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Sustainable Management of Marine Fishing Tourism. Some Lessons From Norway

Borch, T. 2004, Tourism in Marine Environments Vol 1 side 49-57.

Marine tourism often introduces new interest groups in highly concentrated marine environments. This may cause conflicts and raise new management challenges. However, due to the lack of systematic research on marine tourism it is often difficult to solve conflicts and guide sustainable management. This article presents issues and models that are of relevance in securing sustainable management of one particular type of marine tourism: recreational fishing. The article points to the importance of applying a multidisciplinary approach in the management of marine fishing tourism..

Do we need species-specific guidelines for catch-and-release recreational angling to effectively conserve diverse fishery resources?

Cooke, S.J.S., C. D. 2005, Biodiversity and Conservation Vol 14 side 1195-1209.

Catch-and-release recreational angling has become very popular as a conservation strategy and as a fisheries management tool for a diverse array of fishes. Implicit in catch-and-release angling strategies is the assumption that fish experience low mortality and minimal sub-lethal effects. Despite the importance of this premise, research on this topic has focused on several popular North American sportfish, with negligible efforts directed towards understanding catch-and-release angling effects on alternative fish species. Here, we summarise the existing literature to develop five general trends that could be adopted for species for which no data are currently available: (1) minimise angling duration, (2) minimise air exposure, (3) avoid angling during extremes in water temperature, (4) use barbless hooks and artificial lures/flies, and (5) refrain from angling fish during the reproductive period. These generalities provide some level of protection to all species, but do have limitations. Therefore, we argue that a goal of conservation science and fisheries management should be the creation of species-specific guidelines for catch-and-release. These guidelines would take into account the inter-specific diversity of fishes and variation in fishing techniques. As recreational angling continues to grow in popularity, expanding to many developing countries, and targeting alternative species, it is important that reasonable data appropriate for specific fish and fisheries are available. The sustainable use and conservation of recreational fishery resources will depend upon the development and dissemination of effective catch-and-release angling strategies based upon sound science to stakeholders around the world. © Springer 2005..

From whaling to whale watching: examining sustainability and cultural rhetoric

Cunningham, P.A.H., Edward H.; Wearing, Stephen L. 2012, Journal of Sustainable Tourism Vol 20 side 143.

This paper explores whaling and whale watching to determine the viability of their divergent practices -- and explains why they coexist in some cases. Whale watching is often viewed as an ecotourism product and presented as an activity that is fast growing, holds potential for local regeneration, promotes conservation and sustainable practice and is ecological and profitable. Whaling is currently under considerable scrutiny and relies on economic and increasingly cultural rhetoric to support its viability. Contrary to some statements, it is rarely a long-established practice. The paper uses Japan and Iceland as examples to examine the sustainability frameworks and political rhetoric surrounding these activities, and asks whether whale watching might offer an alternative economy for the whaling/fishing communities in an era of conflict over sustainable resource use. The paper finds that whale watching participation grew from 9 million tourists in 2001 to 13 million in 2008, with revenues rising from $1 billion to $2.1 billion per annum over that period. Whaling relies heavily on state and private subsidies. We also find, however, that whaling and whale watching can co-exist, that both use sustainability-based rhetoric, but that global trends in public opinion and taste favour whale watching over whaling. [PUBLICATION ABSTRACT].

Outdoors versus indoors? Angling ponds, climbing walls and changing expectations of environmental leisure

Eden, S.B., P. 2010, Area Vol 42 side 487-493.

This paper compares two types of purpose-built recreational space - indoor climbing walls and outdoor fishing ponds - using participant observation and interviews with climbers and anglers in England. We show how these notionally 'indoor' and 'outdoor' spaces have strong similarities in terms of how they are used and perceived. We draw on literature about consumption and technology to demonstrate changing expectations and social norms about using each space. We also compare walls and ponds with supermarkets to highlight how this consumerist interpretation is used in a moral ordering of leisure behaviour. We therefore take a very different approach from research that emphasises sensation, risk and embodiment in outdoor leisure and adventure tourism. Instead, we show how such spaces reflect modernist domestication and control, problematising the indoor/outdoor dualism and emphasising the multiple experiences of environmental leisure. © 2010 The Authors. Area © 2010 Royal Geographical Society (with The Institute of British Geographers)..

Estimating the short-term economic damages from the Prestige oil spill in the Galician fisheries and tourism

Garza-Gil, M.P.-B., Albino; Vazquez-Rodriguez, MXose 2006, Ecological Economics Vol 58 side 842-849.

The Prestige oil spill may be considered as one of the worst in the last years because of the amount of oil spilled (59,000 tons at the moment) and the wide zone affected: almost all the coastline in Galicia (Spanish region with a very important coast fishing and tourist activity) and some points in North Spain and in Southwest France. In this paper, we estimate the short-term economic damages from the Prestige oil spills in the Galician fishing and tourist activities. The economic losses arising from the Prestige oil spill exceed those items that can be indemnified under the IOPC system. Their magnitude could reach 5 times more than the applicable limit of compensations in the Prestige case. The consequence is net losses from repeated oil spills and internationally accepted incentives to risky strategies in the marine transport of hydrocarbons..

Oil spill: Year one

Guillot, C. 2011, Planning Vol 77 side .

Craig Guillot examines the challenges facing the oil companies and the tourism industry following Deepwater oil spill in the Gulf Coast. While most of the Gulf Coast's beaches and waters are almost back to normal, the tourism industry is still recovering. Louisiana is suffering from a serious perception problem regarding its seafood, despite the fact that the fish that is harvested is consistently being proven to be safe by several federal and state testing agencies. Fishing and the seafood industry are critical along the Gulf Coast. In Louisiana, which accounts for more than 30 percent of the US's entire seafood harvest, it is a $2.4 billion industry. Tourism and the seafood industry are high priorities. The alliance recently worked with the Department of Defense to place Gulf seafood in military commissaries and to link Gulf seafood to new markets in China..

Marine Tourism Impacts on the Great Barrier Reef

Harriott, V.J. 2004, Tourism in Marine Environments Vol 1 side 29-40.

About 1.6 million tourists visit the Great Barrier Reef (GBR) each year. Tourism on the reef and adjacent coast is worth over Aus$4 billion per year and employs over 47,000 people. While sustainable tourism is a goal of management of the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park, tourism has some negative environmental and social impacts on the reef and coastal environment. Australian residents who were surveyed ranked the impacts of reef tourism highly as a threat to the GBR. In contrast, a sample of people with professional experience in reef environmental issues ranked reef tourism as a much smaller threat than other widespread impacts such as coral bleaching, agricultural runoff, and fishing. This study reviews the impact of the major components of marine tourism on the GBR and tourism management, and concludes that reef tourism produces generally localized impacts and is intensively managed on the GBR relative to other reef uses. Industry and management agencies have included education of reef visitors and tourism staff as part of a planned framework for sustainable tourism and recreation, and this education program should include promotion of a greater understanding of reef environmental issues..

Managing Human Activity and Tourism Impacts: A Case Study of Zeke's Island Reserve, North Carolina

Herstine, J.H., J.; Buerger, R. 2006, Tourism in Marine Environments Vol 3 side 163-172.

Managers are consistently challenged to reconcile the impacts of recreational activity and tourism with protection of the integrity of the natural resources upon which these experiences depend. In the absence of opportunities for active resource management, the ability of natural mitigation processes to sustain natural resources becomes a critical attribute of resource viability. This case study, therefore, examines the relationship between natural mitigation processes and a specific form of tourist management - signage - on the Zeke's Island Component of the North Carolina National Estuarine Research Reserve Program (NCNERR). The island features of the Zeke's Island Component of the NCNERR are primarily accessible by small boat. Activities common for tourists to engage in at the Reserve are fishing, swimming, hiking, bird watching, and camping. Phase #1 of the study examined whether, given the absence of visitor management, natural processes mitigate recreation and tourism impacts caused by these activities. Phase #2 of the study examined whether the use of signs is an effective passive management technique in restricting recreation and tourism camping behavior. The results of the study indicate that: 1) natural processes mitigate most, but not all, recreation and tourism impacts on the subject site, and 2) signage can be an effective approach for passively managing human behavior and tourism in natural resource settings..

Slaughtering the goose that lays the golden egg: Are whaling and whale-watching mutually exclusive?

Higham, J.E.S.L., D. 2008, Current Issues in Tourism Vol 11 side 63-74.

Tourism interests usually coexist in a delicate balance with other human interests (e.g. residential development and recreational interests) and activities (e.g. fishing, forestry and mining). Such interests and activities may be compatible or incompatible with tourism to varying degrees. Where incompatibility arises it must be carefully managed through compromise, spatial segregation or exclusivity. Conflicting interests between whale-watching and whaling is one topical such case. Events in recent years, such as the Icelandic government's decision to resume scientific whaling in 2003 have drawn considerable attention to this issue. This is a matter that received some attention at the meeting of the International Whaling Commission (IWC) in July 2006. In response to recent debate, this paper highlights the need for a better understanding of tourist views on issues of relevance to whale-watching, noting a number of increasingly topical questions that remain unanswered at present. In doing so it calls for empirical research into the values and views of tourists, actual and latent, on whaling and wider issues of animal welfare. Insights into precisely where tourists stand on issues relating to the whaling/whale-watching debate, and how that may bear upon demand for whale-watching in different national and regional contexts, has become a heightened priority in light of recent events. © 2008 J.E.S. Higham & D. Lusseau..

Examining state dependence and place attachment within a recreational fishing site choice model

Hunt, L.M. 2008, Journal of Leisure Research Vol 40 side 110-127.

Many contexts including the fidelity that recreationists have for sites may affect the choices of recreational sites by individuals. This study expands the choice model research on state dependence by examining state dependence at site and larger spatial scales. Analyses of recreational fishing site choices by anglers from northern Ontario, Canada suggest that anglers exhibit state dependence at both the site and larger spatial scales. Attempts to understand the importance of state dependence through self reports of place attachment dimensions among the anglers provided mixed results. No significant relationships were found between place identity and the importance of site or spatial state dependence to anglers. While having no significant effect on site state dependence, place dependence was positively associated with the importance of spatial state dependence among approximately 65% of the anglers. Evidently, anglers who viewed themselves as dependent upon a fishing area were more likely to take their fishing trips in a constrained space than were other anglers. These conclusions are influenced by the difference between the larger spatial scale for the place attachment questions (i.e., favorite fishing area) than for the choice model (i.e., fishing site)..

Anglers' valuation of water regulation dam removal for the restoration of angling conditions at Storsjö-Kapell

Laitila, T.P., Anton 2008, Tourism Economics Vol 14 side 283.

This paper presents results from a choice experiment (CE) study of anglers' valuations of the characteristics of an angling site at Storsjo-Kapell in the Swedish mountain region. In particular, the study presents value estimates of a dam removal and restoration to natural angling conditions. Values of catch, size and species are considered, as are values of bag limits. Also, value estimates are related to a trip frequency model, making it possible to predict visiting frequency under different scenarios. Thus, the model estimates provide a step towards developing dynamic fisheries management models, as the policies analysed may change the age structure of the stock. In addition to empirical results, the paper contributes a derivation of bounds on willingness to pay (WTP) based on the notion that new visitors may have smaller WTP for a change than those already selecting the site for angling. [PUBLICATION ABSTRACT].

Promotion of hunting and fishing tourism on the internet: A survey of national tourism organization websites

Lovelock, B.A. 2009, Human Dimensions of Wildlife Vol 14 side 145-148.

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The big catch: Negotiating the transition from commercial fisher to tourism entrepreneur in Island environments

Lovelock, B.L., K.; Normann, O. 2010, Asia Pacific Journal of Tourism Research Vol 15 side 267-283.

Peripheral island communities face challenges emanating from changes to their traditional fishing industries. Stewart Island and Chatham Island in New Zealand provide examples of such communities, their economies and communities supported by the extractive industries of crayfishing and codfishing for many years. However, increasingly depleted fish stocks and changes to the regulatory regimes for fishing have transformed the industry, bringing a dramatic decline in the number ofsmall ishing operators and accompanying socio-economic changes. This paper reports on the transition from a ishing economy to a tourism economy, with a focus on the lived experiences of commercial ishers turned tourism entrepreneurs. Commentators point to the importance ofentrepre-neurs in destination development; however, a number of barriers may impede the establishment and growth of tourism enterprises in remote islands. This paper explores personal and environmental factors relevant to those undertaking the transition from commercial ishing to tourism in peripheral island destinations, reporting the indings ofqualitative research undertaken with tourism entrepreneurs on islands in New Zealand. © 2010 Asia Pacific Tourism Association..

NEW TOURIST PRODUCTS FOR NEW TOURISTS' EXPECTATIONS

Mihelj, V. 2010, Faculty of Tourism and Hospitality Management in Opatija. Biennial International Congress. Tourism & Hospitality Industry Vol side 1075-1085.

Needs, expectations and anticipated benefits of tourism vary greatly from one destination to the next, and there is certainly no "one size fits all" approach to creation of national tourism strategy and design of the destination tourism product. As baby boomers move into mid-life and retirement, their expectations for travel will shift toward educational, self-improvement, and in-depth experiences. Destinations featuring cultural tourism, heritage tourism, sports tourism, active tourism, adventure travel, and eco-tourism will be in greater demand. The growing concern worldwide over global warming and climate change combined with rising oil prices, the energy crisis and the economic slowdown has led to dramatic changes in consumer attitudes, travel seasonality and other travel patterns and trends. The objective of the paper is to identify the drivers for new trends and motives for creation of different destinations' products and to examine how these specific market trends could contribute towards tourism growth within Europe and to look at the impact of such trends on the changing customer needs..

Effects of fishing tourism in a coastal municipality: A case study from Risør, Norway

Moksness, E.G., J.; Lagaillarde, G.; Mikkelsen, E.; Olsen, E. M.; Sandersen, H. T.; Vølstad, J. H. 2011, Ecology and Society Vol 16 side 24.

Recreational fishing has become an important part of the Norwegian tourist industry. The coastal municipality of Risør, southern Norway, is considering further development of its marine fishing tourism to increase local economic benefits, but they also want to limit negative effects on the local ecosystem and for the inhabitants. We developed an integrated model with ecosystem and socioeconomic components to evaluate these trade-offs. We chose the status of the local cod (Gadus morhua) stock as an indicator of the marine ecosystem condition. Cod is a highly valued species in tourist and recreational fisheries throughout Norway, and also supports an important commercial fishery. Five management scenarios are presented and compared to the status quo. Our research illustrates how an ecosystem model can assist local authorities in making rational coastal zone management decisions. Our study also revealed a lack of management instruments for local authorities to develop natural resource-based tourism in Norway, and thus the need for the municipality to cooperate and coordinate with other management units and levels. © 2011 by the author(s)..

Angling in modernity: a tour through society, nature and embodied passion

Mordue, T. 2009, Current Issues in Tourism Vol 12 side 529-552.

This article investigates an under-researched area in the tourism and leisure literatures, recreational freshwater fishing, which has become a significant cultural activity and a tourism industry in its own right. Within the last 30 years many destinations across the globe have developed fishing packages/products designed for the enthusiast able to afford the trip. Similarly, a new generation of tour operators has emerged in the West to offer a world of choice that was hardly imaginable a few decades ago. The article maps important developments in the modern history of fishing from a social constructionist viewpoint, examining how fishing, and by extension fishing tourism, enlists and promotes certain performative codes of practice and being, and how certain gazes on nature, destinations, fishing technologies, skills and quarry are produced and reproduced in very particular ideological ways. The article also considers the embodied nature and the materiality of fishing and fishing tourism and advances conceptual directions on how fishing leisure and tourism combine to produce an identifiable actor-network that is made up of sub-networks. Here, the analysis focuses on how the community of fish, anglers, technology, destinations and travel are held together to create a material-semiotic set of spatial practices and performances that are contested, impassioned and networked in relational space-time. The overall aim of the article is to offer a contextual and theoretical account of this important area of tourism and leisure and point to fruitful avenues for future research..

Does fish farming impact on tourism in Scotland?

Nimmo, F.C., R.; Huntington, T.; Grant, A. 2011, Aquaculture Research Vol 42 side 132-141.

Aquaculture is an important industry for rural Scotland, in particular for the west coast and the islands. Tourism is also important to Scotland's economy and depends heavily on the country's landscape. Targeted research was undertaken to assess whether fish farming impacts tourism in coastal areas of Scotland. This was accomplished through face-to-face interviews with tourists and telephone interviews with tourism-related businesses and aquaculture businesses at three case study locations: Outer Hebrides, Shetland and Oban and Mull. A large percentage of respondents (87% of 120 people surveyed) had seen fish farming before, although half of them had not seen fish farming at the case study location. Respondents were asked to consider how the current levels of fish farming affected their perception of the area, impact on scenery, natural environment, recreational activities and willingness to re-visit based on a scale from strongly negative, slightly negative, no affect/neutral, slightly positive, strongly positive or do not know. The majority of respondents stated that current levels of fish farming had no effect on the aforementioned parameters. When asked to consider further development or expansion of fish farming, visitors remained neutral to all, except for the impact on the scenery and the natural environment, where approximately half of the responses were negative. This research provides qualitative evidence that the current levels and future developments or expansion of aquaculture operations will not affect visitors' willingness to re-visit the case study sites or affect their key recreational activities..

Marginal valuation of improving the sport-fishing catch

Paulrud, A. 2006, Tourism Economics Vol 12 side 437-437.

This paper presents estimates of the marginal willingness-to-pay to improve sport-fishing conditions in a county in southern Sweden. Previous valuation studies have focused mainly on mean estimates, but policy decisions often require marginal values. The estimates are obtained by using the contingent valuation method within a parametric model that allows for zero willingness-to-pay values (a spike model). The data were collected using a mail survey sent to anglers in the county of Bohus in Sweden in 1998. The results show that the value of improved catch conditions depends on the type of angling and decreases at the margin when the catch increases. The marginal willingness-to-pay for catching an extra fish ranges from about SEK 5 (SEK 12 per kilo) for coastal angling to about SEK 530 (SEK 172 per kilo) for river angling (US$1 [asymptotically =] SEK 9). Such economic information is useful for managers with limited budgets who need to prioritize between different alternatives or actions to improve sport-fishing. [PUBLICATION ABSTRACT].

The Swedish recreational fishing industry

Paulrud, A.W., S. 2010, Tourism in Marine Environments Vol 6 side 161-174.

In the wake of the crisis for commercial fisheries, the possibility to support and develop economic activity from recreational fishing has gained increased political interest in Sweden. Promoting management actions that facilitate development of the industry requires knowledge about the current structure of the industry and companies' views regarding future challenges. We address these topics using data from a mail survey sent to companies that derive at least part of their income from the Swedish recreational fishing industry. In total, the survey estimates that Sweden has approximately 1,300 companies in the industry with total revenues of 500 million SEK (€1 ≈ SEK 9). The primary services provided by these companies include food and accommodation, guiding, boats, and access to fishing sites. A majority (about 55%) of the companies expect revenues to increase over the next 3 years, but still face a number of challenges to continued future development. Most significant are high labor costs, lack of large specimens of fish, lack of fish, marketing, and obtaining bank loans. The most preferred management actions were help with marketing and improved fisheries management. Copyright © 2010 Cognizant Comm. Corp..

Do catch-and-release guidelines from state and provincial fisheries agencies in North America conform to scientifically based best practices?

Pelletier, C.H., K. C.; Cooke, S. J. 2007, Environmental Management Vol 39 side 760-773.

Many recreational anglers practice catch-and-release angling, where fish are returned to the water with the presumption that they will survive. However, not all fish survive, and those that do often experience sublethal consequences including injury and stress. There is compelling scientific evidence that angler behavior and gear choice can affect the success of catch-and-release as a management and conservation strategy. Because anglers often look to government natural resource agencies for guidance on how to handle and release fish properly, there is a need to assess whether their outreach materials are readily accessible and provide the necessary and correct information on the subject. Therefore, on-line catch-and-release guidelines developed by state and provincial natural resource agencies across North America were evaluated to determine whether their guidelines were consistent with the best available scientific information. This analysis revealed that there was immense variation in the depth and breadth of coverage among jurisdictions. Agency guidelines contradicted one another in several areas including air exposure, angling in deep water, venting trapped gases, and resuscitation. In many cases, the guidelines failed to provide sufficient direction to actually be of use to anglers or provide direction consistent with contemporary scientific literature. This analysis will assist with developing outreach materials that promote sustainable recreational fisheries and in maintaining the welfare status of individual fish. © 2007 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC..

The Selendang Ayu shipwreck and oil spill: Considering threats and fears of a worst-case scenario

Ritchie, L.A.G., D. A. 2008, Sociological Inquiry Vol 78 side 184-206.

On December 8, 2004, the Selendang Ayu, a Malaysian-flagged freighter, ran aground off Unalaska Island in Alaska's Aleutian chain. Despite rescue efforts by the United States Coast Guard, six of the Selendang Ayu's crew members died. In addition to the deaths, more than 300,000 gallons of heavy bulk fuel oil spilled into the sea. Much of the oil washed onto the island's shores, into areas providing cultural, recreational, subsistence, and commercial fishing resources for residents of the renewable resource community of Dutch Harbor/Unalaska. The purpose of this article is to identify and examine different dimensions of risk, based on qualitative research conducted in 2005. We use a contextual constructionist approach to understand risk, which conceptualizes risk as an objective hazard, threat, or danger that is mediated through social and cultural processes. Research methods included 31 personal interviews, participatory observation, and a review of media coverage. Findings revealed several dimensions of risk perceived by residents: the incident in relation to Dutch Harbor/Unalaska as a high-risk community and more general current events; threats to the community's annual $1 billion seafood industry; threats to Alaska Native subsistence culture; and issues of future risk and uncertainty. Interviews and observations support our conclusion that the Selendang Ayu incident represented a "shot across the bow" that could have been a "worst case" if oil had contaminated commercial fish processing. Residents believe that it is only a matter of time before another, more damaging accident occurs. Given this general perception, it is important to more clearly assess risk in Dutch Harbor/Unalaska and help the community increase resilience to the multiple hazards it faces. More broadly, Dutch Harbor/Unalaska serves as an example - all communities could benefit from better risk assessments and increased attention to resiliency. © 2008 Alpha Kappa Delta..

Estimating values for recreational fishing at freshwater dams in Queensland

Rolfe, J.P., P. 2007, Australian Journal of Agricultural and Resource Economics Vol 51 side 157-174.

In this paper, estimates of value for recreational fishing are reported for three major freshwater impoundments in Queensland, Australia, using both travel cost and contingent valuation methods. Policy analysts often require estimates of value when analysing the importance of recreation against other uses of impoundments, or when considering the potential for further investments, such as with fish stocking programs. Different forms of the travel cost method are used to estimate separate consumer surpluses associated with two key subgroups of recreational anglers: frequent and occasional anglers. A contingent valuation study is used to estimate the marginal values associated with a potential improvement in fishing experience. The results of the travel cost analysis provide strong evidence that recreational values vary between different groups of anglers and across sites, while the contingent valuation estimates provide values for additional marginal benefits of recreational angling..

Fishing tourism, biodiversity protection and regional politics in the River Tornionjoki, Finland

Salmi, J.S., P. 2010, Fisheries Management and Ecology Vol 17 side 192-198.

Salmon. , Salmo salar L., fishing involves a broad range of interest groups and is thus a challenge for fisheries governance. This article focuses on the natural River Tornionjoki between Finland and Sweden, the most important wild salmon river in the Northern Baltic Sea. The marine salmon fisheries have been restricted to protect the declining wild salmon stocks and secure catches for fishing tourism. River fisheries interest groups have been absent from the salmon committees, but have taken other measures to influence salmon fisheries politics. This social movement has achieved its aims only partly, because of counteractions by the coastal commercial fishers and their associations. A forum for enabling dialogue between stakeholders is recommended to reduce tensions between the commercial fishery and tourism industry. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd..

Fishing rights and supply of salmon angling tourism in Mid-Norway

Stensland, S. 2010, Scandinavian Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Vol 10 side 207-230.

A limited number of studies have focused on angling from a tourism perspective. The objective of this study was to investigate the objectives of landowners regarding their rights for salmon fishing, including landowners' supply of fishing services to the tourism market. The data originate from a questionnaire survey of 712 landowners in four rivers in the Trondheim Fjord region of Norway. The heterogeneity of the landowner group with differences in fishing right and property characteristics, as well as landowner characteristics seemed to explain some of the large variation in objective scores about use of the fishing right as indicated by the standard regression models. This study also indicated that how landowners use their fishing rights affected yield per kg of salmon caught, with landowners selling angling as packages with a restricted number of rods and with additional services on average having the highest mean net income per kg of salmon with 991 NOK. The results tell policy makers that successful cooperation in salmon fishing management and conservation of salmon stocks must be based on an understanding of the multiple objectives of the heterogeneous landowner group. © 2010 Taylor & Francis..

The community impacts of different types of visitors: an empirical investigation of tourism in North-west Queensland

Stoeckl, N.G., R.; Mayocchi, C. 2006, Tourism Management Vol 27 side 97-112.

This paper uses data from a survey of visitors to the Carpentaria Shire in Queensland, Australia to investigate some of the economic and environmental (predominantly fishing) impacts of different visitor segments. The results show that different types of visitor generate different economic and environmental impacts and that the current visitor mix contributes most (financially) to caravan parks and local stores while drawing heavily upon local fishing stocks. The paper argues that in the short to medium term it is paramount for the continued success of tourism to manage the recreational fisheries. In the medium to long term, a more diverse range of visitor types could generate larger regional economic benefits, a broader distribution of benefits, and less reliance on just one of the region's otherwise plentiful natural resources. (c) 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved..

CONSUMING LEISURE TIME: Landscapes of Infinite Horizons

Vacher, M. 2011, Social Analysis Vol 55 side 45-61.

The aim of this article is to explore the Danish seaside as a culturally framed arena of experience. In the first part of the article, I present the appearance of Denmark's seaside as a recreational location for the Danish middle class. Using Danish films that portray the middle class on holiday, the article illustrates the perceptual consequences of a specific appropriation of the landscape. The analysis of the relationship between landscape and people then introduces anthropological perspectives on time, consumption, and perception. Drawing on ethnographic interviews and comparative observations, I show how accessing and consuming the landscape as a recreational location come to constitute it as a finite arena of infinite time and space, as well as a distinct location that allows for equal social relations. [PUBLICATION ABSTRACT].

Seeing, not Participating: Viewscape Fetishism in American and Norwegian Rural Amenity Areas

Van Auken, P.M. 2010, Human Ecology Vol 38 side 521-537.

Based on participant-driven photo elicitation and in-depth key informant interviews conducted in an American and Norwegian rural amenity area, this article argues that newcomers, seasonal home owners and other stakeholders in rural amenity areas may fail to appreciate, or choose to ignore, the social relations tied to their property or the consequences that their seemingly innocuous decisions can have for local communities. Viewscape fetishism can cause the "magic" of commodified natural amenities to obscure more complex, holistic understandings of the land in favor of a simplified view based on individualized use or exchange value, both of which are highly influence by the sign value inherent in property situated with access to scenic viewscapes. This phenomenon can create barriers to social interaction and community building, and lead to environmental degradation in places that are rich in natural amenities and vulnerable to change. [PUBLICATION ABSTRACT].

Probability-based surveying using self-sampling to estimate catch and effort in Norway's coastal tourist fishery

Voelstad, J.H.K., K.; Nedreaas, K. H.; Nilsen, M.; Nilsson, G. N.; Pennington, M.; Subbey, S.; Wienerroither, R. 2011, ICES Journal of Marine Science Vol 68 side 1785-1791.

Voelstad, J. H., Korsbrekke, K., Nedreaas, K. H., Nilsen, M., Nilsson, G. N., Pennington, M., Subbey, S., and Wienerroither, R. 2011. Probability-based surveying using self-sampling to estimate catch and effort in Norway's coastal tourist fishery. - ICES Journal of Marine Science, 68: 1785-1791.Recreational fishing as a tourist activity has become an increasingly important part of the Norwegian travel industry and may contribute significantly to the fishing mortality on Norwegian coastal cod (Gadus morhua). Quantifying catches in the tourist fishery is made difficult by Norway's intricate and long coastline, and the lack of a fishing licence system, a registry of businesses catering for fishing tourists, and a registry of charter boats. A probability-based survey was used to estimate annual catch and effort by boat for anglers associated with 445 tourist-fishing businesses during 2009. From a stratified random sample of businesses, fishing tourists were recruited systematically over time to record their daily catch and effort in diaries. Cod dominated the reported landed catch (harvest) north of 62 degree N, and saithe and mackerel dominated south of 62 degree N. The estimated total landed catch of all species taken by tourist fishers in the business sector during 2009 was 3335 t (relative standard error, RSE = 17%), of which 1613 t (RSE = 22%) were cod. It is concluded that surveys based on self-sampling can yield accurate estimates of catch and effort accounted for by the business sector of the Norwegian tourist fishery and that the tourist catch of coastal cod is insignificant compared with the commercial and recreational catch by local residents..

'That means the fish are fat': sharing experiences of animals through Indigenous-owned tourism

Wright, S.S.-P., S.; Lloyd, K.; Burarrwanga, L. L.; Burarrwanga, D. 2009, Current Issues in Tourism Vol 12 side 505-527.

This article considers the ways members of Indigenous-owned and operated Bawaka Cultural Experiences (BCE) from northern Australia share diverse ways of knowing the world with tourists through a focus on the sapient beings categorised as animals in western cultures. The article is co-authored by two owners of BCE and three human geographers. Lak Lak and Djawa of BCE are situated as key agents who sculpt the experience for visitors and tourists and in the article discuss the various ways they actively challenge tourists through a range of experiences on country. Sarah, Sandie and Kate are multiply positioned as academics, collaborators and visitors. The article discusses the ways members of the Burarrwanga family invite tourists to learn about the interrelated importance of animals through a range of sensory experiences. The relationships shared by Lak Lak and Djawa with tourists are indicative of an ontology of connection that underpins Yolngu and many Indigenous ways of knowing the world. As tourists are invited into these worlds, they are given the opportunity to challenge their own relationships with animals and rethink an interlinked social-cultural-economic and ontological approach to self-determination in a postcolonial nation..