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Which service quality dimensions are important in inbound tourism?

2006, Managing Service Quality Vol 16 side 520-537.

Based on a conceptual framework drawn from the original SERVQUAL model, the purpose of the paper is to explore the question of which service-quality dimensions are deemed to be important by inbound tourists visiting a peripheral tourist location in Sweden. Using questionnaires and interviews, Italian and British tourists visiting a peripheral tourist location in northern Sweden are studied in three phases: before the tourist experience, during the experience, and after return home. Difference in the tourists' perceptions of the importance of various quality dimensions are identified before and after the tourism experience. Many similarities are identified between the needs and expectations of Italian and British tourists, although some differences also emerge. Tourism managers should recognise that the needs of their customers can be influenced by: the time at which these needs are assessed; and cultural differences between nationalities..

Locally produced food in restaurants: Are the customers willing to pay a premium and why?

Alfnes, F.S., A. 2010, International Journal of Revenue Management Vol 4 side 238-258.

Restaurant owners are always looking for new ways to increase profits. In this paper, we investigate the attitudes and perceptions of restaurant customers to locally produced food and their willingness to pay a premium. This study employs a field experiment conducted in a restaurant located on a Midwest US university campus. When ordinary customers entered the restaurant, we gave them the choice of two set menus that we had systematically varied with respect to price and origin. Then, while waiting for their order, we asked them to complete a short questionnaire about attitudes and perceptions. We find that a price signal must support local food labelling to obtain an increased interest from customers. When local food was marginally more expensive than other food, more customers chose local food than if it was sold at the same price. Copyright © 2010 Inderscience Enterprises Ltd..

Are travellers interested in wine tourism in New Zealand?

Alonso, A.D. 2009, International Journal of Culture, Tourism and Hospitality Research Vol 3 side 13-24.

Purpose - While much of contemporary wine tourism research focuses on on-site winery visitors, little is reported on the level of wine tourism participation among travellers outside the winery who may not necessarily be winery visitors or wine enthusiasts. This study investigates this dimension from the perspective of travellers. Design/methodology/approach - Between October and November of 2006, a total of 998 questionnaires were distributed among travellers from the North to the South Island of New Zealand. In all, 500 travellers participated in the study, a 50.1 percent response rate. Findings - One critical finding of this study is that while winery visitation appears common among domestic travellers, for the majority of international visitors lack of knowledge of New Zealand wines and wineries is their main reason not to visit wineries while members of this group travel in New Zealand. Research limitations/implications - The potential limitations of choosing a predominantly quantitative approach, as well as choosing specific days of the week for the questionnaire distribution are acknowledged in this study. Practical implications - The overall results suggest that if wine tourism is to continue its present development in New Zealand, winery operators and the wine industry need to address several issues identified in this study, particularly overseas travellers' apparent lack of knowledge about New Zealand's wine and wine tourism. Originality/value - This study examines wine tourism from a different perspective, namely, that of travellers who might not necessarily fall under the wine tourist category. This dimension has been ignored for the most part in previous wine tourism research. The study also provides avenues for future research to further explore this dimension of tourism/wine tourism..

Designing festival experiences to influence visitor perceptions: The case of a wine and food festival

Axelsen, M.S., T. 2010, Journal of Travel Research Vol 49 side 436-450.

An activity that has been found to enhance wine tourism opportunities is wine and food festivals.This article examines how, through the manipulation of such festival attributes, festival managers can foster positive consumer perceptions of products central to the festival. The article first describes the attributes that define a festival and then, using the Moonlight Wine Tour festival as a case for study, explores how much of an influence certain festival attributes have on shaping visitors' perceptions of the wine on show. An ANOVA determines that five festival attributes are effective predictors of creating positive changes in people's perceptions, while one attribute has a negative effect. A binomial generalized linear model is then created for use in managerial situations by specifying which combined set of attributes are the most significant in creating positive and negative changes in consumer perceptions. © 2010 SAGE Publications..

Knowledge in food tourism: The case of Lofoten and Maremma Toscana

Bertella, G. 2011, Current Issues in Tourism Vol 14 side 355-371.

The aim of this paper is to contribute towards a better understanding of knowledge in food tourism in agricultural and/or fishery areas. The presence and role of different types of knowledge are investigated adopting a multiple case study strategy in the regions of Lofoten (Norway) and Maremma Toscana (Italy). The following types of knowledge are investigated: local and scientific food knowledge, tourism knowledge, local and global managerial and political knowledge. The results from the case study indicate that scientific food knowledge and global managerial and political knowledge are particularly important in Lofoten. These types of knowledge are identified as the strengths on which a form of gourmet food tourism could develop. In Maremma Toscana, local food knowledge and local managerial and political knowledge are identified as the basis of the development of a generic form of food tourism. It is concluded that food tourism development requires different types of knowledge and their role is strictly dependent on the specific context. Any policy regarding food tourism should be based on the peculiarities of the specific terroir. Further research is required to investigate the tacit dimension of knowledge and those factors that can favour the establishment of global knowledge-based networks. © 2011 Taylor & Francis..

Understanding corporate entrepreneurship theory: A literature review for culinary/Food service academic practitioners

Brizek, M.G.K., M. A. 2008, Journal of Culinary Science and Technology Vol 6 side 221-255.

The practice involving research of corporate entrepreneurship is still within its infancy. Academic practitioners are beginning to find the common linkages between the traits that make up entrepreneurship and their connection to managing organizations within the hospitality and tourism industries. The purpose of this article is to provide an extensive review of literature (from 1934-2003) involving research related to corporate entrepreneurship and organizational entrepreneurial-related activities in order to develop future research related to entrepreneurship in relation to culinary and food service organizational behavior..

Linking Wine Preferences to the Choice of Wine Tourism Destinations

Brown, G.G., Donald 2005, Journal of Travel Research Vol 43 side 266-276.

This article explores the links between wine consumers' preferences for wine from particular countries or regions and their interest in, and propensity to travel to, specific wine regions. Data from a convenience sample of 161 wine consumers in Calgary, Canada, revealed that specific appellation-of-origin preferences (e.g., for Australian or French wines) do have an influence on travel preferences and patterns. Nearly 70% of respondents preferred to drink wines from particular origins, and planned wine-related travel by respondents closely matched those geographic preferences. Other factors, however, were also shown to be important in shaping wine tourism destinations, including distance and cognitive factors. Implications are drawn for wine tourism marketing and for destination-choice theory. Recommendations are made for future research. [PUBLICATION ABSTRACT].

You felt like lingering. . . : Experiencing "real" service at the winery tasting room

Charters, S.F., J.; Fish, N. 2009, Journal of Travel Research Vol 48 side 122-134.

There is a growing body of research on the experience of visitors to winery tasting rooms, and their expectations and satisfaction. This overview uses qualitative research in Australia and New Zealand to examine a number of themes relating to the visitor's experience in the tasting room, including the impact of the size of the winery, the nature of the service encounter, and the effect of paying for wine. The significance of these themes is placed in the context of the experience economy and the provision of hospitality generally. The practical relevance of the article is to relate consumers' expectations and perceptions of tasting rooms to the goals of wineries generally, and also the issue of wine quality as a significant factor in the experience, with some specific recommendations for further research and for the implementation of practical outcomes for a successful tasting room. © 2009 SAGE Publications..

Vernacular Health Moralities and Culinary Tourism in Newfoundland and Labrador

Everett, H. 2009, Journal of American Folklore Vol 122 side 28-52,122.

This article addresses class-based moral judgments as a crucial aspect of both informal and consciously constructed kinds of culinary tourism in the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador. Interview and survey data, as well as Internet travelogues, further reveal the development and negotiation of vernacular health moralities that influence the ways in which certain foods are culturally constructed to convey status. [PUBLICATION ABSTRACT].

The role of food tourism in sustaining regional identity: A case study of Cornwall, South West England

Everett, S.A., C. 2008, Journal of Sustainable Tourism Vol 16 side 150-167.

This exploratory paper examines the role of food tourism in developing and sustaining regional identities within the context of rural regeneration, agricultural diversification and the creation of closer relationships between production and consumption in the countryside. It focuses on Cornwall, South West England, an area with rural development issues, increasing tourism impacts and contested issues of regional identity. A literature and policy analysis, and in-depth interviews with 12 restaurateurs, were undertaken in four popular tourist locations. Correlation was found between increased levels of food tourism interest and the retention and development of regional identity, the enhancement of environmental awareness and sustainability, an increase in social and cultural benefits celebrating the production of local food and the conservation of traditional heritage, skills and ways of life. The paper draws attention to three issues: the role of food tourism in increasing tourist spending, the potential role of food tourism in extending the tourist season, and the re-examination of food tourist typologies within a sustainability framework. © 2008 S. Everett & C. Aitchison..

The role of food tourism in sustaining regional identity: A case study of Cornwall, South West England

Everett, S.A., C. 2008, Journal of Sustainable Tourism Vol 16 side 150-167.

This exploratory paper examines the role of food tourism in developing and sustaining regional identities within the context of rural regeneration, agricultural diversification and the creation of closer relationships between production and consumption in the countryside. It focuses on Cornwall, South West England, an area with rural development issues, increasing tourism impacts and contested issues of regional identity. A literature and policy analysis, and in-depth interviews with 12 restaurateurs, were undertaken in four popular tourist locations. Correlation was found between increased levels of food tourism interest and the retention and development of regional identity, the enhancement of environmental awareness and sustainability, an increase in social and cultural benefits celebrating the production of local food and the conservation of traditional heritage, skills and ways of life. The paper draws attention to three issues: the role of food tourism in increasing tourist spending, the potential role of food tourism in extending the tourist season, and the re-examination of food tourist typologies within a sustainability framework. © 2008 S. Everett & C. Aitchison..

Scary food: Commodifying culinary heritage as meal adventures in tourism

Gyimóthy, S.M., R. J. 2009, Journal of Vacation Marketing Vol 15 side 259-273.

This article portrays the changing status and use of a traditional Norwegian meal, Smalahove, in designing tourist experiences. Against all odds, this peculiar relic of Nordic gastronomy (salted, smoked and cooked sheep's head) has become a part of the destination brand of Voss, a small West Norwegian township, renowned for its topographic qualities related to extreme sports. In order to understand the recent success of Smalahove, we studied various culinary experience concepts offered to visitors. Based on data from a mixed-method case study approach, we found that entrepreneurs in the Voss region had developed a new commodification approach to a culinary heritage. Smalahove is marketed not only as a nostalgic and authentic rural dish, but also as a challenging culinary trophy appealing to thrill-seeking consumers. The implications of the Sheep's head case are twofold. First, it represents new commercial potentials for marketing 'extreme' culinary specialties. Second, it is an example of innovative rural destination branding, by which local dishes are not mere idyllic expressions of an agricultural past, but an opportunity to open up potential new avenues for the co-branding of rural destinations and regional food products. © The Authors, 2009..

Selling Canadian culinary tourism: Branding the global and the regional product

Hashimoto, A.T., D. J. 2006, Tourism Geographies Vol 8 side 31-55.

Canadian identity with respect to attracting tourists is often associated with the natural environment. Canadian society is, however, also associated with the policy of multiculturalism and diversity. Agencies such as the Canadian Tourism Commission (CTC) have recognized the growing interest in cuisine and have begun to promote Canada as a culinary tourism destination. One of the challenges facing agencies such as the CTC is that there is not an easily definable Canadian cuisine. Canada's culinary traditions have been influenced by a long history of immigration, together with regional product availability. Chefs have combined cultural traditions and local products, creating new forms and styles of cooking. Efforts from different geographical regions across the country will highlight the rich diversity available in Canadian culinary tourism influenced, not only by global but also by regional forces, which can be branded under the umbrella of cuisine in Canada. © 2006 Taylor & Francis..

Selling Canadian culinary tourism: Branding the global and the regional product

Hashimoto, A.T., D. J. 2006, Tourism Geographies Vol 8 side 31-55.

Canadian identity with respect to attracting tourists is often associated with the natural environment. Canadian society is, however, also associated with the policy of multiculturalism and diversity. Agencies such as the Canadian Tourism Commission (CTC) have recognized the growing interest in cuisine and have begun to promote Canada as a culinary tourism destination. One of the challenges facing agencies such as the CTC is that there is not an easily definable Canadian cuisine. Canada's culinary traditions have been influenced by a long history of immigration, together with regional product availability. Chefs have combined cultural traditions and local products, creating new forms and styles of cooking. Efforts from different geographical regions across the country will highlight the rich diversity available in Canadian culinary tourism influenced, not only by global but also by regional forces, which can be branded under the umbrella of cuisine in Canada. © 2006 Taylor & Francis..

Managing sustainable farmed landscape through 'alternative' food networks: A case study from Italy

Holloway, L.C., R.; Venn, L.; Kneafsey, M.; Dowler, E.; Tuomainen, H. 2006, Geographical Journal Vol 172 side 219-229.

This paper focuses on a case study of an 'alternative' food network based in the Abruzzo National Park, Italy, to explore how ideas of sustainable farmland management can be expressed through broader understandings of developing networks of care concerned with local economies and societies, high-quality specialist food products, particular 'traditional' farming practices and livestock breeds, as well as the ecology of a farmed landscape. The scheme allows customers, internationally as well as in Italy, to 'adopt' a milking sheep on a large mountain farm. In return, adopters are sent food products from the farm. The adoption scheme is inter-twined with an agri-tourism project which provides accommodation, runs a restaurant and engages in educational activities. The scheme is the result of the individual initiative of its founder, and is associated with a strongly expressed ethical position concerning the value of sustaining valued local rural landscapes and lifestyles, and the importance of 'reconnecting' urban dwellers with rural areas, farming and 'quality' food production. Yet the localness of the scheme is sustained through wider national and international networks: volunteer and paid workers are drawn from several European countries, funding has been acquired from the EU LEADER programme, and internet and transport technologies are essential in connecting with and supplying an international customer base. The broader economy of care instanced in this case study draws attention to a need to develop strategies for sustainable farmland management constructed around wider programmes of social, economic and cultural, as well as environmental, concern. © 2006 The Author(s). Journal compilation © The Royal Geographical Society..

Discovering culinary competency: An innovative approach

Hu, M.-L. , Journal of Hospitality, Leisure, Sports and Tourism Education Vol 9 side 65-72.

The purpose of this project was to explore the content of innovative culinary development competency. In order to analyse the competencies through which chefs create an innovative work (a specific cuisine, meal service or dish experience), the researchers used a qualitative research method including deep interviews of 20 senior executive chefs, R&D managers of food factories, professors and research chefs. Results revealed 69 items in seven dimensions of the innovative culinary competency model - culture, aesthetics, technology, product, service, management, and creativity. [PUBLICATION ABSTRACT].

Segmenting Canadian culinary tourists

Ignatov, E.S., S. L. J. 2006, Current Issues in Tourism Vol 9 side 235-255.

Researchers in culinary tourism often implicitly treat visitors interested in culinary products as a relatively homogeneous market. Using data obtained from the Canadian Travel Activities and Motivations Study, three a priori segments are defined: visitors who participate only in food-related activities, those who participate only in wine- related activities, and those who participate in both. The food segment was the largest of the three, with nearly 25% of respondents fitting this category; wine was the smallest segment with less than 4%. Wine and food accounted for about 7%. The food segment had a higher proportion of females than the other segments, with lower average educational attainment and lower incomes. Wine-oriented visitors were more balanced between male and female, had average ages and educational attainment, and higher incomes. Those visitors involved in both sets of activities were predominantly male, older, had the highest educational levels, and much higher incomes. Trip motivations and activities also differed significantly among the three segments with the food and wine segment showing the greatest diversity of motivations and activities. In other words, there are distinct types of culinary tourists who seek distinct types of culinary experiences. Different methods of communications, and different packaging and product development strategies need to be employed to reach each of the segments identified here. © 2006 E. Ignatov & S. Smith..

Segmenting Canadian culinary tourists

Ignatov, E.S., S. L. J. 2006, Current Issues in Tourism Vol 9 side 235-255.

Researchers in culinary tourism often implicitly treat visitors interested in culinary products as a relatively homogeneous market. Using data obtained from the Canadian Travel Activities and Motivations Study, three a priori segments are defined: visitors who participate only in food-related activities, those who participate only in wine- related activities, and those who participate in both. The food segment was the largest of the three, with nearly 25% of respondents fitting this category; wine was the smallest segment with less than 4%. Wine and food accounted for about 7%. The food segment had a higher proportion of females than the other segments, with lower average educational attainment and lower incomes. Wine-oriented visitors were more balanced between male and female, had average ages and educational attainment, and higher incomes. Those visitors involved in both sets of activities were predominantly male, older, had the highest educational levels, and much higher incomes. Trip motivations and activities also differed significantly among the three segments with the food and wine segment showing the greatest diversity of motivations and activities. In other words, there are distinct types of culinary tourists who seek distinct types of culinary experiences. Different methods of communications, and different packaging and product development strategies need to be employed to reach each of the segments identified here. © 2006 E. Ignatov & S. Smith..

The festivalscape of Finnmark

Kari, J.M., R. J. 2009, Scandinavian Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Vol 9 side 327-348.

The diversity of festivals in Finnmark, Norway, was researched with the aim of creating a festival map of the county's Festivalscape. Data were collected by questionnaires to the registered festival managers. It was concluded that Finnmark is a festive county where 72,000 people share close to 60 festivals arranged annually in 19 municipalities across the county. The festivals were categorized as either music, arts, sports or market festivals, however the largest group were named thematic festivals as they are each built around rather unique themes, thus representing a diverse example of festival variety and creativity. Even so, live music and food sales are found at most festivals, and all festivals have more than one main activity. Festivals are by no means a source of paid employment for the inhabitants, but rich opportunities for more than 3000 volunteers to participate in creating compressed cultural expressions and develop social networks. The number of visitors at the festivals varies from 100 to 10,000 persons. It is also a cost effective way of culture production as most of the festivals present budgets below 500,000 NOK. Entrance fees, sales of merchandise, sponsorship and public municipality funding are the most important source of sponsorship. A wide range of themes are represented in these festivals in which ethnicity, nationality and various border themes also play roles as ideological bases and cultural framing of the events. The tourism potential of the festivals and their actual production processes seems underdeveloped. © 2009 Taylor & Francis..

The Role of Regional Food Festivals for Destination Branding

Lee, I.A., C. 2011, International Journal of Tourism Research Vol 13 side 355-367.

This paper investigates the role of regional food festivals for destination branding and explores the characteristics of regional food festivals that contribute to building a destination brand. It was found that regional food festivals can play a decisive role for destination branding. Activities using local food and activities promoting the regions' attractions were suggested to be offered by food festivals for enhancing the impact of festivals for destination branding and improving the positive image of the destination and local food. The findings of the study offer insights to regional food festival organizers and destination marketers for success in destination marketing. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd..

Beyond the renaissance of the traditional Voss sheep's-head meal: Tradition, culinary art, scariness and entrepreneurship

Mykletun, R.J.G., S. 2010, Tourism Management Vol 31 side 434-446.

Attempts have been made to make traditional local foods a part of the tourists' experiences, but few have caught great interest among the tourist and leisure consumers. An exception is the Norwegian traditional Sheep's-head meal. This article focuses on driving factors behind this success. Sheep's heads have been continuously available and used at private meals, albeit the status of the meals has changed from everyday food to party food, and a festival and commercial meals with unique ceremonies have developed. Participation in these may give a sense of symbolic proximity to traditions and historical "roots". The culinary qualities of the product are important especially for the experienced sheep's-head meal participants. The scariness of the product itself and the measures taken to make the meal an enjoyable adventures trigger the feelings of courage, mastery and inclusion in the "in-group" of sheep's-head eaters. Most important for the success were the individual entrepreneurships and entrepreneurial networks which were the number one drivers behind the rejuvenation of these unique meal experiences. This case illustrates the significance of the individual and network entrepreneurial processes in the branding and development of tourism destinations. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved..

Beyond the renaissance of the traditional Voss sheep's-head meal: Tradition, culinary art, scariness and entrepreneurship

Mykletun, R.J.G.t., S. , Tourism Management Vol 31 side 434-446.

Attempts have been made to make traditional local foods a part of the tourists' experiences, but few have caught great interest among the tourist and leisure consumers. An exception is the Norwegian traditional Sheep's-head meal. This article focuses on driving factors behind this success. Sheep's heads have been continuously available and used at private meals, albeit the status of the meals has changed from everyday food to party food, and a festival and commercial meals with unique ceremonies have developed. Participation in these may give a sense of symbolic proximity to traditions and historical "roots". The culinary qualities of the product are important especially for the experienced sheep's-head meal participants. The scariness of the product itself and the measures taken to make the meal an enjoyable adventures trigger the feelings of courage, mastery and inclusion in the "in-group" of sheep's-head eaters. Most important for the success were the individual entrepreneurships and entrepreneurial networks which were the number one drivers behind the rejuvenation of these unique meal experiences. This case illustrates the significance of the individual and network entrepreneurial processes in the branding and development of tourism destinations. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved..

'Cittáslow' eco-gastronomic heritage as a tool for destination development

Nilsson, J.H.S., A. C.; Widarsson, A.; Wirell, T. 2011, Current Issues in Tourism Vol 14 side 373-386.

Slow Food has gained considerable attention as a social movement trying to counteract increasing globalisation in eating habits and food production. Cittáslow, a network of towns, are working with qualitative local urban development, based on similar principles as Slow Food. The 'slow' movements could be expected to have influences on tourism development. This possible connection has been neglected in the scientific tourism literature. Based on a study in three Cittáslow towns in Northern Italy, this article concentrates on how destination development is conducted in a Cittáslow context, unveiling some contradictions between the commercial sides of tourism and the non-commercial ethos of the Cittáslow movement. The studied towns were involved in various efforts in the field of sustainable planning, thereby also improving destination specific resources and local identity. One example is their focus on 'slow' events, mainly based on local gastronomy. Tourism marketing was, however, only of secondary importance; which mirrors some scepticism towards mass tourism and commercialisation, and even against marketing as such. Despite this, the Cittáslow concept may have an indirect potential for tourism development by improving product development and increased visibility. The risks involved concern gentrification and overexploitation. © 2011 Taylor & Francis..

Beer tourism in Canada along the Waterloo-Wellington Ale Trail

Plummer, R.T., D.; Hashimoto, A.; Summers, R. 2005, Tourism Management Vol 26 side 447-458.

Food and beverage tourism is increasingly recognised as a way to showcase local products and stimulate tourism demand. The use of an ale trail, similar to a wine trail also represents an important option for small retailers to partner to promote their products. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the results of a self-reporting survey conducted over a 3-year period at six breweries along the Waterloo - Wellington Ale Trail located in south central Ontario, Canada. A total of 2136 valid surveys were returned and the results are examined under visitor profile, visit information and the Ale Trail experience. The paper stresses the importance of partnering and collecting baseline data for new ventures. © 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved..

Beer tourism in Canada along the Waterloo-Wellington Ale Trail

Plummer, R.T., D.; Hashimoto, A.; Summers, R. 2005, Tourism Management Vol 26 side 447-458.

Food and beverage tourism is increasingly recognised as a way to showcase local products and stimulate tourism demand. The use of an ale trail, similar to a wine trail also represents an important option for small retailers to partner to promote their products. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the results of a self-reporting survey conducted over a 3-year period at six breweries along the Waterloo - Wellington Ale Trail located in south central Ontario, Canada. A total of 2136 valid surveys were returned and the results are examined under visitor profile, visit information and the Ale Trail experience. The paper stresses the importance of partnering and collecting baseline data for new ventures. © 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved..

Understanding the role of food in rural tourism development in a recovering economy

Renko, S.R., N.; Polonijo, T. 2010, Journal of Food Products Marketing Vol 16 side 309-324.

Despite its primary, vital function of satisfying physiological needs, food can be the key factor in the tourist industry by adding value to the image of a destination and by reinforcing the tourists' experience in certain places. Till recently Croatian geographic characteristics presented key elements of market differentiation. However, the importance of food for tourism development has been recognized by Croatian authors. They mostly point out food as the driving force for health tourism and gastronomic offer preconditions for the development of rural tourism. This article addresses two dynamic segments of the economy: agriculture along with food production and tourism. In thisarticle we try to find out whether food presents an effective instrument for enhancing rural tourism development in a country emerging from war and transitioning from central economic planning to a market economy. Using data from a study on the sample of 300 tourists in 12 tourist destinations in Croatia, the authors find that foreign tourists mostly buy food during their holidays in Croatia due to high quality of the Croatian local food. Also, a large number of respondents think that Croatian food is more expensive than the food in their countries and experienced difficulties in obtaining and consuming local food. The main problem is that some Croatian tourists' entities have failed to promote local food and regional cuisine which results in ignorance on the part of tourists, thus also contributing to lower demand and consumption levels. © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC..

Price differences at European restaurants and possible implications for tourism

Rokenes, A. 2007, Scandinavian Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Vol 7 side 81-103.

The aim of this study was to document and compare price levels for restaurant services and discuss the possible implications for the tourist industry in Norway. The sample consisted of a total of 47 restaurants in Oslo, Stockholm, Copenhagen, Berlin and Paris. It was an exploratory research using a combination of qualitative methods (categorization and choice of menu items) and quantitative analyses. The result of the study indicated that price levels of restaurants in Oslo and Stockholm were clearly higher than price levels in Copenhagen, Paris and Berlin. The differences were distinct for alcoholic beverages, non-alcoholic beverages and food. It was argued that high price levels gave strong effects for individual family tourists, travelling by car or other "free" transportation. If the tourists had low income or low budget, or if they originated from a country with a relatively low price level, the negative effects would be strengthened. The effects are probably not so strong for business travellers and package tourists. The author also argues that the restaurant industry might weaken the negative effects by calculating lower prices on menu items where tourists have a clear reference price, and by giving the tourists information about the reasons for high price levels..

Food, place and authenticity: Local food and the sustainable tourism experience

Sims, R. 2009, Journal of Sustainable Tourism Vol 17 side 321-336.

In recent years, attempts to improve the economic and environmental sustainability of both tourism and agriculture have been linked to the development of "alternative" food networks and a renewed enthusiasm for food products that are perceived to be traditional and local. This paper draws on research from two UK regions, the Lake District and Exmoor, to argue that local food can play an important role in the sustainable tourism experience because it appeals to the visitor's desire for authenticity within the holiday experience. Using evidence from qualitative interviews with tourists and food producers, the paper records ways in which local foods are conceptualised as "authentic" products that symbolise the place and culture of the destination. By engaging with debates surrounding the meaning of locality and authenticity, the paper challenges existing understandings of these concepts and offers a new way forward for tourism research by arguing that "local food" has the potential to enhance the visitor experience by connecting consumers to the region and its perceived culture and heritage.© 2009 Taylor & Francis..

Food, place and authenticity: Local food and the sustainable tourism experience

Sims, R. 2009, Journal of Sustainable Tourism Vol 17 side 321-336.

In recent years, attempts to improve the economic and environmental sustainability of both tourism and agriculture have been linked to the development of "alternative" food networks and a renewed enthusiasm for food products that are perceived to be traditional and local. This paper draws on research from two UK regions, the Lake District and Exmoor, to argue that local food can play an important role in the sustainable tourism experience because it appeals to the visitor's desire for authenticity within the holiday experience. Using evidence from qualitative interviews with tourists and food producers, the paper records ways in which local foods are conceptualised as "authentic" products that symbolise the place and culture of the destination. By engaging with debates surrounding the meaning of locality and authenticity, the paper challenges existing understandings of these concepts and offers a new way forward for tourism research by arguing that "local food" has the potential to enhance the visitor experience by connecting consumers to the region and its perceived culture and heritage.© 2009 Taylor & Francis..

Planning a wine tourism vacation? Factors that help to predict tourist behavioural intentions

Sparks, B. 2007, Tourism Management Vol 28 side 1180-1192.

A large cross-sectional survey was undertaken within Australia to investigate potential wine tourists' intentions to take a wine-based vacation. Three wine tourism attitudinal dimensions were identified and confirmed using exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses. Structural equation modelling was employed to test a model, based on Theory of Planned Behaviour, predicting tourist intentions. In particular, perceived control, together with past attitude predicted intentions to take a vacation to a wine region. Wine/food involvement, normative influences and three wine expectancy-value (attitudinal) dimensions also contribute to intention to take a vacation to a wine region. The findings have implications for predicting and promoting future wine tourism. (c) 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved..

The role of guides in artistic industries: The special case of the "star system" in the haute-cuisine sector

Surlemont, B.J., Colin 2005, Managing Service Quality Vol 15 side 577-590.

The haute-cuisine industry must cope with two, apparently antagonist demands from customers: providing reliable advice about the choice of restaurant, while concurrently preserving the "magic of discovery" and creativity every haute-cuisine restaurant should provide. This paper has the objective of analysing how the Michelin guide "star system" operates as a "signalling device" in the industry, and handles these two market requirements. The research also explores how secrecy contributes to preserve chefs' creativity for the benefit of customer satisfaction. The research is derived from 20 exploratory field interviews of chefs belonging to the "star system" in France, Switzerland and the UK. Field research and analysis reveal the pressure to minimize type II errors, i.e. of selecting restaurants that do not merit inclusion and, consequently, increase type I errors. This behaviour explains the stability, reliability and consistency of the system. Further research is needed to analyse the extent to which the phenomenon observed in the haute-cuisine industry is manifest in other artistic (i.e. fashion) or hospitality (i.e. hotels) related sectors. There is no unique route to the star system. The best way for chefs to increase the odds to get promoted is to focus on quality, develop their own style and be patient. The policy of the Michelin guide opens the door for competing guides willing to take more risk of type I errors. This exploratory research is the first attempt to analyse the role of gastronomic guides in the haute-cuisine sector..

Maslow's hierarchy and food tourism in Finland: five cases

Tikkanen, I. 2007, British Food Journal Vol 109 side 721-734.

The purpose of this paper is to explore the sectors of food tourism in Finland by using Maslow's hierarchy of needs in the classification. Previous research on food tourism concentrates on the role of food as an attraction, as a cultural phenomenon, and as an experience. Moreover, food from productional and motivational viewpoints is reviewed briefly. The empirical data consists both of the secondary data and an interview. The findings introduce five sectors of food tourism where the needs and motivations are linked with Maslow's hierarchy of needs. The practical implications are that the food tourism promoters could emphasize the needs and motivations when marketing food tourism services. Sectors of food tourism in Finland classified by the hierarchy of needs are presented, providing practical implications for food tourism promoters and thus offering motivations for food tourism..

Haptic routes and digestive destinations in cooking series: images of food and place in Keith Floyd and The Hairy Bikers in relation to art history

Waade, A.M.J., U. A. 2010, Journal of Tourism and Cultural Change Vol 8 side 84-100.

Taking modern television travel cookery series as a starting point, the article investigates the cultural significance of food and place in visual culture. The examples are, respectively, The Keith Floyd Cookery Collection: Floyd Around The Med [2000. BBC DVD, 2007] and The Hairy Bikers Cookbook Series 1 & 2 [BBC DVD, 2006]. The series illustrate the strong connection between travel, food and place in tourist consumer culture, as well as the way motion and emotion are related to sensuous and digestive aspects of touristic food. The series also illustrate the emblematic connection between food and the media in which aesthetical, cultural and symbolic values are related to the way food is mediatised. The main argument is that cooking television series produce haptic images of place and food that include a specific sensuous and emotional relation between screen and viewer. The haptic imagery is reflected in popular visual culture and tourism as well as in art history and aesthetics..