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Locally produced food in restaurants: Are the customers willing to pay a premium and why?

Alfnes, F.S., A. 2010, International Journal of Revenue Management Vol 4 side 238-258.

Restaurant owners are always looking for new ways to increase profits. In this paper, we investigate the attitudes and perceptions of restaurant customers to locally produced food and their willingness to pay a premium. This study employs a field experiment conducted in a restaurant located on a Midwest US university campus. When ordinary customers entered the restaurant, we gave them the choice of two set menus that we had systematically varied with respect to price and origin. Then, while waiting for their order, we asked them to complete a short questionnaire about attitudes and perceptions. We find that a price signal must support local food labelling to obtain an increased interest from customers. When local food was marginally more expensive than other food, more customers chose local food than if it was sold at the same price. Copyright © 2010 Inderscience Enterprises Ltd..

Consumer involvement and psychological antecedents on eco-friendly destinations: Willingness to pay more

Amendah, E.P., J. 2008, Journal of Hospitality and Leisure Marketing Vol 17 side 262-283.

This study investigates first, the influence of self-esteem on the consumer's involvement with eco-friendly product seeking. Second, it seeks to demonstrate the extent to which the consumer's involvement in eco-friendly travel destinations, their demand for variation in eco-friendly tourist destinations, and their desire for unique eco-friendly travel destinations influences their willingness to spend more on these types of products. Results indicate that self-esteem plays an important role in consumer involvement in eco-friendly travel destinations. Environmental involvement and uniqueness seeking have a positive relationship with willingness to pay more; however, the relationship between product involvement and variety seeking and willingness to pay more demonstrates otherwise. It appears that a consumer education on eco-friendly travel destination needs to be strengthened in order to create changes in consumption patterns. © 2008 by The Haworth Press..

The recreational cost of coral bleaching - A stated and revealed preference study of international tourists

Andersson, J.E.C. 2007, Ecological Economics Vol 62 side 704-715.

The welfare loss of de facto ecological damage at an internationally visited recreational site was estimated by comparing stated preference information from before and after the actual change in quality occurred. Estimates for access to the site and for access to coral reefs before and after coral bleaching and mortality hit the Western Indian Ocean in 1998 were derived using the cost of the trip as a payment vehicle. The model assumed indivisibility in consumption for the visit to these long distance specialised sites. It was found that despite losses in utility due to bleaching the tourists still visited the sites. © 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved..

Econometric models for discrete choice analysis of travel and tourism demand

Baltas, G. 2006, Journal of Travel and Tourism Marketing Vol 21 side 25-40.

Discrete choice analysis is theory-driven and has proved valuable in empirical applications. It is an effective way to determine preferences and assess the tradeoffs that individuals make in considering various product and services bundles. Discrete choice analysis deals with qualitative choice behaviour on discrete choice situations. In travel and tourism research, random utility models have received considerable academic and industry attention and become a well-established framework. These models relate to discrete choice behaviour and permit structural analyses of demand at the level of individual decision. This approach exploits the theoretical infrastructure of utility maximization and heterogeneity in decision-makers and choice alternatives. Applied to travel research, discrete choice analysis refers to travel mode choices that differ in their attributes such as cost, comfort, safety, and travel time. This paper focuses on the application of analysis of travel and tourism demand. © by The Haworth Press, Inc. All rights reserved..

Selective marketing to environmentally concerned wine consumers: A case for location, gender and age

Barber, N.T., D. C.; Strick, S. 2010, Journal of Consumer Marketing Vol 27 side 64-75.

Purpose: The purpose of this study is to segment the respondents using their location, gender and age as well as their statements about environmental involvement, knowledge and attitudes as the basis for selective marketing classification. Design/methodology/approach: A URL link was sent to the 2,000 members of the Society of Wine Educators. Multivariate analysis of variance was used to analyze the main and interaction effects of the independent categorical variables on multiple dependent interval variables. Findings: The results offer insights when considering selective marketing. First, a distinct, measurable, substantial market segment for ecological products was identified, namely: the Millennial male with strong environmental attitudes. Second, residence has an influence on the strength of respondents' environmental attitudes. Research limitations/implications: Although the sample represents most of the states, members of the Society of Wine Educators are individuals that are highly involved with wine as a product and thus may not represent the entire population of the USA. Practical implications: Consumers bring to the purchasing decision varying types of attitudes and beliefs. Understanding how environmental knowledge and attitude, when consumers are segmented by location, gender and age, can be used in selective marketing in the service industry to aid in designing promotional plans; whether the product of choice is a vacation resort, hotel or tourism destination such as a winery. Originality/value: The contribution of the research is to broaden the understanding of environmental concerns and the role location, gender, and age play for marketers when considering the selective marketing concepts discussed by Inskeep and Dolnicar and Leisch. © Emerald Group Publishing Limited..

Research note: Scheduling trips during the slack season - an aspect of the economics of seasonal tourism

Batabyal, A.A. 2009, Tourism Economics Vol 15 side 261-266.

The trip-scheduling problem faced by firms providing transport to tourists visiting a specific location in the slack season has received scant theoretical attention in the tourism literature. The author therefore conducts a stochastic analysis of the problem of trip scheduling during the slack season. He describes first a general model that accounts for the common features of sightseeing trips to city attractions and to locations such as fjords and lakes. Second, he determines the long-run fraction of time for which the transport-providing firm is unable to satisfy the demand for trips. Third, he ascertains the long-run fraction of demand that is lost to the transport-providing firm. Finally, he generalizes the analysis and considers the case in which a key, exogenously given variable is random and not constant..

Economic Analysis for Ecosystem Service Assessments

Bateman, I.J.M., G. M.; Fezzi, C.; Atkinson, G.; Turner, K. 2011, Environmental & Resource Economics Vol 48 side 177-218.

The paper seeks to contribute to the expanding literature on ecosystem service assessment by considering its integration with economic analyses of such services. Focussing upon analyses for future orientated policy and decision making, we initially consider a single period during which ecological stocks are maintained at sustainable levels. The flow of ecosystems services and their contribution to welfare bearing goods is considered and methods for valuing resultant benefits are reviewed and illustrated via a case study of land use change. We then broaden our time horizon to discuss the treatment of future costs and benefits. Finally we relax our sustainability assumption and consider economic approaches to the incorporation of depleting ecological assets with a particular focus upon stocks which exhibit thresholds below which restoration is compromised..

A strategic analysis of volunteer tourism organisations

Benson, A.M.H., S. 2011, Service Industries Journal Vol 31 side 405-424.

A significant number of tourists now wish to combine their concern for the degradation of the environment with their vacation activities. This concern, together with the need for educated people to work on ecological and scientific projects, has led to the emergence of a small but growing number of UK organisations that bring together paying volunteers and research projects to support research into sustainable development. There is little academic literature on the organisations that provide this travel service. The article examines key dynamics of the research volunteer market examined with data from questionnaire responses, interviews and observation. The article uses Porter's five forces model and the Strategic Position and Action Evaluation (SPACE) framework to strategically analyse this sector. The findings suggest that none of the five forces are strong enough to depress profits and therefore, the balance sheets should be healthy; however, this is not always the case. Consequently, the SPACE factors that appear related to the financial viability of the firms are explored. In conclusion, firms have the ability to make a substantial contribution to environmental sustainability and their survival is important; however, the risks of operating in this sector are relatively high. © 2011 Taylor & Francis..

A general equilibrium analysis of climate change impacts on tourism

Berrittella, M.B., A.; Roson, R.; Tol, R. S. J. 2006, Tourism Management Vol 27 side 913-924.

This paper studies the economic implications of climate-change-induced variations in tourism demand, using a world CGE model. The model is first re-calibrated at some future years, obtaining hypothetical benchmark equilibria, which are subsequently perturbed by shocks, simulating the effects of climate change. We portray the impact of climate change on tourism by means of two sets of shocks, occurring simultaneously. The first set of shocks translate predicted variations in tourist flows into changes of consumption preferences for domestically produced goods. The second set reallocate income across world regions, simulating the effect of higher or lower tourists' expenditure. Our analysis highlights that variations in tourist flows will affect regional economies in a way that is directly related to the sign and magnitude of flow variations. At a global scale, climate change will ultimately lead to a welfare loss, unevenly spread across regions. © 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved..

Tourism as a determinant of long-run economic growth

Brida, J.G.R., W. A. 2010, Journal of Policy Research in Tourism, Leisure and Events Vol 2 side 14-28.

This study investigates the relationships between tourism and economic growth. It does this by examining the South Tyrolean economy using the Johansen cointegration test to obtain a cointegrated vector among the relevant variables and the Granger causality test to investigate causality. Annual GDP data from 1980 to 2006, the number of foreign visitors to South Tyrol, and the relative prices (RP) between South Tyrol and Germany (the source of more than 60% of foreign tourists) are used. The Johansen cointegration test shows that the estimated longrun elasticity of the real GDP with respect to tourism demand is 0.29 and the Granger causality test shows that causality goes unidirectionally from tourists and RP to real GDP. Therefore, the tourism-led growth hypothesis is supported empirically in the case of South Tyrol. In other words, in South Tyrol, tourism reinforces long-run economic growth but economic growth does not reinforce tourism. Impulse response analysis shows that a shock to the number of tourists and RP produces a continuous and sustained positive effect. © 2010 Taylor & Francis..

The economic effects of advertising on tourism demand

Brida, J.G.S., S. F. 2008, Economics Bulletin Vol 6 side .

In this paper we introduce a dynamic model to study the macroeconomic effects of advertising activities in tourism. The agents of the model are a representative consumer which optimize their intertemporal welfare, a representative firm that produces tourism services, an authority which organizes tourism advertising abroad and foreigner tourists. We show that in the short run, an increase in marketing expenditures raises foreigner's tourism demand, leads to an increase in the relative price of tourism services, makes tourism production more attractive and stimulates capital investment. As time passes, the capital stock increases and tourism production expands, leading to a falling price of tourism. In the long run, the increase in marketing activities results in a higher rate of tourism production, a higher capital stock, a lower relative price of tourism services and a reduction of net foreign assets..

The economic impact of tourism across regions and nations of the UK

Buccellato, T.W., D.; White, S.; Ritchie, F.; Begum, S. 2010, Economic and Labour Market Review Vol 4 side 44-50.

This article reports on work undertaken by the Tourism Intelligence Unit (TIU)1, based within Office for National Statistics ONS, to measure the economic impact of tourism at the regional level. The methodologies and data analysis presented look at the demand and supply components of tourism with the aim of providing a reliable measure of the regional Gross Value Added GVA of tourism. Two measures of GVA have been identified as international best practise2. GVA of the tourismrelated industries GVATI provides a robust measure of the total supplyside value of those industries which meet the demand of tourists as well as of residents. However, Tourism Direct Gross Value Added TDGVA is recommended as the principle indicator of the regional value of tourism as it moderates the value TDGVA in the light of the proportion of consumption made by tourists as distinct from consumption made by residents in those industries..

Recreational demand for farm commonage in Ireland: A contingent valuation assessment

Buckley, C.v.R., T. M.; Hynes, S. 2009, Land Use Policy Vol 26 side 846-854.

This paper measures willingness to pay (WTP) for public access and trail improvements on commonage farmland for recreational walking in upland and lowland areas of Connemara region in the West of Ireland using the contingent valuation method (CVM). Common to both upland and lowland commonage sites was the much higher ranking for infrastructural features by those WTP for scenario implementation compared to those preferring the status quo. Results for those expressing a positive WTP reveal a median willingness to pay (MWTP) for formal access with improved trail infrastructure of €12.22 for the lowlands compared with €9.08 for the uplands. © 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved..

Exploring visitor acceptability for hardening trails to sustain visitation and minimise impacts

Cahill, K.L.M., J. L.; Lawson, S. R. 2008, Journal of Sustainable Tourism Vol 16 side 232-245.

Protected natural area managers are challenged to provide high quality recreation opportunities and ensure the protection of resources from impacts associated with visitation. Development of visitor use facilities and application of site hardening practices are commonly applied tools for achieving these competing management objectives. This study applies stated choice analysis to examine visitor opinions on acceptability when they are asked to make tradeoffs among competing social, resource and management attributes in backcountry and frontcountry settings of Acadia National Park. This study demonstrates that asking visitors about recreation setting attributes uni-dimensionally, a common approach, can yield less informative responses. Analyses that considered direct tradeoffs revealed more divergent opinions on acceptability for setting attributes than a unidimensional approach. Findings revealed that visitors to an accessible and popular attraction feature supported trail development options to protect resource conditions with unrestricted visitor access. In contrast, visitors to a remote undeveloped island expressed stronger support for no or limited trail development and access restrictions to protect resource conditions. © 2008 K. L. Cahill et al..

The marine environment as tourism-recreational resource. An economic assessment of the demand

Castellini, A.D., L.; Ragazzoni, A. 2009, New Medit Vol 8 side 41-47.

The socio-economic characteristics of the countries facing the Mediterranean sea along with the shared and extremely migratory fish stocks that live and breed in these areas, require a joint and mutually agreed action able to guarantee a future for the fishing industry and safeguard the marine resources. To achieve this, the EU Commission suggested certain specific interventions for the Mediterranean in addition to the common measures established for all the European areas. Thus, amongst the principal stock protection measures, the Commission encouraged the establishment of new protected and safeguarded fishing zones as well as restocking areas. This work is based on these considerations and its aim is to indicate certain reference points regarding the estimation of the total economic value (TEV) to apply to marine protected areas (MPA) in which tourist activities have been allowed and developed. Thus, an investigation was conducted to ascertain the effective importance that the users ascribe to biological protected areas (BPA) and an attempt was made to estimate a possible economic value of the tourist demand for such places as recreational destinations. In particular, the study conducts in-depth research into the possible use values of biological protected areas (BPA) by applying the Travel Cost Method so as to ascribe an economic value to the place in relation to the tourist-recreational facilities provided. The assessment model was applied to a specific research area, of artificial origin, situated offshore from the coast of Ravenna..

The destination competitiveness of Kinmen's tourism industry: Exploring the interrelationships between tourist perceptions, service performance, customer satisfaction and sustainable tourism

Chen, C.M.C., S. H.; Lee, H. T. 2011, Journal of Sustainable Tourism Vol 19 side 247-264.

Based upon an empirical investigation, the study draws upon the responses of 1623 tourists in Kinmen to explore the notion of destination competitiveness and how it is related to customer satisfaction with tourists' perceptions, service performance and destination competitiveness. It also considers the question of destination competitiveness and sustainable tourism development. Variables such as tourists' pre-visit perceptions, post-visit satisfaction toward destination attractions and resources, willingness to recommend and revisit, and competitiveness with foreign destinations are tested. The results of the study suggest that there is no correlation between tourists' overall satisfaction and destination competitiveness. Implications of the study outcome illustrate that a destination's unique tourism characteristics can be the most important variables for destination competitiveness. In Kinmen's case, battlefields, historic relics, beautiful scenery and travel security gave it a competitive edge, despite high prices. In addition, developing the destination's brand image was found to be critical for tourism marketers and authorities in the context of increasingly global tourism competition. © 2011 Taylor & Francis..

Investment in tourism market and reputation

Claude, D.Z., G. 2009, Journal of Public Economic Theory Vol 11 side 797-817.

Recent contributions in tourism economics acknowledge that the tourism market is imperfectly competitive and, as such, should be studied from an industrial organization perspective. This approach seems especially relevant to shed lights on one issue of importance for tourism destinations: how to achieve sustainable tourism development? Indeed, it has long been empirically observed that tourism development follows a life cycle. After a period of growth, the development of touristic (mountain and seaside) resorts usually stagnate and decline. At least part of the explanation for this pattern is to be found in the evolution of destinations' reputation over time. The present paper investigates the incentives for adjacent tourist resorts to invest in quality in order to maintain their collective reputation. We propose a dynamic model where (1) several adjacent tourist resorts select their tourist flows and (2) invest in order to remedy to the detrimental effects tourism flows have on local environmental amenities. The overall tourist presence and the sum of investments made by tourist resorts jointly define the quality of the touristic product offered by this tourism destination. We assume that this quality cannot be observed by consumers at the time of purchase. However, in this situation of imperfect information, consumers form expectations about the quality of the touristic product offered at any point of time. These expectations define the collective reputation of tourist resorts, determine the position of the tourist resorts' demand curve and constitute the state variable in the differential game. We characterize and compare equilibrium strategies under a noncooperative and investments coordination regimes. © 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc..

Inbound tourism and long-run economic growth

Cortes-Jimenez, I.P., M. 2010, Current Issues in Tourism Vol 13 side 61-74.

There is an upsurge of literature investigating the relationship between inbound tourism expansion and economic growth with special emphasis on developing countries. Some countries - such as Spain and Italy - can be taken as examples of demonstrating such a successful trajectory. This paper provides an empirical investigation of the evolution of the Spanish and Italian economies and their respective tourism sectors from the 1950s and 1960s, respectively. This research is theoretically based on the literature on demand-based growth and the methodology adopted is that of the integration, cointegration and multivariate Granger causality tests. The results show the influencing role of inbound tourism for both economies. © 2010 Taylor & Francis..

World Heritage List: does it make sense?

Frey, B.S.S., L. 2011, International Journal of Cultural Policy Vol 17 side 555-573.

The UNESCO World Heritage List contains the 900 most treasured sites of humanity's culture and landscapes. This List is beneficial where heritage sites are undetected, disregarded by national decision-makers, not commercially exploitable, and where national financial resources, political control, and technical knowledge for conservation are inadequate. Alternatives such as market and national conservation lists are more beneficial where the cultural and natural sites are already popular, markets work well, and where inclusion in the List does not raise the destruction potential by excessive tourism, and in times of war, or by terrorists..

Commodity taxation in the presence of tourists

Gooroochurn, N.S., T. 2008, Tourism Economics Vol 14 side 839-856.

This paper investigates the welfare effect of commodity taxation on the presence of tourists. Higher demand from tourists increases tax revenue, and hence welfare, but on the other hand, the reduction in their consumer surplus is not accounted for in domestic welfare. Hence, the presence of tourists causes a lower deadweight cost of taxation. Two main scenarios are investigated. In the first, the authors raise the tax rate on commodities with a tourism demand component. It is found that the welfare level can increase if tourism demand is high enough and/or tourism demand is more inelastic than domestic demand. In the second scenario, tourism demand is increased for commodities which are already taxed and it is found that welfare always increases. Both scenarios are investigated under the fixed and the variable producer price assumption and, in the latter case, a high price elasticity of supply tends to generate positive welfare change..

Do expected income changes bias contingent valuation willingness-to-pay figures?

Hackl, F.P., G. J. 2006, Quarterly Journal of International Agriculture Vol 45 side 421-435.

This paper shows that expectations about future income changes may bias respondents' answers in contingent valuation (CV) studies. A practicable ex post approach to control for these biases is proposed: based on the interviewees' individual assessment of the personal future income situation, expected income changes can be econometrically corrected for in CV. This is illustrated by CV data on an Austrian national park, the creation of which causes expected income losses and gains in the forestry and tourism sector..

Who Pays More for a Cultural Festival, Tourists or Locals? A Certainty Analysis of a Contingent Valuation Application

Herrero, L.C.S., J. A.; Bedate, A.; Del Barrio, M. J. , International Journal of Tourism Research Vol side .

Cultural festivals are one of the most common representations of diversification strategies in tourist demand in cities boasting abundant historical heritage. The goal of this work is to estimate the economic value allocated by tourists and local residents to a classical music festival in the emblematic city of Santiago de Compostela (Spain). The contingent valuation method is used to ascertain whether there are any significant differences between the value declared and to study the sensitivity of the findings in a range of socio-economic variables. Finally, the problems of hypothetical bias are explored, as are the possible implications for management of pricing policies. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd..

Remote tourism and forest management: A spatial hedonic analysis

Hunt, L.M.B., P.; Englin, J.; Haider, W. 2005, Ecological Economics Vol 53 side 101-113.

This analysis examines the impacts of forest harvesting and other angling site attributes on anglers' willingness-to-pay for trips to Ontario's fly-in fishing sites. A hedonic model that relates the prices charged by fly-in remote tourism enterprises to the attributes at and surrounding fishing lakes forms the empirical application. Important attributes examined are forest harvesting, forest fires, angling quality, and camp improvements. The hedonic model employed a spatial simultaneous autoregressive model that corrects for spatial lagged dependency in the data. This correction was found to have a significant impact on the marginal prices of the attributes examined. The analysis shows that forest harvesting has a negative albeit weak relationship on the prices charged by tourism operators for remote fishing trips. © 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved..

Expenditure and ecotourism: Predictors of expenditure for whale shark tour participants

Jones, T.W., D.; Catlin, J.; Norman, B. 2009, Journal of Ecotourism Vol 8 side 32-50.

Whale shark tourism is an icon industry in Western Australia and a prominent example of successful ecotourism. In 2006, whale shark tour participants spent $6.0 million in the Ningaloo Coast region of Western Australia and added between $2.4 million and $4.6 million to the regional economy in direct expenditure. However, to date no research has been conducted on the predictors of whale shark tour participants' expenditure. In this article, we assess the importance of visitor expenditure for ecotourism, assess the predictors of the expenditure of whale shark tour participants and discuss how this information can contribute towards ecotourism goals. The data analysed here were collected through a survey distributed to participants between April and June 2006. We assess a range of variables for their relationship to individual expenditure per trip and determine that the duration of stay, household income, age, staying in a hotel, trip motivation and being from North America or Southeast Asia positively correlate with individual expenditure per trip. Group size and originating from Germany or the United Kingdom and Ireland negatively correlate with expenditure. In addition to identifying future steps, we also discuss the relevance of our finding that more motivated participants have a higher expenditure for ecotourism. © 2009 Taylor & Francis..

Regional growth and Beaver Lake: A study of recreation visitors

Kemper, N.P.P., J. S.; Miller, W. P. 2008, Tourism Economics Vol 14 side 409-426.

Beaver Lake is the primary water supply for a rapidly growing region in Northwest Arkansas. The lake is a popular tourist destination and land surrounding it is highly sought after for development. Some voice concern that development could affect lake water quality negatively and threaten future regional growth. The results of the study presented here suggest the spending of 2.4 million annual visitors to Beaver Lake generates 600 jobs, US$12.9 million in income and US$20.9 million in value added to the region. However, this economic activity is not likely to offset the costs to the region of maintaining the water supply and the water quality of the lake..

The role of family decision makers in festival tourism

Kim, S.S.C., S.; Agrusa, J.; Wang, K. C.; Kim, Y. , International Journal of Hospitality Management Vol 29 side 308-318.

This study assessed the role of family decision makers in participating in a festival according to five stages of festival participation. A survey process was conducted using two sampling groups: the sample for families with children and the sample for families without children. According to the results of the study, a number of marketing implications were generated. For example, the husband was revealed to more actively join transportation-related activities including driving, deciding travel routes, automobile safety checks. and filling up with gasoline. The wife was a strong decision maker in selecting restaurants or menus in the festival tourism management process. Likewise, the role of the wife is very significant, from suggesting the festival participation at the first stage to determining a revisit to the festival at the last stage. However, the children or joint decision-making patterns were not distinctive as they are said to be in other tourism literature. Findings of the study are expected to offer valuable insights for all festival stakeholders including festival vendors, local government, local residents, and festival organizers. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved..

Preferences and willingness to pay for bird-watching tour and interpretive services using a choice experiment

Lee, C.K.L., J. H.; Kim, T. K.; Mjelde, J. W. 2010, Journal of Sustainable Tourism Vol 18 side 695-708.

This study identifies the activity and experience preferences of bird-watchers and es- timates their willingness to pay (WTP) for bird-watching-related ecotourism tour and interpretive services using choice experiment methods. An on site survey was con- ducted of tourists attending the Cheonsuman International Birdwatching Fair, South Korea's most popular bird-watching festival. Results indicate that respondents are more likely to prefer intermediate length bird-watching courses, interpretive opportunities and services, seeing special birds, and lower admission fees. WTP for bird-watching interpretive services is approximately $10.14 per person per visit, whereas WTP for additional diversity in bird species is $12.64. Courses with bus tours are preferred to courses with no bus tours, but long tours are not preferred. WTP is $14.24 for an in- termediate length tour and $8.09 for a longer tour compared with the no bus tour. It appears that as the levels of service attributes associated with the bird-watching eco- tourism resources increase, the respondents are more satisfied and willing to pay more for bird-watching tours than if the levels of service attributes are lower. © 2010 Taylor & Francis..

Economic welfare, the environment and the tourist product life cycle

León, C.J.H., J. M.; González, M. 2007, Tourism Economics Vol 13 side 583-601.

The tourist product life cycle model predicts different stages of the evolution of the industry in a particular region, focusing on the number of tourists visiting over a period of time. In this paper, we consider the role of environmental degradation and the decline in natural capital as determinants of the tourist product life cycle and the implications for economic welfare. It is shown that the optimal trajectory of tourist consumption increases when the stock of natural capital is high and environmental attributes are preserved, and tend to decline when the tourist product has reached a low level of natural capital, which is defined as the stock of natural resources giving value to the tourist product. The main implication is that the evolution of demand as represented by the number of tourists does not need to match economic welfare. In addition, the evolution of the tourist product life cycle converges to a stationary solution characterized by positive levels of tourist consumption and natural capital. The results have implications for the optimal management of the number of tourists and the environmental attributes of tourist destinations. Optimal taxation can play a role in financing the maintenance of the optimal level of natural capital in the stationary state..

Using choice experiments to evaluate destination attributes: The case of snowmobilers and cross-country skiers

Lindberg, K.F., P. 2005, Tourism Vol 53 side 127-140.

Winter recreation is an important part of the tourism industry for many destinations in Scandinavia, North America, and other regions, with snowmobiling and cross-country skiing being popular winter activities. The snowmobiling market and its economic impact have been evaluated, but assessment of destination attributes and their effect on snowmobile market share is lacking. Cross-country skiing assessments of any type are almost entirely lacking. Knowledge of these markets and the determinants of consumer choice helps destination development agencies identify, refine, and capitalize on their position within the market. This paper utilizes visitor survey choice experiments (CE) to evaluate how destination attributes affect decisions regarding where to engage in snowmobiling or cross-countiy skiing. Results are used to assess the importance of attributes and to estimate how market share varies as destination attributes change. In the process, this analysis evaluates which attributes and attribute levels have the greatest impact on market share, and whether responsiveness to attributes varies across the two groups (snowmobilers and skiers). In addition, demographic and attitudinal variables are modeled to identify subgroups within the snowmobiling market. Lastly, the skier results are used to illustrate a CE approach to measuring the welfare effects of snowmobiler disturbance and the gains to skiers from reducing that disturbance..

Transport for tourism: Can public transport encourage a modal shift in the day visitor market?

Lumsdon, L.M.D., P.; Rhoden, S. 2006, Journal of Sustainable Tourism Vol 14 side 139-156.

Two major passenger transport executives and the Countryside Agency launched the Wayfarer project in the UK in 1980. The principal aim was to investigate ways of encouraging visitor access to the countryside by public transport. One initiative stemming from the project was the introduction of a multi-modal ticket in 1983, known as Wayfarer, to encourage a day excursion market from urban centres to the countryside, and in particular to one of the busiest natural parks in the world, the Peak District National Park. Over 20 years later the Wayfarer ticket is still being marketed to encourage sustainable travel for leisure. This paper's purpose is to profile Wayfarer users, to explain key reasons for ticket choice, and give insights into the use of public transport for recreational travel. The study also attempts to evaluate the extent to which modal shift can be encouraged. The results indicate that this type of multi-modal passenger transport ticket, marketed for recreational and tourism purposes, has the potential to offer a more sustainable modal choice to residents and visitors. © 2006 L. Lumsdon et al..

Environmental-economic measures of tourism yield

Lundie, S.D., L.; Forsyth, P. 2007, Journal of Sustainable Tourism Vol 15 side 503-519.

A focus on 'tourism yield' is an important aspect of business strategies to maintain and enhance destination competitiveness. Ideally the notion of 'tourism yield' should include tourism's environmental and social value to a destination in addition to economic value. This paper attempts to develop measures of economic and environmental yield. It first describes how measures of economic yield may be estimated and presents results for Australian inbound tourism. Environmental yield estimates are then developed for the same visitor markets. A hybrid approach is employed, combining input-output analysis with an onsite audit for tourist accommodation. The relevant environmental impacts include those on energy use, water use, greenhouse gas emissions and ecological footprint. The findings reveal that, for some inbound markets, simultaneous achievement of relatively high economic and environmental goals is not possible, and that economic-environmental tradeoffs may be necessary. The results have implications for all destinations which use notions of 'tourism yield' to inform their marketing strategies. © 2007 S. Lundie et al..

Towards a new framework for accounting and modelling the regional and local impacts of tourism

Madsen, B.Z., J. 2010, Economic Systems Research Vol 22 side 313-340.

We identify four different approaches to estimate the regional and local impacts of tourism based on national accounts and economic modelling: The supply approach, the simple demand or commodity approach, the simple satellite account approach involving tourism satellite accounts based on social accounting, and the extended satellite account approach. Based upon a general interregional quantity model for tourism, empirical evidence on the impacts of tourism on 98 Danish municipalities is presented. We conclude that the four approaches give very different results, both in absolute and in relative terms. © 2010 The International Input-Output Association..

Taxing cruise tourism: Alaska's head tax on cruise ship passengers

Mak, J. 2008, Tourism Economics Vol 14 side 599-614.

In 2006, Alaskans voted to pass an initiative, Ballot Measure 2, which, among several provisions, levied a head tax on every visiting cruise ship passenger per voyage. Money collected from the head tax was to be appropriated by the legislature to municipalities to defray their cost of providing public services to cruise tourism. This paper develops a simple model which treats the cruise ship passenger tax as a lump-sum tax and analyses how this tourist tax might influence consumer behaviour and the likely effects on the tourist industry, state and local governments and the residents of Alaska. The analytical framework can be adapted easily for use in other destinations where lawmakers contemplate the merits of levying head taxes on tourists..

How elastic are sea, sand and sun? Dynamic panel estimates of the demand for tourism

Maloney, W.F.M.R., G. V. 2005, Applied Economics Letters Vol 12 side 277-280.

This paper employs recent advances in dynamic panel data analysis to study the determinants of tourist flows to the Caribbean. Consistent with the theoretical literature, the results are found to be highly sensitive to estimation technique. The preferred GMM system suggests income and price elasticities substantially above those found in the literature. © 2005 Taylor & Francis Group Ltd..

Macroeconomic effects of a vat reduction in the italian hotels & restaurants industry

Manente, M.Z., M. 2010, Economic Systems Research Vol 22 side 407-425.

The paper tests the effects on the Italian economy of a fiscal measure aimed at lowering the VAT rate from 10% to 5% in the Italian 'Hotels and Restaurants' sector. The analysis focuses first on the impacts in terms of tourism consumption, investments of the sector and public budget. Thereafter, by means of a multiregional- multisectoral input-output model, the increase on the total employment levels by sector and by region has been estimated. Based on a tourism demand elasticity of -1.06 and a supply elasticity of 2.0, tourist nights would increase by a maximum of 3.15% and total tourism consumption by 4.4%, while gross fixed investments by the sector would increase by 2.17%. As for the budget constraint, we have calculated the final 'cost' of the fiscal measure for the Treasury. Concerning the macroeconomic effects in terms of employment, the fiscal measure would produce a total increase of almost 100,000 jobs (expressed in fulltime equivalents). © 2010 The International Input-Output Association..

Profile of business and leisure travelers on low cost carriers in Europe

Martínez-Garcia, E.F.-R., B.; Coenders, G. , Journal of Air Transport Management Vol side .

Low cost carriers are increasingly attracting a market segment traditionally associated with legacy airlines, the business traveler. Little, however, is known regarding the characteristics of this new demand. This study analyzes the differences between business and leisure travelers flying by low cost airlines. To do this, we surveyed a sample of tourists in Catalonia, one of Europe's most popular tourist destinations. While some differential characteristics emerge between the traveler types, still more similarities are found. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved..

Length of stay for low-cost tourism

Martínez-Garcia, E.R., J. M. 2008, Tourism Management Vol 29 side 1064-1075.

Awareness of tourists' length of stay and the factors which determine that is an essential element for good planning and management at tourist destinations. This article analyses to what extent the personal characteristics of the low-cost tourist, those of the trip and stay and those of the destination itself are significant in determining the duration of a trip. To this end an econometric duration model is estimated. The results obtained show that the effect of time restrictions seem to be relevant for explaining the observed differences in length of stay, as well as the effects of the tourist's spending capacity, prices and the differences between urban and "sun and sand" destinations. Furthermore, the model also allows us to analyse changes in the likelihood of the stay being ended at a specific point in time (hazard) associated with changes in the explanatory variables, and to obtain predicted survival times for different groups of tourists. © 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved..

Temporal demand determinants tourism: An approximation a model of microeconomic duration

Martínez-Garcia, E.R., J. M. 2009, Determinantes de la demanda temporal de turismo: Una aproximación microeconómica con un modelo de duración Vol 33 side 271-302.

Within a microeconomic framework of tourism demand, we analyze the determinants of length of stay of those tourists who travel abroad with low cost airlines. A duration or hazard econometric model has been fitted to data from a sample of tourists that travelled with low cost airlines flying from Girona airport. The results confirm, amongst other things, the importance of costs and time restriction on the length of stay. Tourist profiles, constructed according to length of stay and relevant explanatory variables can also be obtained; two of them are show as illustrative cases..

Holiday home owners, a route to sustainable tourism development? An economic analysis of tourist expenditure data

Mottiar, Z. 2006, Journal of Sustainable Tourism Vol 14 side 582-599.

Although sustainable tourism comprises economic, social and environmental aspects, economic analysis has been less evident in the literature. This paper takes an economic perspective to evaluate the contribution of holiday home owners to a local economy. Tourism destinations which are at the mature stages of the tourism lifecycle wish to maximise revenue from tourism while minimising costs such as overcrowding. A prime objective has to be to attract the more economically valuable tourists. In this paper an analysis of North Wexford in Ireland poses questions such as: How does the holiday home owners' expenditure in the local area compare to that of traditional tourists? Do they purchase different types of goods? What levels of local expenditure do holiday home owners engage in for the upkeep or development of their second properties? What are the implications of these findings? The results show that there are clear economic benefits for an area that people deem attractive enough to build or purchase a holiday home in. This type of tourist has a high annual spend relative to other tourists and much of this expenditure seems to be concentrated in the local area. These findings need to be incorporated into the broader debate regarding the advantages and disadvantages of holiday home owners and the posibility of them comprising a route to sustainable development for local tourist areas. © 2006 Z. Mottiar..

Relationship between tourism and economic growth

Nissan, E.G., M. A.; Méndez, M. T. 2011, Service Industries Journal Vol 31 side 1567-1572.

The main goal of this paper is to determine whether tourism activity stimulates economic growth. The study indicates the main variables affecting tourism activity and shows a feedback effect between income and tourism. Findings indicate that tourism not only supplies necessary funds to finance firms' activities, but also stimulates the local firms' productivity and creates new job opportunities that increase the country's welfare. Variables that have important effects on tourism activity, such as entrepreneurship and prices have also been considered. © 2011 Taylor & Francis..

A technical analysis approach to tourism demand forecasting

Petropoulos, C.N., K.; Patelis, A.; Assimakopoulos, V. 2005, Applied Economics Letters Vol 12 side 327-333.

Tourism demand forecasts are of great economic value both for the public and private sector. Any information concerning the future evolution of tourism flows, is of great importance to hoteliers, tour operators and other industries concerned with tourism or transportation, in order to adjust their policy and corporate finance. In the last few decades, numerous researchers have studied international tourism demand and a wide range of the available forecasting techniques have been tested. Major focus has been given to econometric studies that involve the use of least squares regression to estimate the quantitative relationship between tourism demand and its determinants. However, econometric models usually fail to outperform simple time series extrapolative models. This article introduces a new approach to tourism demand forecasting via incorporating technical analysis techniques. The proposed model is evaluated versus a range of classic univariate time series methods in terms of forecasting and directional accuracy. © 2005 Taylor & Francis Group Ltd..

Europoly Money: How Do Tourists Convert Foreign Currencies to Make Spending Decisions?

Raghubir, P.M., V. G.; Santana, S. , Journal of Retailing Vol side .

This paper examines how tourists convert foreign currencies to make spending decisions. Six studies demonstrate how sequential (Study 1) and simultaneous (Study 2) exposure to nominally different (but economically identical) prices, and the manner in which tourists perform currency conversions (Studies 3-5) influence price perceptions and purchase intentions. Study 6 shows the effects using macroeconomic spending behavior from 1993 to 2008 spanning the introduction of the Euro. The general discussion concludes with a model of how numerical inputs are combined to make judgments as a function of the number of inputs available and their ease of use. © 2011 New York University..

Willingness to pay entrance fees to natural attractions: An Icelandic case study

Reynisdottir, M.S., H. Y.; Agrusa, J. 2008, Tourism Management Vol 29 side 1076-1083.

Introducing entrance fees to natural attractions may help counteract the threat of inadequate public funds for site maintenance and management. The primary objective of this study is to measure visitors' willingness to pay such fees in Iceland, where no such measurement has previously been undertaken. A questionnaire survey based on the contingent valuation method was carried out at two major natural attractions in Iceland: Gullfoss waterfall and Skaftafell National Park. Over 92% of the 252 respondents were willing to pay an entrance fee. Mean amounts and population consumer surplus estimates per season were ISK1 333 and ISK 41 million at Gullfoss and ISK 508 and ISK 34 million at Skaftafell, respectively. Modest fees would not significantly decrease the demand for these attractions. Slight differences were found in the willingness to pay according to income, attitude towards environmental protection, number of previous visits, history of paying entrance fees, country of residence, age and education. Implications of the empirical study for policy makers and site managers are provided. (C) 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved..

Must-take cards: Merchant discounts and avoided costs

Rochet, J.C.T., J. 2011, Journal of the European Economic Association Vol 9 side 462-495.

Antitrust authorities often argue that merchants cannot reasonably turn down payment cards and therefore must accept excessively high merchant discounts. The paper attempts to shed light on this must-take cards view from two angles. First, the paper gives some operational content to the notion of must-take card through the avoided-cost test or tourist test: would the merchant want to refuse a card payment when a non-repeat customer with enough cash in her pocket is about to pay at the cash register? It analyzes its relevance as an indicator of excessive interchange fees. Second, it identifies four key sources of potential social biases in the payment card systems' determination of interchange fees and compares the industry and social optima both in the short term (fixed number of issuers) and the long term (in which issuer offerings and entry respond to profitability). © 2011 by the European Economic Association..

The impacts of international tourism demand on economic growth of small economies dependent on tourism

Schubert, S.F.B., J. G.; Risso, W. A. 2011, Tourism Management Vol 32 side 377-385.

This paper studies the impacts on economic growth of a small tourism-driven economy caused by an increase in the growth rate of international tourism demand. We present a formal model and empirical evidence. The ingredients of the dynamic model are a large population of intertemporally optimizing agents and an AK technology representing tourism production. The model shows that an increase in the growth of tourism demand leads to transitional dynamics with gradually increasing economic growth and increasing terms of trade. In our empirical application, an econometric methodology is applied to annual data of Antigua and Barbuda from 1970 to 2008. We perform a cointegration analysis to look for the existence of a long-run relationship among variables of economic growth, international tourism earnings and the real exchange rate. The exercise confirms the theoretical findings. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd..

International tourism demand and the business cycle

Smeral, E. 2012, Annals of Tourism Research Vol 39 side 379-400.

The focus of this study is on presenting causes and hypotheses for the existence of asymmetric income and price effects on tourism demand across business cycles. The theoretical assumptions were tested by analyzing tourism import demand in different source markets, drawing on econometric models that provide for the magnitudes of price and income effects either to vary depending on the phase of the business cycle or to remain stable across the business cycles. The major outcome of this study is that the general assumption in most of the tourism demand studies-i.e. that the income effects are symmetric-should not be expected to be automatically true for every source market. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd..

Fishing rights and supply of salmon angling tourism in Mid-Norway

Stensland, S. 2010, Scandinavian Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Vol 10 side 207-230.

A limited number of studies have focused on angling from a tourism perspective. The objective of this study was to investigate the objectives of landowners regarding their rights for salmon fishing, including landowners' supply of fishing services to the tourism market. The data originate from a questionnaire survey of 712 landowners in four rivers in the Trondheim Fjord region of Norway. The heterogeneity of the landowner group with differences in fishing right and property characteristics, as well as landowner characteristics seemed to explain some of the large variation in objective scores about use of the fishing right as indicated by the standard regression models. This study also indicated that how landowners use their fishing rights affected yield per kg of salmon caught, with landowners selling angling as packages with a restricted number of rods and with additional services on average having the highest mean net income per kg of salmon with 991 NOK. The results tell policy makers that successful cooperation in salmon fishing management and conservation of salmon stocks must be based on an understanding of the multiple objectives of the heterogeneous landowner group. © 2010 Taylor & Francis..

The rise, fall and renaissance of the resort: A simple economic model

Swann, G.M.P. 2010, Tourism Economics Vol 16 side 45-62.

There is a large volume of literature on the life cycle of the tourist resort. However, there is scope to develop this body of work by harnessing recent contributions in the economics literature on cycles or waves in demand. This paper presents a simple economic model of the rise, fall and possible renaissance of the resort. The analysis is based on the work of Cowan et al (1997, 2004), which models waves in consumption when there are interdependencies between consumers. Of particular interest here are the conditions under which we may observe a 'travelling wave', where a new resort starts off as a distinctive and select venue but then, as it grows in popularity, starts to go downmarket. After the resort has been unfashionable for some time and unattractive associations are far enough in the past, a new sort of pioneer (accompanied by a new wave of investment) can start off a second wave of popularity. The model presented was motivated by reference to the history of the city of Bath, which enjoyed a long period as a very popular resort and then fell into decline in the 19th century, but enjoyed a renaissance in the mid-20th century to become one of the most popular medium-sized towns in England..

Economic impacts of cultural events on local economies: An input-output analysis of the Kaustinen Folk Music Festival

Tohmo, T. 2005, Tourism Economics Vol 11 side 431-451.

This paper examines the economic impacts of Finland's Kaustinen Folk Music Festival. The impacts are calculated on output, demand and wages, employment and on national and regional taxes. The results indicate, first, that the effects of the festival on output are about €1.7 million. Kaustinen can also be seen as a good investment for the local municipality, as regional tax revenues increased by about €65,600 in the year studied, while the annual subsidy was €40,365. From the perspective of the Keski-Pohjanmaa region as a whole, the Kaustinen Folk Music Festival has a substantial impact on regional incomes through subsidies (about one-fifth of the costs of the festival is offset by subsidies from the Arts Council of Finland (Ilmonen et al, 1995) and the direct and indirect effects of consumption by festival visitors in different economic sectors. The impact on employment in the region is low (27 employees). The mobilization of voluntary labour, not measured in this study, is, however, considerable. Although the input-output method is laborious and statistically complex, it is very suitable for measuring the impact of tourism or cultural events on local economies. The method provides results that can be used in framing regional policy..

Hotel tax receipts and the 'Midnight in the Garden of Good and Evil': A time series intervention seasonal ARIMA model with time-varying variance

Toma, M.M., R.; Payne, J. E. 2009, Applied Economics Letters Vol 16 side 653-656.

This study examines the influence of the release of a best-selling book and movie, Midnight in the Garden of Good and Evil, set in Savannah, Georgia on local tourism demand. Tourism demand is proxied by revenue collected from an ad valorem hotel room tax in Savannah. The hotel tax revenue series is first modelled as a seasonal ARIMA model with three intervention variables: an index variable to capture the influence of the best-selling book and two dummy variables to represent the impact of the 9/11 terrorist attacks and hurricane Floyd. The presence of time-varying variance in the residuals is captured through an ARCH model. The results indicate that the book index had a positive and significant impact on hotel tax receipts, while the dummy variables for the terrorist attacks of 9/11 and hurricane Floyd were each negative with only the dummy variable for hurricane Floyd marginally significant..

Impact of agriculture on rural tourism: A hedonic pricing approach

Vanslembrouck, I.V.H., G.; Van Meensel, J. 2005, Journal of Agricultural Economics Vol 56 side 17-30.

The increased awareness of farmers' role in the maintenance of rural landscapes may contribute to a reassessment of the place of agriculture in society. In this paper, we look at how this role, in relation to landscape, is valued by rural tourists or, in other words, whether it is a response to a societal demand, as is argued by defenders of multifunctional agriculture. The results from a hedonic pricing analysis indicate that landscape features associated with agricultural activities (such as meadows and grazing cattle) positively influence the demand for rural tourism and have a positive impact on the price tourists are willing to pay for rural accommodation. This is also illustrated by the adverse impact of perceived negative externalities from agricultural production (such as intensive maize cultivation) on this price. © Agricultural Economics Society..

An investigation into the determining factors of zoo visitor attendances in Uk zoos

Whitworth, A.W. 2012, PLoS ONE Vol 7 side .

The debate as to which animals are most beneficial to keep in zoos in terms of financial and conservative value is readily disputed; however, demographic factors have also been shown to relate to visitor numbers on an international level. The main aims of this research were: (1) To observe the distribution and location of zoos across the UK, (2) to develop a way of calculating zoo popularity in terms of the species kept within a collection and (3) to investigate the factors related to visitor numbers regarding admission costs, popularity of the collection in terms of the species kept and local demographic factors. Zoo visitor numbers were positively correlated with generated popularity ratings for zoos based on the species kept within a collection and admission prices (Pearson correlation: n = 34, r = 0.268, P = 0.126 and n = 34, r = -0.430, P = 0.011). Animal collections are aggregated around large cities and tourist regions, particularly coastal areas. No relationship between demographic variables and visitor numbers was found (Pearson correlation: n = 34, r = 0.268, P = 0.126), which suggests that the popularity of a zoo's collection relative to the types and numbers of species kept is more indicative of a collection's visitor numbers than its surrounding demographic figures. Zoos should incorporate generating high popularity scores as part of their collection planning strategies, to ensure that they thrive in the future, not only as tourist attractions but also as major conservation organizations. © 2012 Andrew William Whitworth..

Collecting and Using Visitor Spending Data

Wilton, J.J.N., Norma Polovitz 2006, Journal of Travel Research Vol 45 side 17-17.

Visitor spending is a necessary component of economic-impact analysis, but detailed expenditure categories rarely are reported and used as tools for marketing and policy decisions. This article shows that spending by visitors attracted to Montana's natural resources accounted for 76% of traveler spending in the state. Average daily spending by visitors primarily attracted to fishing was the highest per-group per-trip expenditure ($1,641.26) and the longest length of stay (9.3 nights), with fishing outfitters and guides receiving the largest share of these visitors' dollars. Visitors attracted to Glacier National Park had the highest total contribution of dollars to the state. Implications of the study suggest that conservation of Montana's natural resources is paramount to a thriving tourism industry. Policies and regulations related to waterways, mountain view sheds, and open space need to reflect the important economic contribution of what attracts visitors to the state. [PUBLICATION ABSTRACT].

Economic analysis of tourism consumption dynamics. A Time-varying Parameter Demand System Approach

Wu, D.C.L., G.; Song, H. , Annals of Tourism Research Vol side .

This study considers the dynamics of the consumption behaviour of tourists from an economic perspective. The evolution of various demand elasticities is explored using a time-varying parameter almost ideal demand system model. The top four source markets for tourism in Hong Kong are examined, and three major tourist expenditure categories, including shopping, hotel accommodation and meals outside hotels, are investigated for each market. Elasticity analysis reveals different consumption trends and patterns across the source markets. The findings will serve as a useful reference for Hong Kong tourism-related industries and the government in their efforts to enhance the competitiveness of Hong Kong as an international tourism destination. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved..

The bounds-test approach for co-integration between international tourist arrivals, per capita income and cost of living: The case of All Cyprus

Yorucu, V.M., O. 2011, Applied Economics Letters Vol 18 side 1327-1331.

Tourism is a major income earner for Cyprus, but the market is a divided destination. Since 1974 the country has been divided into the North and the South, each competing with one another in the same tourism market. For the first time, this empirical study investigates an island-wide tourism demand. Extending earlier work (Yorucu, 2001), All Cyprus tourism time series data covering 1980-2006 has been used in this article to estimate demand applying standard bounds-test approach for co-integration within a disaggregated framework. The results confirm a special long-run equilibrium relationship between Turkey/North Cyprus and Greece/South Cyprus. Thus, per capita tourist arrivals from Greece to South Cyprus and those from Turkey to North Cyprus are statistically significant with cost of living and per capita income variables. So long as incomes per capita increase in Turkey and Greece, a reunited All Cyprus will gain as one destination as Turkish and Greek citizens will become mobile island-wide. © 2011 Taylor & Francis..

A taxonomy of hosts visiting friends and relatives

Young, C.A.C., D. L.; Baloglu, S. 2007, Annals of Tourism Research Vol 34 side 497-516.

Research on the visiting friends and relatives market, which has increased over the last decade, has focused on the demand side (tourists), ignoring the supply side (hosts). This study fills an apparent gap in the literature by analyzing local residents' characteristics and behaviors. A taxonomy of hosts was developed to better understand their role and involvement in tourism. Random-dial, structured telephone interviews were undertaken to examine their patterns and behavior. Four types were revealed via cluster analysis based on hosting frequency and word-of-mouth behavior. Residents were further profiled using behavioral and demographic variables. Additionally, the economic impact of hosts' "tourist-like" spending was calculated. © 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved..