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Energy use and leisure consumption in Norway: An analysis and reduction strategy

Aall, C. 2011, Journal of Sustainable Tourism Vol 19 side 729-745.

This article discusses the environmental impacts of leisure activities. Calculations are presented for the time-use, money expenditure and energy use involved in leisure services and goods consumed by Norwegians in 2001. The paper draws upon a two-year project financed by the Research Council of Norway. Leisure consumption represented around 23% of the total energy use within private and public consumption in Norway. The energy intensity of leisure consumption, measured in energy use per amount of expenditure, was 20% lower than that of everyday household consumption but 380% times higher than that of public consumption. Surveys show that around half of Norwegian leisure time is spent at home, with considerable use of electronic goods, but that the major energy users are holidays, outdoor recreation and second homes. Growing mobility in leisure patterns is a dominating problem. Leisure consumption is growing rapidly and energy-intensive forms of leisure consumption are growing fastest. A 10-point strategy for reducing the environmental impacts of leisure consumption is presented, including strategies for changing leisure production, changing patterns of leisure consumption, changing the volume of leisure consumption and utilising leisure as an educational arena. © 2011 Taylor & Francis..

UNESCO Geoparks initiative

Bailey, H.H., W. 2009, GSA Today Vol 19 side 25.

The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) Global Geoparks Network aims to jointly have both the local people and the land managers to work together. The Geopark itself is a regional partnership of people and managers who promote the Earth heritage by utilizing both the education and sustainable tourism. Geopark is not literally a park but rather a union of people who create a unique destination identity that is based on Earth heritage. On the other hand, the Geoparks initiative is a different form of program in that the people many exchange their ideas who has a common goal in order to make a difference. In addition, this initiative is also involved on the protection of geological sites, natural areas, and cultural traditions..

Local tourism governance: A comparison of three network approaches

Beaumont, N.D., D. 2010, Journal of Sustainable Tourism Vol 18 side .

There is an absence of knowledge about the advantages and disadvantages of different local tourism governance approaches. Consequently, experimenting with different modes of local tourism governance is increasingly common. This paper addresses this knowledge gap by investigating the ways in which three different local tourism governance networks operate, and the effects of this governance on local tourism policy. The three local tourism networks examined are a council-led network governance structure, a participant-led community network governance structure and a local tourism organisation (LTO)-led industry network governance structure. The study found that these governance arrangements were underpinned by four key trade-offs and that these tended to shape the effectiveness of local tourism governance. The significance of this paper is that it opens up discussion about local tourism governance, highlights the advantages and disadvantages of different approaches and reflects on their relevance to sustainable tourism management. The findings can inform local councils interested in improving their local organisation of tourism, and spur further research. © 2010 Taylor & Francis..

A social-ecological approach to voluntary environmental initiatives: The case of nature-based tourism

Blanco, E. 2011, Policy Sciences Vol 44 side 35-52.

This paper addresses the role of voluntary environmental initiatives by the tourism industry to alleviate social dilemmas for the management of natural resources. The objective is to explore whether previous findings on the determinants of voluntary action in the management of common-pool resources (CPR) also apply to a sector, such as tourism, where non-extractive uses are dominant. The paper applies the social-ecological systems framework recently developed by Ostrom (Science, 325, 419-422, 2009) to analyze qualitative data from meta-analyses of successful voluntary environmental initiatives in tourism. Results show that the determinants of voluntary action in tourism are partially consistent with previous research on CPR, finding relevant the presence of leadership, norms of behavior among members of the voluntary initiatives, shared mental modes, salience of the resource for users, and substantial productivity of the resource system in the likelihood of self-organization. However, other variables that have been shown to be relevant in non-tourism CPR situations are not supported by this analysis, such as: most variables regarding the ecological system (its size, predictability, and the mobility of its derived resource units) as well as the number of users and supportive collective choice rules that enable users to craft and enforce some of their own rules. The implications of this partial mismatch in findings are not straightforward. The paper presents a set of research questions that open a path for further research. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC..

Fascinating Remoteness: The Dilemma of Hiking Tourism Development in Peripheral Mountain Areas Results of a Case Study in Southern Switzerland

Boller, F.H., M.; Conedera, M.; Elsasser, H.; Krebs, P. 2010, Mountain Research and Development Vol 30 side 320-331.

Remote areas devoid of roads and tourist transport infrastructure are increasingly appreciated in urbanized countries because they provide the opportunity to experience tranquillity, solitude, and pristine nature, which are recreational qualities that contrast with the stress of urban life. In Switzerland as a whole, larger roadless areas are rare, but they are still common in southern Switzerland as the "inventory of remote areas," which was established in this study, shows. A crucial dilemma for tourism development in remote areas is the paradoxical situation that the installation of tourism facilities and services can reduce the experiential qualities of these areas that attracted the tourists in the first place. This study seeks possible solutions for this dilemma by analyzing the attitudes of 230 visitors to 2 remote areas of southern Switzerland with a questionnaire-based survey. The case study areas represented one "moderately remote" area (Val Cama) and one "extremely remote" area (Val di Lodrino). The respondents were divided into 3 different visitor types along the "purism scale": purists, neutralists, and nonpurists. The percentage of purists was 45% in the "extremely remote" Val di Lodrino versus 24% in the "moderately remote" Val Cama. There was a consensus among all visitor types that the existing traditional cultural landscape and the path network should be preserved and that the construction of new road or cable-car access should be avoided. The development of new huts, paths, and services was found to be controversial. A major policy recommendation of the study is to gear tourism supply in remote areas to the needs of different visitor types by carefully assessing the impact of measures on remoteness and concentrating new facilities and services in the more accessible parts of a remote area, while preserving more remote conditions in the other zones..

Geoheritage and geoconservation - History, definition, scope and scale

Brocx, M.S., V. 2007, Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia Vol 90 side 53-87.

Geoheritage and geoconservation are concerned with the preservation of Earth Science features, and are important endeavours globally, as reflected in various international and intra-national bodies set up for conservation, with agreements, conventions, and inter-governmental initiatives. Historically, the United Kingdom is considered the birthplace of the discipline of Geology, and with its history and its leadership role in the preservation of geological sites, it is also the birthplace of geoheritage and geoconservation; both endeavours are integral components of education, tourism, planning and environmental management. In addition, in Pan-Europe, and globally under the World Heritage Convention, inventory-based geoconservation has been adopted as a whole-of-government approach. Australia presents an internationally contrasting, and a nationally internally diverse history in the arena of geoconservation. Western Australia, for instance, generally lags the world trend in practicing geoconservation, while Tasmania is a leader in the arena of geoconservation. For this reason, an objective of this paper is to raise the consciousness of Western Australian scientists, planners, and land managers, who are outside the field of geology, to the issues of geoheritage and geoconservation. Geoheritage encompasses global, national, state-wide, and local features of geology, at all scales that are intrinsically important sites or culturally important sites offering information or insights into the evolution of the Earth; or into the history of science, or that can be used for research, teaching, or reference. As geoheritage focuses on features that are geological, the scope and scale of what constitutes Geology, such as its igneous, metamorphic, sedimentary, stratigraphic, structural, geochemical, palaeontologic, geomorphic, pedologic, and hydrologic attributes, needs to be defined - from there, all that is encompassed by this discipline will be involved in geoheritage, and potentially, geoconservation. Geoconservation is the preservation of Earth Science features for purposes of heritage, science, or education. While globally, and to some extent in Australia, there has been identification of sites of geoheritage importance, and development of inventory-based selection of such sites, currently there are no definitions and no framework that addresses the full breadth and scope of what constitutes geoheritage, nor adequate treatment of the matter of scale, both of which are important to identifying sites of significance. Geoconservation should encompass all important geological features from the regional scale to the individual crystal. The various scales useful for dealing with sites of geoheritage significance include regional, large, medium, small, fine, and very fine scales. While significance is noted in many works dealing with geoconservation, to date the various levels of significance, from international to local, have not been adequately addressed or defined. The level of importance attributed to a given feature of geoheritage significance is related to how frequent or common is the feature within a scale of reference, and/or how important is the feature to a given culture. Five levels of significance are recognised in this paper: International, National, State-wide, Regional, and Local. © Royal Society of Western Australia 2007..

Heritage tourism and inherited institutional structures: The case of Falun Great Copper Mountain

Cassel, S.H.P., A. 2011, Scandinavian Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Vol 11 side 54-75.

This study focuses on the local resource that a mine represents and analyses the role of stakeholders and institutions during the development of heritage tourism. The paper aims to examine the role of stakeholders and their interpretation of heritage in the management process in the case of the Great Copper Mountain World Heritage Site in Falun, Sweden. The paper focuses on local strategies for developing heritage tourism in which concepts of institutions and path dependency in terms of inherited social and economic structures can shed light on more general local development processes. The empirical material consists of interviews, official documents and marketing material. While the goal of many of the interviewed stakeholders is to promote tourism development, a common view is often lacking in terms of what the tourist product is or how the role of the World Heritage Site can be interpreted with regard to tourism activities. There are also sceptical voices regarding the development of activities and attractions devoted to entertainment without educational purposes. The marketing texts focus on the landscape and the 17th century system of production, which further supports the view that the preservation of the remnants from this period will be prioritised in contemporary management policies. The present paper interprets this concept as an indication of the strength of the institutions and ideas that promote the importance of education and historical facts related to mining communicated by former mining-related stakeholders as well as by heritage organisations, including UNESCO. © 2011 Taylor & Francis..

Fairness of prices, user fee policy and willingness to pay among visitors to a national forest

Chung, J.Y.K., G. T.; Petrick, J. F.; Absher, J. D. 2011, Tourism Management Vol 32 side 1038-1046.

Imposing user fees in Nature-Based Tourism (NBT) contexts has been a controversial issue. Based on the notions of justice and fairness, this study extended previous work examining the relationship between attitudes toward user fees and spending support. In a proposed structural model of price fairness, fee spending support, and willingness to pay (WTP), this paper identified the antecedents of WTP user fees, and empirically examined to what extent the data fit the model. Furthermore, the moderating role of place attachment in the model was investigated by using multiple-group structural equation modeling. Subjects (n = 562) were recreational tourists to a forest area in the southeast U.S. Results revealed that spending support partially played a mediating role in the relationship between perceived price fairness and WTP user fees. A multiple-group invariance test also demonstrated that while the degree of place identity moderated the effect of price fairness on spending support, the degree of place dependence did not influence the relationships among the antecedents of WTP. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd..

Agriculture as an upholder of cultural heritage? Conceptualizations and value judgements - A Norwegian perspective in international context

Daugstad, K.R., K.; Skar, B. 2006, Journal of Rural Studies Vol 22 side 67-81.

The multifunctional role of agriculture as a producer of collective goods in addition to food and fibre, has been stressed within the context of negotiations on the liberalization of the world market for food (WTO) and in general in discussions concerning restructuring of the agricultural sector. One of these collective goods, cultural heritage, is connected to agricultural practice and covers objects, sites and areas influenced by agricultural activity, as well as experience based knowledge of work, resource utilization and management. Agriculture is seen both as a threat to and a caretaker of cultural heritage. This double role is recognized in Norway, although the responsibility of the agricultural sector as a caretaker of cultural heritage is stressed. This article investigates the connection between agriculture and cultural heritage as expressed by public and private actors who define the policy agenda, namely the cultural heritage or environmental, the agricultural and tourism sectors. This is done by analysing explicit and implicit value judgements in central concepts like "cultural heritage", "active agriculture" and "added value". The Norwegian case is compared to the international context. The analysis shows that within a Nordic context active farming and cultural heritage is positively linked and the farmer is seen as a major caretaker, while in documents from dominant international actors cultural heritage is seen as something on the side of active farming. Although differences reflect some actual variation in the consequences of agricultural practices, it is clear that concepts serve as 'legitimizing tools' placing central actors within a specific political agenda. © 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved..

Stakeholder Consensus Regarding Trail Conditions and Management Responses: A Norwegian Case Study

Denstadli, J.M.L., Kreg; Vistad, Odd Inge 2010, Scandinavian Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Vol 10 side 358-374.

Trail damage and vegetation loss due to recreation activities is an increasing problem in many natural areas. Managing ecological impacts through the selection of indicators and standards is a key component of developing a sustainable tourism industry, a process that appropriately is based on the judgment of different stakeholder groups. This study investigates stakeholder consensus regarding trail impacts and management preferences in the Norwegian community of Lom and the surrounding region. Evaluations are compared across three groups; tourists, residents with tourism-related income, and other residents. Results show a fairly high tolerance for trail impacts across stakeholder groups. Differences are more noticeable with respect to management actions that might be used to reduce ecological impacts, with tourists generally being more supportive of actions. Results suggest that consensus on relevant indicators and standards may be achieved relatively easily, but agreement on management actions may be more difficult..

Governance of recreation and tourism partnerships in parks and protected areas

Eagles, P.F.J. 2009, Journal of Sustainable Tourism Vol 17 side 231-248.

This paper uses 10 criteria for governance to evaluate the eight management models that most commonly underpin recreation and tourism partnerships in parks and protected areas. The varying financial status, political propensities and history in different countries have led to the development of different approaches to partnership management. When governance criteria were applied to the management models, those with high involvement by nonprofit organizations ranked higher in terms of the ideals of good governance. The highest ranked model was the public, nonprofit combination model. Conversely, those models with high degrees of for-profit operations ranked lower. The lowest ranked model was the aboriginal and government model. The analysis suggests that the 10 criteria for governance are not treated equally in practice; financial efficiency may be a pivotal criterion given more importance..

Improving the factual knowledge of landscapes: Following up the European Landscape Convention with a comparative historical analysis of forces of landscape change in the Sjodalen and Stølsheimen mountain areas, Norway

Eiter, S.P., K. 2007, Norsk Geografisk Tidsskrift Vol 61 side 145-156.

A focus of implementing the European Landscape Convention (ELC) in Norway is on improving the factual knowledge of landscapes, which implies analysing the forces transforming them. The article aims to identify important forces of change and to elucidate its complexity by a comparative historical study of land cover and land use in two mountain areas in Western and Eastern Norway. The land covers and uses in focus are transport infrastructure, seasonal farming, vegetation, tourism and outdoor recreation, and nature and landscape protection. Based on an understanding of forces as something being exerted, a framework including pressure, attraction, friction, repulsion, and working force is developed. A comprehensive literature analysis shows how differences in intensity and extent of land use and development of land cover result from a complex interaction of common extrinsic forces with locally different intrinsic forces. To control landscape change and to maintain diversity among landscapes as a Europe-wide resource, the national implementation of the ELC will require a strong focus on the local level. Moreover, understanding the ELC as an origin of forces is recommended, because it allows more appropriate individual responses to landscape change..

Developing tourism products in the primary attraction shadow

Flognfeldt Jr, T. 2007, Tourism, Culture and Communication Vol 7 side 133-145.

This article examines the activity and attraction usage patterns of en route traveling tourists in sparsely populated areas in Northern Europe. Several studies have documented that en route travelers are driving long distances close to every day, and that they spend little time on most stop sites. The choice of where to stop seems partly to be based on information of primary attractions and partly the stops are made by impulse. A common belief among both local developers and many consultants is that adding new attractions to a site will keep tourists staying in the area for a longer time, and hence spending more money. Consequently, there has been a rapid growth of new attractions like small museums, commercial information centers, and thematic attractions. Money for such investment has been available in abundance in Norway, and "positive" market analyses have been easy to obtain. After some time, however, many of these attractions fail or need additional financial support to survive. The developers then claim for more marketing money, often showing that other attractions in the region have higher visitor numbers, and that new investment is needed for survival. The aim of this article is to try to explain why some attractions fail to get a sufficient number of paying visitors, even after additional investment and "improved marketing." The study is based on models and data from both en route surveys and a sample of attractions built or expanded in the 1990s. The article will also discuss some alternative ways of examining markets and developing strategies to make attraction products more sustainable, based on structured information of tourist flows and studies of actual attractions behavior along routes. Copyright © 2007 Cognizant Comm. Corp..

Predicting the scenic beauty value of mapped landscape changes in a mountainous region through the use of GIS

Grêt-Regamey, A.B., I. D.; Bebi, P. 2007, Environment and Planning B: Planning and Design Vol 34 side 50-67.

Planning frequently fails to include the valuation of public goods, such as scenic beauty. This can lead to negative economic impacts for a region over the longer term. Especially in mountainous regions such as the Alps in central Europe, which depend on tourist income, the change of landscape views through the development of facilities for recreation and tourism may negatively affect the tourism experience, and hence the economy. In this study we present a prototypical technique to predict preferences for views using geographic information system (GIS)-based variables. A three-dimensional GIS including the effects of slope, aspect, and distance, as well as the height of landscape features, is developed to calculate the proportion of land-cover areas that make up the view. A Web-based survey is used to gather data on scenic preferences for landscape changes in the region around Davos (Switzerland). Willingness-to-pay (WTP) responses are used to identify preferred landscapes. A forced-choice questionnaire asks participants to compare pairs of landscape photographs. Two original pictures were digitally altered to visually represent landscape change scenarios developed for the study area. The visual magnitudes of the different land-cover areas are found to be correlated with the WTP values expressed by the respondents. The relationship is used to predict changes in scenic values for another view in the region. The approach presented in this paper could be useful in regional planning to estimate the influence of view components on people's preferences..

Heading into uncharted territory? Exploring the institutional robustness of self-regulation in the Antarctic tourism sector

Haase, D.L., M.; Amelung, B. 2009, Journal of Sustainable Tourism Vol 17 side 411-430.

This paper analyses the main strengths and weaknesses of self-regulation in the Antarctic tourism sector. Ostrom's theory of collective action and especially the design principles for robust management of common pool resources provide the framework for this analysis. The paper notes the rapid growth and diversification of tourism in Antarctica over the past two decades. It examines why formal tourism legislation has been limited because of the complex governance structure in Antarctica. It describes the self-regulation of tourism management that occurs through the International Association of Antarctica Tour Operators (IAATO). The success of IAATO is attributed to the high degree of organisation in the sector, largely because of the perceived benefits of membership. Continued incentives for self-organisation are needed but changing circumstances may lead tour operators to believe that IAATO membership is no longer advantageous. The paper shows that, under current conditions, the Antarctic tourism self-regulatory regime is a robust institution. However, with increasing numbers of tourists and operators the institutional structure may be weakened in the future..

Turning national parks into tourist attractions: Nature orientation and quest for facilities

Haukeland, J.V.G., B.; Veisten, K. 2010, Scandinavian Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Vol 10 side 248-271.

This paper presents an exploratory analysis of foreign tourists' quests for facilities in Norwegian national parks, related to their expressed nature orientation. The analysis was based on a survey among German, Dutch and Danish tourists during the summer season of 2008. Exploratory factor analysis was applied to identify underlying dimensions from indicator questions related to nature orientations and to quest for facilities inside and outside the national parks. The indicator questions were primarily inspired by Nils Uddenberg's classification of modern Swedes' nature orientations. We found a significant, although fairly weak, relationship between nature orientation and quest for facilities, applying multivariate regression modelling. The strongest relationship was found for the quest for larger management measures - "Infrastructure & services" - supported by nature orientations labelled Challenge or Sightseeing, while these were disapproved of by the traditional outdoor Recreation orientation. The wish for "Tracks and signposts" was also upheld by nature orientations Challenge and Sightseeing. A segment of the tourists, based on cluster analysis, indicated that one third requested development of "Infrastructure & services", but this segment demanded all kinds of facility developments. The results indicate national park development potentials, clarifying which developments are contended, and diversifying the demand from three major nationalities visiting Norway. © 2010 Taylor & Francis..

Fire place preferences of forest visitors in northwestern Switzerland: Implications for the management of picnic sites

Hegetschweiler, K.T.R., H. P.; Baur, B. 2007, Urban Forestry and Urban Greening Vol 6 side 73-81.

Some recreational activities in urban forests can cause extensive damage to soil and vegetation. In Switzerland, forest visitors frequently build fires outside picnic sites for barbecuing. This indicates that the existing picnic sites are either not attractive enough for these visitors, or that there are not enough sites for all the visitors during peak days. We used an on-site survey to assess the requirements of picnickers in two forest areas in the vicinity of Basle. Results showed that the existing picnic sites do not meet the requirements of some visitor groups, causing the respective visitors to make their own fires in locations that suit them better. There was a preference for sites near streams, away from forest roads and close to open spaces. Furthermore, while some visitors highly appreciated the well-equipped official sites, others preferred more natural infrastructure with pieces of stones forming a fire ring rather than concrete rims, and logs to sit on instead of benches. Picnic sites that are closer to the requirements of visitors who normally steer away from official sites might reduce the number of self-made fire rings. The study shows that understanding visitor behaviour is a prerequisite for the implementation of measures to reduce ecological impacts. © 2007 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved..

Financing recreational infrastructure with micropayments and donations: A pilot study on cross-country ski track preparations in Sweden

Heldt, T. 2010, Scandinavian Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Vol 10 side 386-394.

This paper reports the findings of a natural field experiment in which cross-country skiers had the option to use their mobile phones to call in a donation to fund ski track preparations. This paper takes the Right of Public Access as given and investigates the extent to which donations or voluntary contributions can be used to finance recreational infrastructure. The purpose of the study was to look at how different types of bonus services and offers, as well as the introduction of a trail pass, affected the willingness of individuals to make donations to ski track preparations at a Swedish ski resort. The study's main finding was that it is not possible to rely on a simple voluntary approach when introducing a new system for financing recreational infrastructure using micropayments and new IT services. © 2010 Taylor & Francis..

Recreation-induced changes in boreal bird communities in protected areas

Kangas, K.L., M.; Ihantola, A.; Tomppo And, E.; Siikamäki, P. 2010, Ecological Applications Vol 20 side 1775-1786.

The impacts of human-induced disturbance on birds have been studied in growing extent, but there are relatively few studies about the effects of recreation on forest bird communities in protected areas. In this paper, the relative importance of recreation as well as environmental variables on bird communities in Oulanka National Park, in northeastern Finland, was investigated using general additive models (GAM). Bird data collected using the line transect method along hiking trails and in undisturbed control areas were related to number of visits, area of tourism, infrastructure, and habitat variables. We further examined the impact of spatial autocorrelation by calculating an autocovariate term for GAMs. Our results indicate that number of visits affects the occurrence and composition of bird communities, but it had no impact on total species richness. Open-cup nesters breeding on the ground showed strongest negative response to visitor pressure, whereas the open-cup nesters nesting in trees and shrubs were more tolerant. For cavity-nesting species, recreation had no significant impact. The contribution of the number of visits was generally low also in models in which it was selected, and the occurrence of birds was mainly determined by habitat characteristics of the area. However, our results show that the recreation-induced disturbance with relatively low visitor pressure can have negative impacts on some bird species and groups of species and should be considered in management of protected areas with recreational activities. © 2010 by the Ecological Society of America..


Kolar, T.Z., Vesna 2007, Economic and Business Review for Central and South - Eastern Europe Vol 9 side 235-256,283.

This paper investigates the concept of authenticity that represents one of the driving forces of cultural tourism and an important feature of a tourist offer, which makes it interesting for the marketing of cultural heritage sites. An explication of its theoretical background shows that authenticity is an important but problematic concept which is insufficiently explored in the field of tourism marketing. The key goals of the empirical study, which was conducted among visitors to Romanesque sites in four European countries, focused on identifying and explaining the authenticity of their experiences. The results show that the questionnaire applied validly and reliably measured the concept of interest. Key differences in terms of perceived authenticity are found between groups of highly/lowly involved visitors and between domestic and foreign visitors. Perceived authenticity is positively related with the satisfaction and loyalty of visitors. The discussion of the results is followed by an examination of the implications for the marketing of cultural heritage sites. [PUBLICATION ABSTRACT].

Research note: The economic impact of opening a gaming venue in Australia

Lee, T.J. 2011, Tourism Economics Vol 17 side 457-464.

Research shows that opening a large gaming venue has economic impacts. This paper evaluates these impacts from the perspectives of the government, industry and the community. Though the effects are interrelated, the direct impact for each of these stakeholders is unique. For the government, direct taxation, tourism and investment are discussed, with a focus on the immediate effect on infrastructure. For industry, revenue generation, the multiplier effect, leakage, cannibalization and the trend of strategic cross-industry alliance are examined. For the community, average household disposable income, employment rate, direct competition, land speculation and the impact on standard of living are analysed. © 2010..

Wildlife tourism as a common pool resource issue: Enabling conditions for sustainability governance

Moore, S.A.R., K. 2010, Journal of Sustainable Tourism Vol 18 side 831-844.

Wildlife tourism is potentially a common pool resource (CPR) issue when the following are applicable: it is difficult to exclude tourists; their experiences are affected by others' activities; and adverse impacts on the wildlife occur. CPRs are typified by non-excludability and subtractability. Relatively few efforts have been made to consider tourism in this way or to use the concept of CPR in tourism management schemes. This paper (1) explores the possibility of wildlife tourism being a CPR issue, (2) derives a list of enabling conditions required for the sustainability of such resources and (3) determines the applicability of the conditions through a case study. Having described the potential for wildlife tourism to be a CPR issue, the enabling conditions explored in the rest of the paper follow: the characteristics of the tourism resource system and its user groups, the associated institutional arrangements and the external environment. The application of CPR thinking to the case study, whale shark tourism in Ningaloo Marine Park,Western Australia, revealed the contribution of institutional arrangements, particularly those associated with the State Government, to sustainable management. The use of the enabling conditions as a tool for managing wildlife tourism is discussed. © 2010 Taylor & Francis..

Effects of Recreational Cabins, Trails and Their Removal for Restoration of Reindeer Winter Ranges

Nellemann, C.V., I.; Jordhoy, P.; Stoen, O. G.; Kaltenborn, B. P.; Hanssen, F.; Helgesen, R. 2010, Restoration Ecology Vol 18 side 873-881.

Reindeer used areas within 15 km of resorts, which is less than expected based on the availability of habitat, most likely as a result of cross-country skiing activity surrounding the resorts, limiting their access to other ranges and historic migration corridors. Reindeer abundance declined and mean distance between reindeer groups and resorts increased with increasing resort size. No apparent habituation to resorts was observed during the 20-year study period. However, when ski trails and an associated tourist cabin were removed to restore access to historic habitat, reindeer moved into the area. No such change in reindeer distribution was observed in the 10 years preceding relocation, or at the other nine resorts where no such experiments were conducted. Regulation of human traffic, relocation of trails, and removal of infrastructure and cabins are apparently effective in restoring access to and use of historic ranges and migration routes. However, restoration of historic migration routes between ranges will likely require the removal of hundreds of recreational cabins in order to become effective..

The role of equity, trust and information on user fee acceptance in protected areas and other public lands: A structural model

Nyaupane, G.P.G., A. R.; Burns, R. C. 2009, Journal of Sustainable Tourism Vol 17 side 501-517.

Although inequity has been considered as a major concern of user fees on public lands, there is a lack of sufficient empirical research on understanding how perceptions of inequity influence fee acceptance. The purpose of this study was twofold: (1) to examine the role of three equity constructs on fee acceptance, and (2) to test whether perceptions of inequity mediate the relationship between trust, information and fee acceptance. This study is based on a telephone survey conducted with residents of Oregon and Washington, United States. The sampling was conducted using a random-digit dial process, yielding 366 completed interviews. The results of structural equation modeling showed that, among the three-dimensional equity constructs, i.e. compensatory equity, democratic equity and equity belief, only equity belief influenced fee acceptance. Further, equity belief partially mediated the effects of information and trust on fee acceptance. Providing more information about fees to the public such as why fees are collected, and where the fee dollars went, and gaining trust with the public through more accountability, transparency and public participation can help to reduce the perception of inequity, and consequently help to build support towards the recreation user fee programme. © 2009 Taylor & Francis..

Landscape governance for or by the local population? A property rights analysis in Austria

Penker, M. 2009, Land Use Policy Vol 26 side 947-953.

Diverse and unique landscapes not only are one of the key assets of Austrian tourism industry, but are also highly valued for local identity, quality of life and their ecological functions. Society tries to prevent unintended landscape change and thereby purposefully intervenes in landscape development by countless environmental regulations, contracts with landholders, agri-environmental schemes, landscape and nature reserves, food-related activities such as 'eat the view' and labels of origin. In the face of increasing state control and the growing influence of (inter-) nationally acting civil society groups, the paper poses the question whether the local population still has a saying in the governance of their landscape. Is it the local people, their costumes and institutions that shape the diversity and uniqueness of landscapes (i.e., the 'root meaning of landscape' [Olwig, K.R., 2002. Landscape, Nature, and the Body Politic. From Britain's Renaissance to America's New World. The University of Wisconsin Press, Madison.]) or is local peculiarity lost to national or international landscape control? The paper analyses the changing structures of use and control rights to Austrian landscapes and resulting shifts between locally driven and centrally controlled landscape change. The paper is a meta-analysis of ten empirically founded interdisciplinary research projects on cultural landscapes in Austria. The results are compared with international literature that indicates a loss of control of the local rural population over their natural resources. In the Austrian case however, the local population (re-) negotiates and (re-) interprets complex and conflicting international and state regulations according to their respective needs before concretizing them in actual land use practises. Some participation projects and self-governed local civic society movements integrate non-landholders. In few of homogenisation forces such as CAP and international regulations, diverse and unique landscapes call for the involvement of the local preferences, traditions, knowledge and skills-of both local non-landholders and landholders. © 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved..

Landscape governance for or by the local population? A property rights analysis in Austria

Penker, M. 2009, Land Use Policy Vol 26 side 947-953.

Diverse and unique landscapes not only are one of the key assets of Austrian tourism industry, but are also highly valued for local identity, quality of life and their ecological functions. Society tries to prevent unintended landscape change and thereby purposefully intervenes in landscape development by countless environmental regulations, contracts with landholders, agri-environmental schemes, landscape and nature reserves, food-related activities such as 'eat the view' and labels of origin. In the face of increasing state control and the growing influence of (inter-) nationally acting civil society groups, the paper poses the question whether the local population still has a saying in the governance of their landscape. Is it the local people, their costumes and institutions that shape the diversity and uniqueness of landscapes (i.e., the 'root meaning of landscape' [Olwig, K.R., 2002. Landscape, Nature, and the Body Politic. From Britain's Renaissance to America's New World. The University of Wisconsin Press, Madison.]) or is local peculiarity lost to national or international landscape control? The paper analyses the changing structures of use and control rights to Austrian landscapes and resulting shifts between locally driven and centrally controlled landscape change. The paper is a meta-analysis of ten empirically founded interdisciplinary research projects on cultural landscapes in Austria. The results are compared with international literature that indicates a loss of control of the local rural population over their natural resources. In the Austrian case however, the local population (re-) negotiates and (re-) interprets complex and conflicting international and state regulations according to their respective needs before concretizing them in actual land use practises. Some participation projects and self-governed local civic society movements integrate non-landholders. In few of homogenisation forces such as CAP and international regulations, diverse and unique landscapes call for the involvement of the local preferences, traditions, knowledge and skills-of both local non-landholders and landholders. © 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved..

An evaluation of priorities for beach tourism: Case studies from South Wales, UK

Phillips, M.R.H., C. 2009, Tourism Management Vol 30 side 176-183.

Seven Welsh beaches with environmental designations were assessed, using an established beach rating checklist comprising 50 physical, biological and human use factors. Weightings were subsequently established in response to priorities of three tourism markets: surfing, eco-tourism and family. Assessments showed physical factors scored significantly lower (p < 0.01) than both biological and human use factors and were seen as a specific location consequence. Physical factors dominated surfer responses; biological factors reflected conservation priorities and human use factors, especially safety, were family concerns. Common concerns related to beach litter and outfalls. However, there were some contradictions in interpretation, such as high numbers of waves in the breaker zone, being seen as positive for surfing but negative for family safety. Results showed weighting had changed overall ranking and assessment range in response to beach factors favoured by user group priorities. Analysis identified motivating factors behind the decision to visit and highlighted resource protection aspects for specific user group needs. The methodology supports development of sustainable beach management strategies, based on local characteristics and different tourism markets. (C) 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved..

Indirect impacts of nature based tourism and recreation: The association between infrastructure and the diversity of exotic plants in Kosciuszko National Park, Australia

Pickering, C.M.B., R.; Hill, W. 2007, Journal of Ecotourism Vol 6 side 146-157.

Tourism and recreation in protected areas results in a range of indirect impacts on the environment, including facilitating the spread of weeds. This research note examines the associations between tourism infrastructure and the diversity and frequency of exotic plants in a large and popular protected area in south-eastern Australia, Kosciuszko National Park. Of the 156 exotic taxa recorded in 18 vegetation surveys between 1986 and 2004, 152 were associated with tourism infrastructure; 64 taxa on road verges, 50 in ski resort areas, and a further 66 exclusively in the ski resort gardens. As many exotics become invasive environmental weeds, this study highlights the need to limit both the introduction of exotic propagules and the disturbance to natural vegetation during the construction, maintenance and use of tourism infrastructure in protected areas. If damage to vegetation has occurred, effective rehabilitation programmes are required. © 2007 C.M. Pickering et al..

Supply chain in tourism destinations: The case of levi resort in finnish lapland

Rusko, R.T.K., M.; Saari, R. 2009, International Journal of Tourism Research Vol 11 side 71-87.

Tourism destinations in Finnish Lapland provide a suitable base for supply chain management (SCM). Often, the investments in these destinations are directed to wilderness areas without significant initial infrastructure. Thus, the surroundings provide better possibilities to build and direct the experiences of tourists in contrast to city tourism where the surroundings are not especially designed for tourism. In this paper we apply an SCM framework to the Levi Fell resort in northern Finland. By identifying some special characteristics of tourism destinations and region-based tourism production, we further develop the traditional SCM framework in the context of tourism. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd..

The right of public access - opportunity or obstacle for nature tourism in Sweden?

Sandell, K.F., P. 2010, Scandinavian Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Vol 10 side 291-309.

Access to countryside areas - by means of personal ownership, designated areas or free access - is fundamental to outdoor recreation and nature tourism. This paper examines the role of the Right of Public Access for public participation in outdoor recreation and nature tourism supply in Sweden. This right can be seen both as a "free space" for recreation and a way of restricting land ownership. Our study shows that the Right of Public Access has strong support among the Swedish public in general and that designated areas for recreation are less important than public access for outdoor recreation participation. Among nature tourism entrepreneurs, the Right of Public Access is considered a success factor to a much higher extent than an obstacle. We identify a tension between the general public and nature tourism entrepreneurs with respect to traditional backcountry activities such as hiking, cross-country skiing and nature studies. One important challenge for the future will be to balance the demand for outdoor recreation with nature tourism opportunities for local economic development, and the paper concludes with a set of topics suggested for further discussion concerning the Right of Public Access in a dynamic world. © 2010 Taylor & Francis..

The realisation of tourism business opportunities adjacent to three national parks in southern Finland: entrepreneurs and local decision-makers matter

Selby, A.P., L.; Huhtala, M. 2011, Forest Policy and Economics Vol 13 side 446-455.

The tourists and recreationists who are attracted to national parks create a basis for the development of nature-based tourism. The paper examines the attitudes of entrepreneurs and local decision-makers towards the development of tourism- and recreational service enterprises adjacent to three small, different-aged national parks in southern Finland: Linnansaari, Seitseminen and Repovesi. Four distinct groups of entrepreneurs could be formed on the basis of their attitudes to business. The most "advanced" group (adapters) were aware of both the demand for tourism services and their enterprises' business resources. The second group (adopters) were resource aware but had ideas for new business ventures rather than knowledge of demand. An "informed satisficer" group exhibited satisficing attitudes (where lifestyle aspirations are placed before business growth and development) but who were well informed and could be related to the adopters. The final group of entrepreneurs were simply satisficers. There was a greater proportion of adapter entrepreneurs adjacent to the oldest park, while entrepreneurs adjacent to the youngest park were predominantly satisficers or informed satisficers. The adopter class of entrepreneurs was most common in the two older national park areas. The majority of local decision-makers in the municipalities adjacent to the national parks preferred to develop tourism together with other sectors of the economy, although industrial alternatives were preferred. The decision-makers fell into three groups with respect to their preferred ways and means of developing tourism-based local enterprise: supporting existing enterprises, lowering the threshold for (new) enterprise, and developing the business infrastructure and funding arrangements. The greatest support for new enterprises was found in the Repovesi area, the district with the greatest proportion of satisficing entrepreneurs. Decision-makers preferred to support existing businesses adjacent to the oldest park, Linnansaari, with its greater proportion of adapter and adopter entrepreneurs and fewer satisficers. Opportunities for business will not be realised if local enterprises fail to perceive or respond to them, or if decision-makers fail to play an active role in encouraging tourism enterprises by means of support schemes or by developing the tourism infrastructure. Regional differences in the development of tourism-related services therefore depend on the attitudes of the key actors and their ability to encompass new economic activities and their associated institutions and discourses. (C) 2011 Published by Elsevier B.V..

Developing an approach for tourism climate change assessment: Evidence from four contrasting Australian case studies

Turton, S.D., T.; Hadwen, W.; Jorgensen, B.; Pham, T.; Simmons, D.; Tremblay, P.; Wilson, R. 2010, Journal of Sustainable Tourism Vol 18 side 429-447.

The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change has identified Australia as among the developed nations most at risk from climate change effects. Key tourism icon destinations and the tourism sector generally have been identified as being particularly at risk. This paper reports on an interdisciplinary, multi-case study approach to assess tourism stakeholders' knowledge of, and approaches to, climate change adaptation and to explore the potential for building a self-assessment toolkit that can be exported to other tourism destinations. This study examined existing knowledge on anticipated biophysical changes and, through primary research (stakeholder interviews and social learning workshops), gauged the expected adaptive approaches of destination communities and the tourism sector to these changes for 2020, 2050 and 2070. The facilitated workshops generated a common set of adaptation strategies across a diverse set of tourist destinations. A key finding from the workshops is that the tourism sector is not yet ready to invest in climate change adaptation because of the perceived uncertainties. Ongoing leadership for such measures were seen to rest with the public sector, especially local authorities. Whether such assessments can be self-generated or require specialist facilitation remains open to debate. © 2010 Taylor & Francis..

Ecosophy and tourism: Rethinking a mountain resort

Varley, P.M., D. 2011, Tourism Management Vol 32 side 902-911.

This paper explores how an ecosophically inspired tourism strategy could enhance a Scottish mountain recreational site threatened by climate change. Drawing on qualitative data, the paper focuses on three research questions concerning: the impact of current infrastructure and management strategies on tourist experiences; tourists' current interpretations and desires; and how the notion of an ecosophically informed tourist attraction might be realised in the light of these experiences, interpretations and desires. Conclusions indicate that the site is a long way from being an ecosophically inspired tourism resort which might foster an engagement with nature. Insights are provided as to how this might be achieved. Critical to the paper is a consideration of how the 'packaging' of tourist experiences militates against a meaningful personal connection with the mountain environment. (C) 2010 Published by Elsevier Ltd..


Weiermair, K.P., Mike; Frehse, Joerg 2008, Journal of Services Research Vol side .

Sustainable competitiveness in tourism calls for meaningful and appropriate management approaches in order to prevent the exploitation of non-renewable resources. Generally where mass tourism is practiced, resources tend to be overconsumed and hence nature can be harmed. Thus, a major goal of sustainable tourism is to find a balance between resource use and consumer preferences or needs. A tourism nation won't achieve international competitive advantages through strict prohibitions of resource use but rather through conservation-conscious consumption. Tourism is on the one hand strongly influenced by governmental regulation and on the other hand driven by private, often also short term, interests. The following paper attempts to analyse core benefits and problems of private public partnerships (PPPs) in the tourism industry. The purpose is to derive principles and management imperatives for the formation of private-public partnerships in tourism. In order to evaluate the above mentioned principles we have selected two PPP examples of Austria's Alpine tourism development. The first case involves the development of the 'Mountain Beach Water and Nature Park' in the Western Austrian Alps, the second case study evaluates the cable way development project 'Muttersberg' of the Silvretta Nova Group in Vorarlberg (Austria). After a presentation and critical discussion of the case studies, the last part of the paper will conclude with recommendations for PPP practices in tourism and leisure and highlight implications for future research in the field of tourism - development, -financing and -cooperation. [PUBLICATION ABSTRACT].

Managing cultural values in sustainable tourism: Conflicts in protected areas

Zeppel, H. 2010, Tourism and Hospitality Research Vol 10 side 93-104.

This article addresses the role of cultural values in sustainable tourism. It evaluates cultural conflicts between indigenous groups, recreation users and management agencies over the appropriate amenity use of protected areas in the USA, Australia and New Zealand. It assesses both social values conflicts and interpersonal conflicts between groups with different worldviews about landscapes, resource use and recreation. This article identifies six types of cross-cultural conflicts between indigenous peoples and recreation users: sacred sites/religious beliefs, resource use, land use, visitor infrastructure, recreation activity and place names. Management strategies to address cultural values in sustainable tourism and cultural conflicts over recreational use of natural areas are presented. © 2010 Macmillan Publishers Ltd..