourism preferences: A study of outdoor recreationists in Sweden

Wolf-Watz, D.S., K.; Fredman, P. 2011, Scandinavian Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Vol 11 side 190-204.

This article explores the linkages between nature-based recreation and preferences of individuals classified as "environmentalists". Following an overview of the literature, this paper reports on an empirical investigation of the nature-based recreation vs. environmentalism nexus using data from a national Swedish survey. Study findings show that environmentalists (environmentally-oriented individuals) behave differently in terms of their recreation-related preferences when compared to non-environmentalists. Environmentalists prefer outdoor activities with little or no impact on the environment as demonstrated, for example, by their avoidance of extractive (e.g. hunting) and motorized activities (e.g. snowmobiling). Despite these differences, the findings were inconsistent in that while environmentalists avoid some extractive and motorized activities, other similar activities were not avoided. Thus, the results question the use of simplistic recreational classification systems for the understanding of activity preferences and the authors call for more in-depth, qualitative research to further understand the nature-based recreation choices of environmentalists. Study findings also show that environmentally-oriented individuals do not hesitate to travel away from residential areas for participation in nature-based recreation. Therefore, this paper helps us to understand which nature-based activities environmentalists demand and can provide a more informed basis for tourism planning and management. © 2011 Taylor & Francis..

Investigation and analysis on situation of ecotourism development in protected areas of China

Zhong, L.W., J. 2011, Shengtai Xuebao/ Acta Ecologica Sinica Vol 31 side 7450-7457.

With investigation in the twenty-seven provinces, autonomous regions and municipalities across the mainland of China, this study aims at learning about the situation of ecotourism development in different types of protected areas including nature reserves, natural scenic areas, forest parks, wetland parks, water parks, and geological parks, and providing some theoretical basis for ecotourism policy making and resources and environment protection. Investigation results show that ecotourism has been developed widely in most protected areas in China. The characteristics of present situation are as follows: (1) Chinese ecotourism market including the number of visitors and tourism revenue has reached a certain scale, and tourism activities are becoming more diversified, especially with some ecotourism special activities springing up. (2) Environment interpretation has gained much attention in most protected areas who covered almost all kinds of interpretation ways, did environment interpretation system planning, combined local culture and nature with it, but the content are not professionally enough, even with some obvious errors. (3) The infrastructure construction has been completed in general according to the survey, however, ecological compatibility is the important issue most protected areas has been ignored. A variety of protected areas we investigated are inclined to construct infrastructure in a way of mass tourism. (4) Although the environment situation is good in wide scope, the ecotourism environment protection measures are used little which will cause a fatal result to the natural environment, so that the environment management system are need be organized in a term as short as we can. (5) The garbage was thought as the most serious pollution in more than half of the respondent scenic spots. Besides, air pollution and natural attraction damage has existed in more than 20% respondent scenic spots. Ecotourism monitoring and supervision are very necessary for scenic spots manager to control these pollution phenomena. However, we found the environment monitoring system and impact assessment for construction projects has been rarely mentioned in the planning or the policy rather than the implement. (6) We are glad to see that residents in local community have gained considerable benefits from participation in ecotourism, which results in the positive attitudes of 95 percent residents to ecotourism development and is helpful to it. But the community participation in some extent is still at a lower-level stage. More residents participate in ecotourism in some ways, such as selling ecotourism commodity, working for the protected areas, offering guide service, but excluding decision making. (7) As to the tourism supervision in protected areas, corresponding regulation has generally formulated while some special rules such as contingency plan, fire prevention organization and security supervision need to be put forward in the future. And the quantity and quality of employees, together with ecotourism guides specialization, cannot meet the demand of ecotourism development. (8) At the same time, lacking of funds, as well as inefficient management system, is the prominent and general barrier to ecotourism development in China. Although there are many problems we, stakeholders, must focus on and solve, China still has a tremendous potential in ecotourism because of the abundant natural resources, a huge market, and more and more attention from all kinds of stakeholders..

The Environmental Values of Potential Ecotourists: A Segmentation Study

Zografos, C.A., David 2007, Journal of Sustainable Tourism Vol 15 side 44-44.

Although sustainable tourism that contributes to biodiversity protection seems to be important anywhere in the planet, ecotourism is rarely examined as a rural development opportunity outside the context of 'mega-diverse' countries, i.e. those 12 countries that between them harbour 60-70% of the total biodiversity of the planet. Collecting data from 20 sites around Scotland, this study considered the potential of ecotourism development in this country through a market segmentation study based on the environmental values of potential ecotourists. With the assistance of the New Ecological Paradigm (Dunlap et al., 2000) four segments with a range of anthropocentric and ecocentric values were identified. Results indicate that demand for ecotourism is not confined to ecocentric segments and that biodiversity protection is prioritised by all segments as the most salient ecotourism attribute, although each segment attaches a different intensity to its importance. The study identifies visitor interest for a Scottish ecotourism experience that emphasises biodiversity conservation and low use of exhaustible resources, while providing facilities for wildlife watching, hill walking and relaxing. Although segment attitudes towards ecotourism do not differ significantly, environmental values can be used to segment potential ecotourists as they allow the formation of visitor groups with different trip characteristics. [PUBLICATION ABSTRACT].